Ruppert's algorithm

Ruppert's Algorithm input
Input planar straight-line graph
Output conforming Delaunay triangulation
Output conforming Delaunay triangulation
Example of Ruppert's algorithm

In mesh generation, Ruppert's algorithm, also known as Delaunay refinement, is an algorithm for creating quality Delaunay triangulations. The algorithm takes a planar straight-line graph (or in dimension higher than two a piecewise linear system) and returns a conforming Delaunay triangulation of only quality triangles. A triangle is considered poor-quality if it has a circumradius to shortest edge ratio larger than some prescribed threshold. Discovered by Jim Ruppert in the early 1990s,[1] "Ruppert's algorithm for two-dimensional quality mesh generation is perhaps the first theoretically guaranteed meshing algorithm to be truly satisfactory in practice."[2]



When doing computer simulations such as computational fluid dynamics, one starts with a model such as a 2D outline of a wing section. The input to a 2D finite element method needs to be in the form of triangles that fill all space, and each triangle to be filled with one kind of material – in this example, either "air" or "wing". Long, skinny triangles cannot be simulated accurately. The simulation time is generally proportional to the number of triangles, and so one wants to minimize the number of triangles, while still using enough triangles to give reasonably accurate results – typically by using an unstructured grid. The computer uses Ruppert's algorithm (or some similar meshing algorithm) to convert the polygonal model into triangles suitable for the finite element method.

Intermediate triangulations of Ruppert's algorithm

Algorithm Description

The algorithm begins with a Delaunay triangulation of the input vertices and then consists of two main operations.

  • The midpoint of a segment with non-empty diametral circles is inserted into the triangulation.
  • The circumcenter of a poor-quality triangle is inserted into the triangulation, unless this circumcenter lies in the diametral circle of some segment. In this case, the encroached segment is split instead.

These operations are repeated until no poor-quality triangles exist and all segments are not encroached.


 1  function Ruppert(points,segments,threshold):
 2      T := DelaunayTriangulation(points);
 3      Q := the set of encroached segments and poor quality triangles;
 4      while Q is not empty:                 // The main loop
 5          if Q contains a segment s:
 6              insert the midpoint of s into T;
 7          else Q contains poor quality triangle t:
 8              if the circumcenter of t encroaches a segments s:
 9                  add s to Q;
10              else:
11                  insert the circumcenter of t into T;
12              end if;
13          end if;
14          update Q;
15      end while;
16      return T;
17  end Ruppert.

Practical Usage

Without modification Ruppert's algorithm is guaranteed to terminate and generate a quality mesh for non-acute input and any poor-quality threshold less than about 20.7 degrees. To relax these restrictions various small improvements have been made. By relaxing the quality requirement near small input angles, the algorithm can be extended to handle any straight-line input.[3] Curved input can also be meshed using similar techniques.[4] Ruppert's algorithm can be naturally extended to three dimensions, however its output guarantees are somewhat weaker due to the sliver type tetrahedron.

An extension of Ruppert's algorithm in two dimensions is implemented in the freely available Triangle package. Two variants of Ruppert's algorithm in this package are guaranteed to terminate for a poor-quality threshold of about 26.5 degrees.[5] In practice these algorithms are successful for poor-quality thresholds over 30 degrees. However, examples are known which cause the algorithm to fail with a threshold greater than 29.06 degrees.[6]

See also


  1. ^ Ruppert, Jim (1995). "A Delaunay refinement algorithm for quality 2-dimensional mesh generation". Journal of Algorithms 18 (3): 548–585. doi:10.1006/jagm.1995.1021. 
  2. ^ Shewchuk, Jonathan. "Ruppert's Delaunay Refinement Algorithm". Retrieved April 2010. 
  3. ^ Miller, Gary; Pav, Steven; Walkington, Noel (2005). "When and why Delaunay refinement algorithms work". International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications 15 (1): 25–54. doi:10.1142/S0218195905001592. 
  4. ^ Pav, Steven; Walkington, Noel (2005). "Delaunay refinement by corner lopping". Proceedings of the 14th International Meshing Roundtable. pp. 165–181. 
  5. ^ Shewchuk, Jonathan (2002). "Delaunay refinement algorithms for triangular mesh generation". Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications 22 (1–3): 21–74. 
  6. ^ Rand, Alexander (2011). "Improved Examples of Non-Termination for Ruppert's Algorithm". arXiv:1103.3903 [cs.CG]. .

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chew's second algorithm — Mesh of Lake Michigan using Chew s second algorithm implemented in the Triangle package. In mesh generation, Chew s second algorithm is a Delaunay refinement algorithm for creating quality constrained Delaunay triangulations …   Wikipedia

  • Delaunay triangulation — A Delaunay triangulation in the plane with circumcircles shown In mathematics and computational geometry, a Delaunay triangulation for a set P of points in the plane is a triangulation DT(P) such that no point in P is inside the circumcircle of… …   Wikipedia

  • List of mathematics articles (R) — NOTOC R R. A. Fisher Lectureship Rabdology Rabin automaton Rabin signature algorithm Rabinovich Fabrikant equations Rabinowitsch trick Racah polynomials Racah W coefficient Racetrack (game) Racks and quandles Radar chart Rademacher complexity… …   Wikipedia

  • Mesh generation — is the practice of generating a polygonal or polyhedral mesh that approximates a geometric domain. The term grid generation is often used interchangeably. Typical uses are for rendering to a computer screen or for physical simulation such as… …   Wikipedia

  • Unstructured grid — An unstructured grid is a tessellation of a part of the Euclidean plane or Euclidean space by simple shapes, such as triangles or tetrahedra, in an irregular pattern. Grids of this type may be used in finite element analysis when the input to be… …   Wikipedia

  • Maximum likelihood — In statistics, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a method of estimating the parameters of a statistical model. When applied to a data set and given a statistical model, maximum likelihood estimation provides estimates for the model s… …   Wikipedia

  • Quadratisches Sieb — ist ein Begriff aus dem Bereich Zahlentheorie der Mathematik und bezeichnet einen der schnellsten bekannten Algorithmen zur Faktorisierung großer natürlicher Zahlen. Es ist ein allgemeines Faktorisierungsverfahren, d.h. die Laufzeit hängt nur von …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.