A dish can become a national dish for a variety of reasons. It can be the national dish because it is a staple daily food for the majority of the population. It can also be the national dish because it represents the regions and ethnicities of the whole country. In addition, it can be the national dish because it incorporates locally produced ingredients. National dishes are part of a nation's identity and self-image. During the age of European empire-building, nations consciously developed a national cuisine as a matter of distinction from their rivals.
In Latin America, such dishes are both officially and unofficially designated as "plato nacional". Ironically, in many case they transcend national borders. Both Peru and Ecuador claim ceviche as their national dish. Cuban ajiaco and the sancocho of the Dominican Republic, Colombia, and Panama, all of which are stews of meats, plaintains, and root vegetables are the plato nacional of them all. Zilka Janer, lecturer on Latin American culture at Hofstra University observes that this sharing of the same plato nacional by different countries calls into question the idea that every country has a unique national dish that is special to that country, and indicates, rather, that cuisine is something that does not respect national and geopolitical borders.
Janer also observes that it is "impossible" to choose a single national dish, even unofficially, for countries such as Mexico, because of their broad diversity of ethnic populations and cultures. The cuisine of such countries simply cannot be represented by one, single, national dish. Furthermore, the fact that national dishes are so interwoven with a nation's sense of identity, strong emotions and conflicts can arise over what a country's national dish actually is.
The identification of Latin American national dishes is stronger, Janer notes, amongst expatriate communities in North America. In Latin American countries, the plato nacional is usually part of the cuisine of rural and peasant communities, and not part of the everyday cuisine of city dwellers at all. But in expatriate communities, they are strongly reclaimed in order to retain the communities' senses of national identity, and ties to one's homeland, and proudly served in homes and restaurants. This is a reaction on the parts of those communities that is attempting to resist social pressures that push to homogenize such ethnically and culturally diverse communities into single all-encompassing group identities such as Latinos or Hispanic Americans.
For the culturally and ethnically diverse nation such as Indonesia, the national dishes are not just staple, popular or ubiquitous dishes such as nasi goreng or gado-gado. It may also be considered as the dishes that transcend cultural and ethnics differences, yet still retain common Indonesian cuisine traits. It has to be able to cross boundaries of diverse Indonesian culture and ethnic groups. As a result, it is impossible to nominate a single national dish of Indonesia. sate (satay) and soto are good examples of Indonesian national dishes, since there is no singular satay or soto recipes. Both dishes have myriad variations and recipes and are adopted regionally across Indonesia. However, culinary influence is not a concept that respects national boundaries, since satay is also popular in neighboring Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand.
National dishes and foods by country
As per the above, this is not a definitive list of national dishes, but rather a list of some foods that have been suggested to be national dishes.
- Afghanistan - Kabuli pulao
- Algeria - Couscous
- Angola - Muamba de galinha
- Argentina - Beef, Parrillada
- Armenia - Harissa
- Australia - Meat pie, Roast lamb
- Austria - Tafelspitz, Wiener Schnitzel
- Bahamas - Crack conch with peas and rice
- Bangladesh - Biryani, Ilish
- Barbados - Cou-Cou and Flying Fish
- Belarus - Draniki
- Belgium - Moules-frites
- Bhutan - Ema datshi
- Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosnian pot, Ćevapi, Pljeskavica
- Brazil - Feijoada
- Brunei - Ambuyat
- Burma - Mohinga
- Cambodia - Amok trey
- Cameroon - Ndole
- Canada - Poutine, Butter tarts,
- Cape Verde - Cachupa
- Chile - Empanada, Cazuela, Curanto, Pastel de choclo
- China - Peking duck
- Colombia - Bandeja paisa
- Costa Rica - Gallo pinto
- Cuba - Platillo Moros y Cristianos, Ropa vieja
- Czech Republic - Vepřo knedlo zelo (roast pork with dumplings and sauerkraut), Svíčková
- Democratic Republic of the Congo - Poulet Moambé
- Denmark - Frikadeller
- Dominican Republic - Sancocho
- Egypt - Ful medames, kushari, molokhia , Falafel
- El Salvador - Pupusa
- Eritrea - Zigini with injera
- Estonia - Verivorst with Mulgikapsad (sauerkraut stew)
- Ethiopia - Wat with injera
- France - Crêpe, pot-au-feu
- Gabon - Poulet Nyembwe
- Georgia - Khachapuri, khinkali
- Germany - Currywurst, doner kebab, Sauerbraten
- Greece - Fasolada, Moussaka
- Guyana - Guyana Pepperpot
- Hungary - Gulyás
- Iceland - Hákarl
- Indonesia - Gado-gado, Nasi Goreng, Sate, Soto
- Iran - Chelo kabab, Ghormeh sabzi
- Iraq - Samak masgouf
- Ireland - Colcannon, Irish stew
- Israel - Hummus, falafel, Israeli salad
- Italy - Pasta, Polenta
- Jamaica - Ackee and Saltfish
- Japan - Japanese curry, Ramen, Sushi
- Jordan - Mansaf
- Kazakhstan - Beshbarmak
- Kuwait - Machboos
- Kyrgyzstan - Beshbarmak, laghman
- Laos - Larb with sticky rice
- Lebanon - Kibbeh, tabbouleh
- Lithuania - Cepelinai
- Luxembourg - Judd mat gaardebounen
- Macedonia - Tavče Gravče
- Madagascar - Romazava
- Malaysia - Nasi Lemak
- Malta - Stuffat Tal-Fenek (rabbit stew)
- Mexico - Mole poblano
- Mongolia - Buuz
- Montenegro - Kačamak, Raštan
- Morocco - Couscous, Tagine, Pastilla
- Nicaragua - Gallo pinto
- Nepal - Dal bhat
- Netherlands - Stamppot, hutspot
- New Zealand - Pavlova, Bacon and egg pie, lamb
- North Korea - Kimchi
- Norway - Fårikål
- Pakistan - Biryani, Nihari
- Paraguay - Sopa paraguaya
- Peru - Ceviche
- Philippines - Adobo, lechon, sinigang
- Poland - Bigos, Pierogi, Kotlet schabowy
- Portugal - Bacalhau, Cozido à Portuguesa
- Republic of the Congo - Poulet Moambé
- Romania - Mămăligă, Ciorbă de burtă
- Russia - Shchi and Kasha, Pelmeni
- Constituent federal subjects of the Russian Federation
- Saudi Arabia - Kabsa
- Senegal – Thieboudienne
- Serbia - Ćevapčići, Pljeskavica
- Slovakia - Bryndzové halušky
- Singapore - Chilli crab, Hainanese Chicken Rice
- South Africa - Bobotie
- South Korea - Kimchi, Bulgogi
- Spain - Paella, tortilla española
- Sri Lanka - Rice and curry
- Sweden - Köttbullar, Kräftskiva, Surströmming,
- Switzerland - Cervelat, Fondue, Rösti
- Syria - Kibbeh
- Tajikistan - O'sh
- Taiwan - Beef noodle soup
- Thailand - Pad Thai, Som Tam, Tom Yum Goong
- Trinidad and Tobago - Pelau
- Tunisia - Couscous
- Turkmenistan - Palaw
- Uganda - Matoke
- Ukraine - Borscht
- United Kingdom - Chicken tikka masala is often referred to as "Britain's true national dish", notably in a 2002 speech by former Foreign Secretary Robin Cook. Although the Sunday Roast is generally considered to be the national dish, usually beef.
- United States - Apple pie, hamburger, roast turkey. Many U.S. states have at least one official state food.
- Uruguay - Asado, Chivito
- Uzbekistan - O'sh
- Venezuela - Pabellón criollo
- Vietnam - Phở
- Yemen - Saltah
A national liquor is an alcoholic drink considered a standard and respected adult beverage in a given country. While many such drinks status may be informal, there is usually a general consensus in a given country that a specific drink has national status or is the "most popular liquor" in said nation.
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National symbols Articles Lists
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