# Gerolamo Cardano

Infobox Scientist

name = Gerolamo Cardano

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caption = Gerolamo Cardano

birth_date =September 24 ,1501

birth_place =Pavia

death_date =September 21 1576

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nationality = Italian

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field =mathematics physics

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alma_mater =University of Pavia

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known_for =algebra

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footnotes =**Gerolamo Cardano**or**Girolamo Cardano**(French**Jerome Cardan**, Latin**Hieronymus Cardanus**;September 24 ,1501 —September 21 1576 ) was an ItalianRenaissance mathematician ,physician ,astrologer andgambler .__NOTOC__**Biography**He was born in

Pavia , Lombardy, theillegitimate child ofFazio Cardano , a mathematically giftedlawyer , who was a friend ofLeonardo da Vinci . In his autobiography, Cardano claimed that his mother had attempted to abort him. Shortly before his birth, his mother had to move fromMilan toPavia to escape the plague; her three other children died from the disease.In 1520, he entered the

University of Pavia and later inPadua studied medicine. His eccentric and confrontational style did not earn him many friends and he had a difficult time finding work after his studies had ended. In 1525, Cardano repeatedly applied to the College of Physicians in Milan, but was not allowed due to his reputation and illegitimate birth.Eventually, he managed to develop a considerable reputation as a physician and his services were highly valued at the courts. He was the first to describe

typhoid fever .Today, he is best known for his achievements in

algebra . He published the solutions to the cubic andquartic equation s in his 1545 book "Ars Magna". The solution to one particular case of the cubic, "x"^{3}+ "ax" = "b" (in modern notation), was communicated to him byNiccolo Fontana Tartaglia (who later claimed that Cardano had sworn not to reveal it, and engaged Cardano in a decade-long fight), and the quartic was solved by Cardano's studentLodovico Ferrari . Both were acknowledged in the foreword of the book, as well as in several places within its body. In his exposition, he acknowledged the existence of what are now calledimaginary number s, although he did not understand their properties (Mathematical field theory was developed centuries later). In*Opus novum de proportionibus*he introduced the binomial coefficients and thebinomial theorem .Cardano was notoriously short of money and kept himself solvent by being an accomplished gambler and

chess player. His book about games of chance, "Liber de ludo aleae", written in the 1560s, but not published until 1663, contains the first systematic treatment ofprobability , as well as a section on effective cheating methods.Cardano invented several mechanical devices including the

combination lock , thegimbal consisting of three concentric rings allowing a supportedcompass orgyroscope to rotate freely, and the Cardan shaft withuniversal joint s, which allows the transmission of rotary motion at various angles and is used in vehicles to this day. He studiedhypocycloid s, published in "de proportionibus" 1570. The generating circles of these hypocycloids were later named Cardano circles or cardanic circles and were used for the construction of the first high-speed printing presses. He made several contributions to hydrodynamics and held thatperpetual motion is impossible, except in celestial bodies. He published twoencyclopedia s of natural science which contain a wide variety of inventions, facts, and occult superstitions. He also introduced theCardan grille , a cryptographic tool, in 1550.Significantly, in the history of deaf education, he was one of the first to state that deaf people could learn without learning how to speak first.

Cardano's eldest and favorite son was executed in 1560 after he confessed to having

poison ed hiscuckold ing wife. His other son was a gambler, who stole money from him. He allegedly cropped the ears of one of his sons. Cardano himself was accused of heresy in 1570 because he had computed and published thehoroscope ofJesus in 1554. Apparently, his own son contributed to the prosecution. He was arrested, had to spend several months in prison and was forced to abjure hisprofessor ship. He moved to Rome, received a lifetime annuity fromPope Gregory XIII (after first having been rejected byPope Pius V ) and finished hisautobiography . He died there on the day he had (supposedly) astrologically predicted earlier; some suspect he may have committed suicide.**Works*** "De malo recentiorum medicorum usu libellus", Venice, 1536 (on medicine).

* "Practica arithmetice et mensurandi singularis", Milan, 1539 (on mathematics).

* "Artis magnae, sive de regulis algebraicis" (also known as "Ars magna"), Nuremberg, 1545 (on algebra). [*http://www.filosofia.unimi.it/cardano/testi/operaomnia/vol_4_s_4.pdf An electronic copy of his book "Ars Magna" (in Latin)*]

* "De immortalitate" (on alchemy).

* " [*http://archimedes.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/toc/toc.cgi?dir=carda_propo_015_la_1570;step=thumb Opus novum de proportionibus*] " (on mechanics)(Archimedes Project).

* "Contradicentium medicorum" (on medicine).

* "De subtilitate rerum", Nuremberg,Johann Petreius , 1550 (on natural phenomena).

* "De libris propriis", Leiden, 1557 (commentaries).

* "De varietate rerum", Basle, Heinrich Petri, 1559 (on natural phenomena).

* "Opus novum de proportionibus numerorum, motuum, ponderum, sonorum, aliarumque rerum mensurandarum. Item de aliza regula", Basel, 1570.

* "De vita propria", 1576 (autobiography ).

* "Liber de ludo aleae", posthumous (on probability).

* "De Musica", ca 1546 (on music theory), posthumously published in "Hieronymi Cardani Mediolensis opera omnia, Sponius", Lyons, 1663

* "De Consolatione", Venice, 1542**References****Sources*** Cardano, Girolamo, "Astrological Aphorisms of Cardan, The". Edmonds, WA: Sure Fire Press, 1989.

* ———— "The Book of My Life." trans. by Jean Stoner. New York: New York Review of Books, 2002.

* Ore, Øystein: "Cardano, the Gambling Scholar". Princeton, 1953.

* Cardano, Girolamo, "Opera omnia", Charles Sponi, ed., 10 vols. Lyons, 1663.

* Dunham, William, "Journey through Genius", Chapter 6, Penguin, 1991. Discusses Cardano's life and solution of the cubic equation.

* Sirasi, Nancy G. "The Clock and the Mirror: Girolamo Cardano and Renaissance Medicine." Princeton University Press,1997.

* Grafton, Anthony, " Cardano's Cosmos: The Worlds and Works of a Renaissance Astrologer." Harvard University Press, 2001.

* Morley, Henry "The life of Girolamo Cardano, of Milan, Physician" 2 vols. Chapman and Hall, London 1854.

* Ekert, Artur "Complex and unpredictable Cardano". International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 47, Issue 8, pp.2101-2119. arXiv e-print (arXiv:0806.0485).**External links***

* [*http://www.chlt.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page.64.php Linda Hall Library History of Science Collection*]

* " [*http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/19600 Jerome Cardan, a Biographical Study*] ", 1898, by William George Waters, fromProject Gutenberg

*

* " [*http://www.filosofia.unimi.it/cardano/index.php Girolamo Cardano, Strumenti per la storia del Rinascimento in Italia settentrionale (in Italian)*] and [*http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=it&u=http://www.filosofia.unimi.it/cardano/index.php%3Fpage%3Dbiblio&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=2&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dhttp://www.filosofia.unimi.it/cardano/index.php%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG English*] "

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**Gerolamo Cardano**— Pour les articles homonymes, voir Cardan. Gerolamo Cardano Girolamo Cardano (Pavie, 24 septembre 1501 … Wikipédia en Français**Gerolamo Cardano**— Girolamo Cardano (1501 1576) Nacimiento … Wikipedia Español**Gerolamo Cardano**— o Jérôme Cardan (Pavía, actual Italia, 24 de septiembre, 1501 Roma, 21 de septiembre,) Matemático italiano. Se graduó en la Universidad de Pavía y se doctoró en medicina (1526) en la de Padua. En 1536 se trasladó a Milán, donde empezó a ejercer… … Enciclopedia Universal**Gerolamo Cardano**— Stich von Cardano Gerolamo Cardano (auch Geronimo oder Girolamo; lateinisch Hieronymus Cardanus; * 24. September 1501 in Pavia; † 21. September 1576 in Rom) war ein Arzt, Philosoph und Mathematiker und zählt zu den Renaissance Humanisten … Deutsch Wikipedia**Ars Magna (Gerolamo Cardano)**— The Ars Magna (Latin: The Great Art ) is an important book on Algebra written by Gerolamo Cardano. It was first published in 1545 under the title Artis Magnæ, Sive de Regulis Algebraicis Liber Unus ( Book number one about The Great Art, or The… … Wikipedia**Gerolamo**— ist ein Vorname. Folgende Personen tragen diesen Vornamen Gerolamo Boccardo (1829−1904), italienischer Nationalökonom und Politiker Gerolamo Cardano (auch Geronimo oder Girolamo; lateinisch Hieronymus Cardanus; 1501−1576), Arzt, Philosoph und… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Cardano, Girolamo**— ▪ Italian physician and mathematician Girolamo also spelled Gerolamo , English Jerome Cardan born September 24, 1501, Pavia, duchy of Milan [Italy] died September 21, 1576, Rome Italian physician, mathematician, and astrologer who gave the… … Universalium**Cardano**— Stich von Cardano Gerolamo Cardano (auch Geronimo oder Girolamo; lateinisch Hieronymus Cardanus; * 24. September 1501 in Pavia; † 21. September 1576 in Rom) war ein Arzt, Philosoph und Mathematiker und zählt zu den Renaissance Humanisten … Deutsch Wikipedia**Cardano**— Cardano, Gerolamo (oder Girolamo, auch Geronimo), latinisiert Hierọnymus Cardanus, italienischer Mathematiker, Arzt und Philosoph, * Pavia 24. 9. 1501, ✝ Rom 20. 9. 1576; wirkte und lehrte in Mailand und Pavia, 1562 70 in Bologna; lebte danach … Universal-Lexikon**Cardano**— Cardano, Gerolamo … Enciclopedia Universal