honorific-prefix = Professor Dr.
name = Thio Li-ann
parliament = 11th
18 January 2007
term_end = present
birth_date = Birth date and age|1968|3|10|df=yes
nationality = flagicon|SGP
Nominated Member of Parliament– no party affiliation
Keble College, Oxford(B.A. (Hons.) Jurisprudence, 1990); Harvard Law School(LL.M., 1993); University of Cambridge(Ph.D., 2000)
occupation = Law academic at the Faculty of Law, NUS
religion = Christian
website = [http://www.parliament.gov.sg/AboutUs/Org-MP-CV-NMP-ThioLA.htm Thio-Li-ann at the Parliament of Singapore website] ;
[http://law.nus.edu.sg/faculty/staff/profileview.asp?UserID=lawtla Thio Li-ann at the website of the Faculty of Law, NUS]
Thio Li-ann (born
10 March 1968) is a Singaporean law professor at the National University of Singapore teaching public law, public international lawand human rights law. She was educated at the University of Oxford, Harvard Law Schooland the University of Cambridge. In January 2007, she was appointed a Nominated Member of Parliament(NMP) in Singapore's 11th Parliament. [cite news|last=Paulo|first=Derrick|title=Citizen Thio goes to Parliament|url=http://www.todayonline.com/articles/166539.asp|publisher="Today"|date= 2007-01-18]
Early life and education
Thio Li-ann was born in
Singaporeon 10 March 1968.cite web|title=Prof THIO LI-ANN : Curriculum Vitae|url=http://www.parliament.gov.sg/AboutUs/Org-MP-CV-NMP-ThioLA.htm|publisher= Parliament of Singapore|date= 2007-01-25|accessdate=2007-11-08] Her mother is Dr. Thio (née Huang) Su Mien, former Dean of the Faculty of Law of the National University of Singapore(NUS) and presently Senior Executive Director of TSMP Law Corporation; [cite web|title=Dr Thio Su Mien|url=http://tsmplaw.com/directors-profiles/individual/dr-thio-su-mien-phd-london.html|publisher=TSMP Law Corporation|date=2007|accessdate=2007-11-14] her brother, Thio Shen Yi, is Joint Managing Director of the same law firm. [cite web|title=Thio Shen Yi|url=http://tsmplaw.com/directors-profiles/individual/thio-shen-yi-ma-cantab.html|publisher=TSMP Law Corporation|date=2007|accessdate=2007-11-14]
Thio was educated at the
Singapore Chinese Girls' School(1975–1984) and Hwa Chong Junior College(1984–1986), at the latter on a Humanities Award from the Ministry of Education. She took a Bachelor of Arts(B.A. (Hons.)) in Jurisprudenceat Keble College, Oxfordcite web|title=Curriculum vitae: Professor (Dr.) THIO Li-ann|url=http://law.nus.edu.sg/faculty/staff/staffcv/ThioLi_annCV05Feb07.pdf|publisher=Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore|date= 2007-02-05|accessdate=2007-11-18] between 1987 and 1990. At Oxford she was awarded the Law Moderations Book Prize (Constitutional Law, Criminal Law andRoman Law) in 1988. She was called to the Bar as a barrister at Gray's Innin 1991.
Career as law academic
Thio joined the Faculty of Law of the NUS as a Senior Tutor in 1991, and was appointed Lecturer in 1992. That same year she embarked on postgraduate law studies at
Harvard Law Schoolon a National University of Singapore Overseas Graduate Scholarship, and obtained a Master of Laws(LL.M.) in 1993. [Her LL.M. thesis was entitled "Constitutional Interpretation : Lost Lessons from the Fundamental Principles of the U.S. Constitution" (1993).] She returned to NUS, where in 1997 she was appointed an Assistant Professor. Between 1997 and 2000 she carried out Ph.D. research at the University of Cambridgeon another NUS Overseas Graduate Scholarship, and was duly conferred this degree in 2000. Her Ph.D. dissertation, entitled "Managing Babel: The International Legal Protection of Minorities in the Twentieth Century", was subsequently published by Martinus NijhoffPublishers in 2005. In June 2000 she was appointed an Associate Professor, and achieved the rank of full Professor in July 2006. Her research interests are the following:
*Constitutionalism and human rights in Asia.
*Domestic and comparative perspectives of constitutional law and administrative law.
*International human rights law and the rights of peoples.
*Law and religion.
*Public international law, its history and theory.cite web|title=Academic profiles : THIO Li-ann|url=http://law.nus.edu.sg/faculty/staff/profileview.asp?UserID=lawtla|publisher=Faculty of Law,
National University of Singapore|date= 2004-06-25|accessdate=2007-11-16]
Thio was Young Asian Scholar at the
Melbourne University Law Schoolin 1997, [Thio's "curriculum vitae" states that this took place in 1998: cite web|title=Curriculum vitae : Professor (Dr.) THIO Li-ann|url=http://law.nus.edu.sg/faculty/staff/staffcv/ThioLi_annCV05Feb07.pdf|publisher= National University of Singapore Faculty of Law|date= 2007-02-05|accessdate=2007-11-18] was ranked as an NUS Excellent Teacher in 2001–2002 and 2002–2003, and was given a Young Researcher Award by NUS in 2004. In March 2006, she was a Visiting Lecturer at the Faculty of Law of the University of Hong Kong, where she was one of the academics teaching a course on "National Protection of Human Rights". In September of that year she returned to the University of Melbourneas a Senior Fellow of its Graduate Law Programme to teach a course entitled "Constitutionalism in Asian Societies".
Thio served as Chief Editor of the "Singapore Journal of International & Comparative Law" [citation|journal=Singapore Journal of International & Comparative Law|location=Singapore|publisher=
National University of Singapore Faculty of Law|year=1997–2003|issn=0219-0508. After 2003 the journal was renamed the "Singapore Year Book of International Law" (SYBIL).] between 2000 and 2003, and since 2005 has been General Editor of the "Asian Yearbook of International Law". [citation|journal=Asian Yearbook of International Law|location=Dordrecht, The Netherlands|publisher=Martinus Nijhoff|year=1993– |issn=0928-432X.] She is also on the editorial or advisory boards of the "Singapore Yearbook of International Law", [citation|journal=Singapore Year Book of International Law|location=Singapore|publisher= National University of Singapore Faculty of Law|year=2004– |issn=1793-0448.] the "New Zealand Yearbook of International Law" (since 2003) [citation|journal=New Zealand Yearbook of International Law|location=Christchurch, N.Z.|publisher=International Law Group, School of Law, University of Canterbury|year=2004– |issn=1176-6417.] and "Human Rights & International Legal Discourse" (since 2006), [citation|journal=Human Rights & International Legal Discourse|location=Mortsel, Belgium|publisher=Intersentia|year=2007– |issn=1783-7014] and is Corresponding Editor (Singapore) for Blaustein & Flanz's "Constitutions of the Countries of the World" (since 2001) [cite book|last=Blaustein|first=A.P.|coauthors=G.H. Flanz (eds.)|title=Constitutions of the Countries of the World : A Series of Updated Texts, Constitutional Chronologies and Annotated Bibliographies|edition=Permanent ed.|location=Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.|publisher= Oceana Publications|year=1971– ] and the "International Journal of Constitutional Law" (since 2001). [citation|journal=International Journal of Constitutional Law|location=Oxford|publisher= Oxford University Press|year=2002– |issn=1474-2640.] Since 2001 she has also been a contributor on constitutional and administrative law to the "Singapore Academy of Law Annual Review of Singapore Cases". [citation|journal=Singapore Academy of Law Annual Review of Singapore Cases|location=Singapore|publisher=Singapore Academy of Law|year=2001– |issn=0219-6638.]
Thio appeared as an expert witness before the
Federal Court of Australiain the extraditionof Michael McCrea to Singapore to stand trial for murder (2003), and as a consultant to a delegation of the House of Representatives of Japan( 30 September 2002) and to the University of Warwickon academic freedom issues (2005).
Due to the multi-ethnicity and multi-religion nature of the Singaporean population, open religious affiliation and campaigning by politicians has always been frowned upon by the ruling party. The overall rationale as stated consistently being a precaution not to upset the delicate social balance that would topple the tiny nation.
Thio, however, has not refrained from openly declaring her religious beliefs. In an interview with the local daily,
The Straits Timeson November 2 2007, Thio shared her personal story of how she converted from a "very, very arrogant" atheist to a Christian in 1987. Having entered Oxford University to read jurisprudence, she attended a Christian Union talk then and claimed to be "stopped" by a voice.
"I basically had a sense that God was talking to me. I had stood up to walk out and I heard someone say, 'Stop'. And no one was around me. Everybody was busy doing their own thing. I was one of only one or two Chinese girls in this whole room of ang mohs. And then I just had the sense that I had encountered God, that he knew my name and I was shocked." Thio was quoted as saying in the interview. [Li, Xueying. "A fiery Nmp gets her baptism of fire"
The Straits Times, 2007-11-02]
In the same interview, she also stated firmly that she is a Christian, belonging to an independent,
non-denomination churchin the east of Singapore. She added, "'I don't know what right wingis. This is funny because I was always considered a political leftie and now I'm a rightie."
Daughter of Dr (Mrs) Thio Su Mien
Thio is the daughter of Dr (Mrs) Thio Su Mien, who was formerly the Dean of the Law Faculty, National University of Singapore and is now in private practice. Dr Thio Su Mien came to the attention of the Singaporean public in 2003 when she sent a letter to the local daily newspaper "
The Straits Times" stating her strong disagreement with homosexuality. [cite news|last=Thio|first=Su Mein|title=No to homosexuality|publisher=" Streats"|date= 2003-07-22] The letter, signed by eight persons, was in response to a speech by the then Prime Minister Goh Chok Tongin which he mentioned that the Civil Service would not discriminate against employing homosexual individuals. On 9 February 2006, Dr Thio Su Mien also wrote another letter to "The Straits Times" which, amongst other things, stated her belief that the American Psychiatric Associationhad ceased to regard homosexuality as a mental disorderdue to "pressure tactics from homosexual activists — including riots and disruptions of APA meetings". [cite news|last=Nirmala|first=M.|title=Gay backlash|publisher=" The Straits Times"|date= 2003-07-23]
Appointment as Nominated Member of Parliament
In October 2007, the
Parliament of Singaporereviewed the Penal Code. [Singapore Statute|title=Penal Code|c
ed=1985.] In the course of doing so, it decided not to repeal section 377A of the Code and thus continues to criminalise sexual activity between males. In the course of the debate in Parliament, Thio gave a speech to support the continued criminalisation of sexual activity between males, and likened gay sex to "poking a straw up the nose". She claimed to have support from a majority of Singaporeans, and stated she spoke "at the risk of being burned at the stake by militant activists." [cite web|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|title=Speech, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Penal Code Revisions, 22–23 October 2007 (Professor Dr. Thio Li-ann, Nominated Member)|url=http://keep377a.com/Media/ThioLi-AnnSpeech.pdf|publisher=Keep377A.com|date=
2007-10-23|accessdate=2007-11-19] At the same time, Thio mentioned the existence of an active gay agenda that seeks to lobby the government and radically change sexual norms.
Thio gave her speech despite the fact that throughout the entire course of the debate, there has not been any quantitative or qualitative evidence uncovered on the topic specific, for either camp of the subject matter.Fact|date=November 2007 Neither has there been any investigative efforts into establishing whether the numerous responses the mass media received, either in support of or against the repeal, were from homogeneous groups or a representative spread of the heterogeneous population.Fact|date=November 2007
The Internet subsequently saw a flood of websites heavily rebutting Thio's speech, most of which focused on her lurid straw-up-the-nose analogy.Fact|date=November 2007 Efforts were even taken by some to rebut the pointers she raised, such as the SingaporePeasants blog-site. Thio was also criticised by local journalist Janadas Devan in a feature article in the Straits Times on Oct 27, titled '377A debate and the rewriting of pluralism.' [Devan, Janadas. "377A Debate and the Rewriting of Pluralism",
The Straits Times, 2007-10-27] Another writer of the Straits Times, Chua Mui Hoong, also wrote an article titled "Rules of Engagement for God and Politics" on Nov 16, 2007. In it, Chua acknowledged Thio's position in her speech that secularism could challenge religion. However, Chua disagreed that religion has been antagonised in Singapore, and encouraged that specific explanation be given as to how the repeal of a law would in reality harm the Singaporean society. [Chua Mui Hong, "Rules of engagement for God and politics", The Straits Times, 2007-11-16]
Thio's speech also drew the criticism of Australian Judge Michael Kirby, who referenced it in a speech he delivered in
Brisbaneon Nov 16, 2007. The content of his speech was subsequently published in the Sydney Morning Heraldon Nov 19, 2007. [ [http://www.smh.com.au/news/opinion/selective-tolerance-is-not-tolerance-at-all/2007/11/18/1195321603784.html Selective Tolerance is not Tolerance At All] ]
During the debate, Thio revealed that
playwright Alfian Sa'athad sent her a short email saying, among other things, that "I hope I outlive you long enough to see the repeal of 377A and on that day I will piss on your grave."Fact|date=November 2007 Sa'at later took responsibility for the email, saying it was sent in a moment of folly in response to the rumour that Thio had called the police to complain about a "Pink Picnic" some members of the gay community were organising in the Botanic Gardens. Thio later denied the allegation, and Sa'at apologised. Subsequently, in November 2007, Thio was alerted by the media to an anonymous threatening letter addressed to her stating: "We know where you work, we'll send people there to hunt you down". Thio made a police report the same day. [cite news|last=Li|first=Xueying|title=NMP Thio files 2nd police report after getting threat|publisher=" The Straits Times"|date= 2007-11-08]
Question regarding support from the majority
Thio's strong position towards retaining the code naturally drew much protest from the Singaporean homosexual population. Two issues were constantly raised, especially on online forums. The first issue was the question of the real existence of a majority against repeal of the code. The second issue was the question of whether a Singaporean against homosexuality on personal or religious grounds would actually equate wanting a code to criminalise homosexuals. [ [http://www.trevvy.com/sgboyx/index.php?showforum=5 SGBOYX Forum] ] Concerns were also raised by a law professor on whether it was realistically possible to enforce such a code, whether it would lead to dangers of entrapment, and whether the informal position of the government not to enforce the code would reverse overnight. [K. C. Vijayan, "NUS don warns of 377A fallout",
The Straits Times2007-10-30]
At the same time, an alleged email also surfaced during the course of discussion, in which Senior Pastor Derek Hong of
Church of Our Saviour, Singapore, supposedly encouraged acquaintances to lobby the government to decide against repealing the code. [ [http://www.psa91.com/pdf/derek_hong.htm Email from Derek Hong, April 2007 (Alleged)] ] The email contains a suggested format of writing, which could be found repeated heavily in actual letters to The Straits Times and [http://www.reach.gov.sg reach.gov.sg] , the Singaporean government online feedback website. The content of the alleged email is strongly similar to an earlier one sent in 2003 by Cornerstone Community Church. Neither Hong nor his church has issued any statement on this matter.
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|title=An 'i' for an 'I': Singapore's Communitarian Model of Constitutional Adjudication|year=1997|volume=27|journal=Hong Kong Law Journal|pages=152–186|issn=0378-0600.
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|title=Implementing Human Rights in ASEAN Countries : Promises to Keep and Miles to Go before I Sleep|year=1999|volume=2|journal=Yale Human Rights & Development Law Journal|issn=1548-2596|pages=1–86.
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|title=Battling Balkanization : Regional Approaches towards Minority Protection beyond Europe|year=2002|volume=43|issue=2|journal=Harvard International Law Journal|issn=0017-8063|pages=409–468.
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|title=Recent Constitutional Developments : Of Shadows and Whips, Race, Rifts and Rights, Terror and Tudungs, Women and Wrongs|year=2002|journal=Singapore Journal of Legal Studies|pages=328–373|issn=0218-2173.
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|title=Pragmatism and Realism Do Not Mean Abdication : A Critical Inquiry into Singapore's Engagement with International Human Rights Law|year=2004|volume=8|journal=Singapore Year Book of International Law|pages=41–91|issn=1793-0448.
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|title='Beyond the Four Walls' in an Age of Transnational Judicial Conversations : Civil Liberties, Rights Theories and Constitutional Adjudication in Malaysia and Singapore|year=2006|volume=19|issue=2|journal=Columbia Journal of Asian Law|issn=1094-8449|pages=428–518.
Contributions towards books
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|chapter=The Elected President and the Legal Control of Government : "Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes?"|editor-last=Tan|editor-first=Kevin|editor2-last=Lam|editor2-first=Peng Er|title=Managing Political Change in Singapore : The Elected Presidency|location=New York, N.Y.|publisher=
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|chapter=Choosing Representatives : Singapore Does It Her Way|editor-last=Hassall|editor-first=Graham|editor2-last=Saunders|editor2-first=Cheryl|title=The People's Representatives : Electoral Systems in the Asia-Pacific Region|location=St. Leonards, N.S.W.|publisher=
Allen & Unwin|year=1997|pages=38–58|isbn=1864482583.
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|chapter=The Constitutional Framework of Powers|editor-last=Tan|editor-first=Kevin Y.L. (Yew Lee)|title=The Singapore Legal System|edition=2nd|location=Singapore|publisher=Singapore University Press|year=1999|id=ISBN 9971692120 (hbk.)|isbn=9971692139 (pbk.)|page=67.
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|chapter=Law and the Administrative State|editor-last=Tan|editor-first=Kevin Y.L. (Yew Lee)|title=The Singapore Legal System|edition=2nd|location=Singapore|publisher=Singapore University Press|year=1999|id=ISBN 9971692120 (hbk.)|isbn=9971692139 (pbk.)|page=160.
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|chapter=Rule of Law within a Non-liberal "Communitarian" Democracy : The Singapore Experience|editor-last=Peerenboom|editor-first=Randall|title=Asian Discourses of Rule of Law : Theories and Implementation of Rule of Law in Twelve Asian Countries, France and the U.S.|location=London; New York, N.Y.|publisher=
RoutledgeCurzon|year=2004|id=ISBN 0415326133 (hbk.)|isbn=0415326125 (pbk.)|pages=183–224.
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|chapter=Taking Rights Seriously? : Human Rights Law in Singapore|editor-last=Peerenboom|editor-first=R. (Randall) P.|editor2-last=Petersen|editor2-first=Carole|editor3-last=Chen|editor3-first=Albert H.Y.|title=Human Rights in Asia : A Comparative Legal Study of Twelve Asian Countries, France and the United States|location=New York, N.Y.|publisher=
Routledge|year=2005|id=ISBN 0415360021 (hbk.)|isbn=041536003X (pbk.)|page=158.
*citation|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|chapter=International Law and Secession in the Asia-Pacific Region|editor-last=Kohen|editor-first=Marcelo G.|title=Secession : International Law Perspectives|location=Cambridge|publisher=
Cambridge University Press|year=2006|isbn=0521849284 (hbk.)|pages=297–354.
*cite book|last=Tan|first=Kevin Y.L. (Yew Lee)|coauthors=Thio Li-ann|title=Tan, Yeo & Lee's Constitutional Law in Malaysia and Singapore|edition=2nd ed.|location=Singapore|publisher=Butterworths Asia|year=1997|isbn=0409999083 (pbk.)
*cite book|last=Thio|first=Li-ann|title=Managing Babel : The International Legal Protection of Minorities in the Twentieth Century (International Studies in Human Rights; v. 81)|location=Leiden; Boston, Mass.|publisher=Martinus Nijhoff Publishers|year=2005|isbn=9004141987
*cite web|title=Academic profiles : THIO Li-ann|url=http://law.nus.edu.sg/faculty/staff/profileview.asp?UserID=lawtla|publisher=Faculty of Law,
National University of Singapore|date= 2004-06-25|accessdate=2007-11-17
*cite web|title=Prof THIO LI-ANN : Curriculum Vitae|url=http://www.parliament.gov.sg/AboutUs/Org-MP-CV-NMP-ThioLA.htm|publisher=
Parliament of Singapore|date= 2007-01-25|accessdate=2007-11-08
*cite web|title=Curriculum vitae : Professor (Dr.) THIO Li-ann|url=http://law.nus.edu.sg/faculty/staff/staffcv/ThioLi_annCV05Feb07.pdf|publisher=Faculty of Law
National University of Singapore|date= 2007-02-05|accessdate=2007-11-18
* [http://law.nus.edu.sg Official website of the Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore]
* [http://www.parliament.gov.sg Official website of the Parliament of Singapore]
* [http://www.parliament.gov.sg/AboutUs/Org-MP-MP-Prof-NMP-ThioLA.htm NMP Profile @ Parliament of Singapore Website]
Penal Code, section 377A
* [http://pleinelune.wordpress.com/2007/10/24/thioliann/ Hiding Behind Rhetoric : A Rebuttal of Thio Li-ann by "Pleinlune", 24 October 2007]
NAME = Thio, Li-ann
ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
SHORT DESCRIPTION = Law academic and
Nominated Member of Parliament
DATE OF BIRTH =
10 March 1968
PLACE OF BIRTH =
DATE OF DEATH =
PLACE OF DEATH =
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