Pilot licensing in Canada


Pilot licensing in Canada

Pilot licensing in Canada is governed by Transport Canada in accordance with the Aeronautics Act and the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs). A person may operate an aircraft or act as a flight crew member only with a licence issued by Transport Canada. Personnel Licensing is divided into two classes: licences and permits. Both classes allow a person to act as a flight crew member. In most cases this implies acting as the pilot-in-command (PIC) of a class of aircraft for one of three purposes: private use, commercial use, and airline transport.

Overview

A licence is issued by Transport Canada in accordance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) licence standards and recommendations Annex 1 to the ICAO amendment number 167, chapter 1.2 "General rules concerning licences"] . A licence can be used to fly domestically as well as internationally. A permit is a class of licence issued by Transport Canada that does not comply with ICAO standards and can only be used domestically. The most common type of licence is the private pilot licence—aeroplane. This is the licence acquired by most individuals who wish to fly light single engine general aviation aircraft.

Pilots with licences from countries other than Canada may apply to Transport Canada for a validation of a foreign licence. This application is subject to the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/AeronauticsAct/May2006.htm Aeronautics Act] , and in particular implies that the foreign pilot's licence was issued by a contracting member country of the ICAO. Foreign licensing includes other options for the foreign licensed pilot.

Pilot Permits

*Student
*Gyroplane
*Ultra-light aeroplane
*Recreational—aeroplane
*Recreational—helicopter

Pilot Licences

*Glider
*Balloon
*Private—aeroplane
*Private—helicopter
*Commercial—aeroplane
*Commercial—helicopter
*Airline transport—aeroplane
*Airline transport—helicopter

Other Licences

*Flight engineer licence

Note that the term "licence" in Canada is semantically equivalent to the term "certificate" in the United States ("see also" Pilot certification in the United States). The term "licence" in the United Kingdom ("see also" Pilot licensing in the United Kingdom) is used as it is in Canada. And, in terms of the ICAO they are all legally equivalent.

Ratings

Because of the significant variations between the skills required for different aircraft and piloting situations, a pilot licence in Canada is not in and of itself usable as such. Every permit and licence is qualified by at least one or more ratings. A rating is a Transport Canada endorsement that grants additional special privileges. Different ratings apply to different licences and permits. The night rating is an example of a rating and that allows a pilot to fly at night.

Aircraft type ratings

*Blanket type
**Aeroplanes
**Gliders
***Motor-driven touring
**Balloons
**Ultra-light aeroplanes
***Advanced ultra-light aeroplanes
**Gyroplanes (single seat)
*Individual type
**Aeroplanes
***Two crew
***Two crew—restricted to cruise relief pilot duties only
***High performance aeroplane
***Flight engineer
***Second officer
**Helicopters
***One pilot
***Two pilots
**Balloons
***Airship or powered balloon
**Gyroplanes (two-seat)

Various aircraft models require different knowledge and skill to fly. For example, a single engine general aviation aircraft's design and operation is fundamentally different from a gyroplane. "Type" ratings refer to the specific model of aircraft a pilot may be endorsed to fly. The CARs use the term "type" instead of "model".

Certain aircraft types are covered by a "blanket" type rating which is applicable for all individual types (models) of aircraft for that type. For example, the "aeroplanes" blanket type rating covers all single engine aeroplanes that have a minimum flight crew requirement of one pilot. Examples of this type of aircraft are the Cessna 172 Skyhawk and the Piper Cherokee PA-28. A person with a private pilot licence with the aeroplanes rating may fly either of these aircraft or any other aircraft of this type. Other aircraft types are covered only by "individual" type ratings that apply to a single specific model of aircraft. For example, the "helicopter" aircraft type is covered only by individual type ratings and a person must earn a rating for each and every model of helicopter to be flown. A person with a private pilot licence—helicopter with a rating for the Bell 407 helicopter may fly only that helicopter and no other. The specific sets of privileges and requirements for each rating are detailed in the CARs regulations and standards.

Aeroplanes class ratings

*Seaplane
*Landplane
*Multi-engine
*Multi-engine centre line thrust

The "aeroplanes" aircraft type is further subdivided into four classes of aeroplanes each with its own rating. These ratings are endorsements pertaining to different skills required for each class of aeroplane. For example, Seaplane piloting requires special skills for operating on water. Multi-engine piloting requires special skills for flying an aeroplane with one engine out and experiencing asymmetric thrust.

Flight crew ratings

*Night
*VFR-Over-the-Top (VFR OTT)
*Instrument
*Second officer
*Passenger-carrying—ultra-light aeroplane
*Aerobatic

Beyond the aircraft type ratings and the aeroplanes class ratings are the flight crew ratings. These ratings pertain to various skillsets a pilot may acquire. Once Transport Canada's endorsement is granted, each rating allows a pilot a discrete set of special piloting privileges, such as flying using instruments only (without visual references out of the aircraft). Transport Canada grants the endorsement based on a specific set of requirements for training and experience as specified in the CARs.

Not all of these ratings apply to all permits or licences.

Flight instructor ratings

*Flight instructor—aeroplane
**Class 4
**Class 3
**Class 2
**Class 1
*Flight instructor—aeroplane-aerobatic
**Class 2
**Class 1
*Flight instructor—helicopter
**Class 4
**Class 3
**Class 2
**Class 1
*Flight instructor—gyroplane
*Flight instructor—balloon
*Flight instructor—glider
*Flight instructor—glider-aerobatic
*Flight instructor—ultra-light aeroplane

The last family of ratings pertains to flight training. Flight instructor ratings are endorsements earned by pilots that have demonstrated mastery of various piloting skill sets. And, generally these ratings are pursued by pilots who have the intention of becoming flight instructors. The flight instructor ratings for aeroplane, helicopter and aerobatic flight are further subdivided into classes signifying progressively greater levels of knowledge, experience and skill both as a flight instructor and a pilot. The class 1 rating characterizes the highest level of mastery.

Because of the significant experience requirements, many aspiring airline transport pilots become flight instructors in order to acquire the necessary flight time experience for these advanced licences.

Permits and licences

Because at least a blanket type rating is required to make a pilot permit or pilot licence practicable, generally these requirements are incorporated into the training programs for the various permits and licences. As such, an initial aircraft type rating and, if applicable, an aeroplane class rating is granted with any new licence. That is, for example, when a person earns a private pilot licence—aeroplane, in fact what is earned is a private pilot licence—aeroplane with the "aeroplanes" blanket aircraft type rating as well as the "landplane" aeroplane class rating. Similarly, when a person earns a glider pilot licence, the licence is endorsed with the "gliders" blanket aircraft type rating.

Note that the amounts listed for experience are absolute minima set by Transport Canada. Successfully completing a course of training is based on an individual student's capabilities in meeting performance requirements. Most often a training program exceeds the stated minima. For example, the stated minimum for total flight time for the private pilot licence—aeroplane is 45 hours. The average for Canadian student pilots who have successfully earned this licence is about 65 hours flight time.

Beyond that for a particular permit or licence, each aircraft type rating and aeroplane class rating has requirements of its own for knowledge, skill and experience ("see" Ratings).----

Gyroplane pilot permit

The gyroplane pilot permit allows a person to fly as pilot-in-command (PIC) of an aircraft of type gyroplane. Until further endorsed with other ratings, only domestic day flying with visual flight rules (VFR) is allowed under this permit.

The gyroplane pilot permit is endorsed with type ("model") ratings for specific types of gyroplane aircraft. There is no blanket type rating for two-seat gyroplanes. As such, the gyroplane pilot permit is endorsed with a type rating for each specific model of two-seat gyroplane for which the student pilot trains and qualifies. The gyroplane pilot permit is endorsed with a blanket type rating for all single seat gyroplanes ("see" Aircraft type ratings "above").

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_20 421.20] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for a gyroplane pilot permit. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 17 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1 "or"
***Category 3
*Knowledge
**A minimum of 40 hours ground school instruction specific to gyroplane pilots
**A minimum grade of 60% on the Transport Canada GYROP examination. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp13975/menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide - Pilot Permit - Gyroplane" (TP 13975)] ).
*Experience
**A minimum of 45 hours gyroplane flight time
**"including (as applicable)"
**Two or more seat gyroplane
***A minimum of 12 hours dual flight time with a flight instructor "including"
****A minimum of 2 hours dual cross-country flight time
***"and"
***A minimum of 12 hours solo flight time "including"
****A minimum of 3 hours solo cross-country flight time
**"or"
**Single seat gyroplane
***A maximum of 15 hours towed flight time "including"
****A minimum of 3 hours cross country-flight time
*Skill
**The student must demonstrate the skill specified in the CARs ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_20 421.20 (5)] ) in a flight test conducted by a qualified flight instructor—gyroplane.

Applicable endorsements

*Night rating----

Ultra-light pilot permit

The ultra-light pilot permit allows a person to fly as pilot-in-command (PIC) of an ultra-light aircraft. Only domestic day flying with visual flight rules (VFR) is allowed under this permit. A passenger may not be carried without a further endorsement.

The ultra-light pilot permit is endorsed with a blanket type ("model") rating for all models of ultra-light aeroplanes, allowing a person to fly any ultra-light aeroplane. Transport Canada defines two general types of ultra-light aeroplane. The operating and flight rules of the basic ultra-light aeroplane (BULA) type does not allow for any passenger carrying capacity. The advanced ultra-light aeroplane (AULA) type has stricter requirements and includes the capacity to carry a single passenger if the PIC has an ultra-light pilot permit endorsed with the Passenger-carrying—ultra-light aeroplane rating.

Aircraft other than aeroplanes also fall under the general classification of ultra-light, in particular powered parachutes and powered paragliders. In such cases, the ultra-light pilot permit is restricted to the type used by the student for training and qualification.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_21 421.21] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for an ultra-light pilot permit. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 16 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1 "or"
***Category 3 "or"
***Category 4 "or"
***Meets the medical conditions per the Civil Aviation Medical Declaration (26-0297)
*Knowledge
**A minimum of 20 hours ground school instruction specific to ultra-light pilots
**A minimum grade of 60% on the Transport Canada ULTRA examination. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14453/menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide - Pilot Permit - Ultra-light Aeroplane" (TP 14453)] "and" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14454/menu.htm "Sample Examination - Pilot Permit - Ultra-light Aeroplane" (TP 14454)] ).

*Experience
**Ultra-light aeroplane
***A minimum of 10 hours ultra-light flight time "including"
****A minimum of 5 hours dual flight time "and"
****A minimum of 2 hours solo flight time "and"
****A minimum of 30 takeoffs and landings "including"
*****A minimum of 10 solo takeoffs and landings
**Powered parachute
***A minimum of 5 hours powered parachute flight time "and"
***A minimum of 30 takeoffs and landings "including"
****A minimum of 10 solo takeoffs and landings

*Skill
**The student must demonstrate the skill specified in and in accordance with the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/publications/tp13984/menu.htm "Flight Test Guide - Ultra-light Aeroplane" (TP 13984)] in a flight test conducted by a pilot examiner - ultra-light aeroplane. "See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14277/Ultra/menu.htm "Pilot Examiner Manual - Ultra-light Aeroplane" TP 14277] .

Applicable endorsements

*Passenger-carrying—ultra-light aeroplane
*Seaplane:Ultra-light aeroplanes are commonly equipped with floats, amphibious floats or designed as a seaplane. However, there is no "de jure" seaplane rating applicable to the ultra-light pilot permit. Float operations is a standard part of the ultra-light pilot training program as specified by Transport Canada. And, the flight test conducted by the student's flight instructor can include manoeuvres applicable to seaplane operations. Any ultra-light pilot may operate on water within the regulations of the CARs and the capabilities of the ultra-light aeroplane used. ----

Recreational pilot permit—aeroplane

The recreational pilot permit—aeroplane is a newer permit designed to make flying more accessible. It has fewer requirements with respect to training and affords more restrictive privileges as compared to the private pilot licence—aeroplane.

This permit allows a person to fly as pilot-in-command (PIC) of an aircraft of type aeroplane. The "landplane" aeroplane class rating is incorporated in the training regimen for this permit and this rating is simultaneously issued with the recreational pilot permit—aeroplane by Transport Canada. This permit can be additionally endorsed only with the seaplane aeroplane class rating. As such, only domestic day flying of a single engine non-high-performance aeroplane with visual flight rules (VFR) is allowed under this permit. Moreover, this permit restricts a pilot to flying single engine certified aeroplanes designed for a maximum of 4 people but only a single passenger may be carried.

A pilot with this permit may also act as a PIC of an ultra-light aeroplane.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_22 421.22] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for a recreational pilot permit—aeroplane. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 16 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1 "or"
***Category 3 "or"
***Category 4 "or"
***Meets the medical conditions per the Civil Aviation Medical Declaration (26-0297)
*Knowledge
**A minimum grade of 60% on the Transport Canada RPPAE or PPAER examinations. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp12467/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide - Recreational Pilot Permit - Aeroplane" (TP 12467)] "or" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp12880/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide for Written Examinations for the Private Pilot Licence Aeroplane" (TP 12880)] "and" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp13014/Menu.htm "Sample Examination - Recreational Pilot Permit and Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane" (TP 13014)] ).
**Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_22 421.22(3)] of the CARs does not specify a requirement for ground school. Nonetheless, the knowledge requirements are non-trivial.
*Experience
**A minimum of 25 hours flight time "including"
***A minimum of 15 hours dual flight time with a flight instructor "including"
****A minimum of 2 hours dual cross-country flight time
**"and"
**A minimum of 5 hours solo flight time
**If the applicant holds a pilot permit Ultralight then all of their time both Solo and Dual instruction may be credited towards the flight time requirements for this permit
*Skill
**The student must demonstrate the skill specified in and in accordance with the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/flttrain/planes/Pubs/TP12475/menu.htm "Flight Test Guide - Recreational Pilot Permit - Aeroplane" (TP 12475)] in a flight test conducted by a pilot examiner - recreational—aeroplane. "See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14277/Recreational/menu.htm "Pilot Examiner Manual - Recreational - Aeroplane" (TP 14277)] .

Applicable endorsements

*Landplane rating
*Seaplane rating----

Recreational pilot permit—helicopter

The recreational pilot permit—helicopter is a newer permit designed to make flying more accessible. It has fewer requirements with respect to training and affords more restrictive privileges as compared to the private pilot licence—helicopter.

The recreational pilot permit—helicopter allows a person to fly as pilot-in-command (PIC) of an aircraft of type helicopter. Only domestic day flying of a helicopter with visual flight rules (VFR) is allowed under this permit, and only a single passenger may be carried.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_23 421.23] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" is reserved for the requirements pertaining to the recreational pilot permit—helicopter. However, no requirements have as yet (2008-07-27) been published by Transport Canada as such this permit is not currently available.----

Glider pilot licence

The glider pilot licence allows a person to fly as pilot-in-command (PIC) of an aircraft of type glider ("see also" Gliding). Only day flying of a glider with visual flight rules (VFR) is allowed under this licence, and no passenger may be carried without further qualification.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_24 421.24] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for a glider pilot licence. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 16 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1 "or"
***Category 3 "or"
***Category 4 "or"
***Meets the medical conditions per the Civil Aviation Medical Declaration (26-0297)
*Knowledge
**A minimum of 15 hours ground school instruction specific to glider pilots
**A minimum grade of 60% on the Transport Canada GLIDE examination. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp12467/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide - Glider Pilot Licence" (TP 876)] "and" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp877/Menu.htm "Sample Examination Glider Pilot Licence" (TP 877)] ).
*Experience
**A minimum of 6 hours flight time "including"
***A minimum of 1 hour dual flight time with a flight instructor "and"
***A minimum of 2 hours solo flight time "including"
****A minimum of 20 takeoffs and landings
*Skill
**There is no formal practical examination required to earn the glider pilot licence. However, the student must demonstrate the skill specified in the CARs ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_24 421.24 (5)] ) to their flight instructor.

Applicable endorsements

The glider pilot licence is endorsed, in the student's flight log, by a flight test examiner or flight instructor for the type of launch method used during training and qualification. The licence is only valid for those methods of launch for which the glider pilot has been endorsed.

Once a glider pilot has completed a minimum of 3 solo flights using a particular launch method, he may then carry a single passenger, but only for those launch methods for which he has been endorsed and has completed the 3 solo flights.----

Balloon pilot licence

The balloon pilot licence allows a person to act as pilot-in-command (PIC) or co-pilot of an aircraft of type balloon. Until further endorsed with other ratings, only day flying of a balloon with visual flight rules (VFR) is allowed under this licence.

Generally, aircraft are only permitted to take-off and land in built-up areas (towns and cities) from an aerodrome. Upon qualification and endorsement, a balloon pilot may take-off in built-up areas.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_25 421.25] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for a balloon pilot licence. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 17 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1 "or"
***Category 3
*Knowledge
**A minimum of 10 hours ground school instruction specific to balloon pilots
**A minimum grade of 60% on the Transport Canada PIBAL examination. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp10087/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide - Balloon Pilot License - Including Flight Instructor Rating" (TP 10087)] ).
*Experience
**A minimum of 16 hours flight time "including"
***A minimum of 11 hours untethered flight time with a flight instructor "including"
****A minimum of 6 dual flights "and"
****A minimum of 2 solo flights
*Skill
**There is no formal practical examination required to earn the balloon pilot licence. However, the student must demonstrate the skill specified in the CARs ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_25 421.25 (5)] ) to their flight instructor.

Applicable endorsements

Night rating

The balloon pilot licence is endorsed, in the student's flight log, by a flight test examiner or flight instructor for the type of inflation method used during training and qualification. The licence is only valid for those methods of inflation for which the balloon pilot has been endorsed.

Once a balloon pilot has completed a minimum of 3 solo take-offs, accumulated a minimum of 50 hours flight time in untethered balloons and 300 hours total balloon flight time, his licence may then be further endorsed for take-offs in built-up areas. ----

Private pilot licence—aeroplane

The private pilot licence—aeroplane allows a person to fly as pilot-in-command (PIC) or co-pilot of an aircraft of type aeroplane. This is the most commonly held licence in Canada by non-professional pilots and is generally the first licence earned by the aspiring professional pilot. Generally, the "landplane" aeroplane class rating is incorporated in the training regimen for this licence and this rating is simultaneously issued with the private pilot licence—aeroplane by Transport Canada. As such, until further endorsed with other ratings, only day flying of a single engine non-high-performance aeroplane with visual flight rules (VFR) is allowed under this licence.

A pilot with this licence cannot work for hire. No remuneration may be asked with the exceptions of reimbursements for costs and as specified in the CARs section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/401.htm#401_28 401.28] .

A pilot with this licence may also act as a PIC of an ultra-light aeroplane.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_26 421.26] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for a private pilot licence—aeroplane. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 17 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1 "or"
***Category 3
*Knowledge
**A minimum of 40 hours ground school instruction specific to private pilots
**A minimum grade of 60% on the Transport Canada PPAER examination. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp12880/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide for Written Examinations for the Private Pilot Licence Aeroplane" (TP 12880)] "and" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp13014/Menu.htm "Sample Examination - Recreational Pilot Permit and Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane" (TP 13014)] ).
*Experience
**A minimum of 45 hours flight time "including"
***A maximum of 5 hours simulated flight time
***A minimum of 17 hours dual flight time with a flight instructor "including"
****A minimum of 3 hours dual cross-country flight time "and"
****A minimum of 5 hours dual instrument flight time "including"
*****A maximum of 3 hours dual instrument ground time
**"and"
**A minimum of 12 hours solo flight time "including"
***A minimum of 5 hours solo cross-country flight time
*Skill
**The student must demonstrate the skill specified in and in accordance with the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/flttrain/planes/Pubs/TP13723/menu.htm "Flight Test Guide - Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane" (TP 13723)] in a flight test conducted by a pilot examiner - private—aeroplane. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14277/Private/menu.htm "Pilot Examiner Manual - Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane" (TP 14277)] ).

Applicable endorsements

*Landplane rating
*Seaplane rating
*Multi-engine rating
*Multi-engine centre line thrust rating
*Night rating
*VFR-Over-the-Top rating
*Instrument rating----

Private pilot licence—helicopter

The private pilot licence—helicopter allows a person to fly as pilot-in-command (PIC) or co-pilot of an aircraft of type helicopter. Until further endorsed with various ratings, only day flying of a helicopter with visual flight rules (VFR) is allowed under this licence.

There is no blanket type rating for the helicopter aircraft type. An individual type rating must be earned for each type of helicopter the pilot is to fly. ("See" Aircraft type ratings "above"). As such, a helicopter type rating for the specific helicopter used during the training regimen for this licence is simultaneously issued with the private pilot licence—helicopter by Transport Canada.

A pilot with this licence can not work for hire. No remuneration may be asked with the exceptions of reimbursements for costs and as specified in the CARs section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/401.htm#401_28 401.28] .

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_27 421.27] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for a private pilot licence—helicopter. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 17 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1 "or"
***Category 3
*Knowledge
**A minimum of 40 hours ground school instruction specific to private helicopter pilots
**A minimum grade of 60% on the Transport Canada PPHEL examination. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp2476/menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide - Private and Commercial Pilot Licence including Aeroplane to Helicopter Pilot Licences - Helicopter" (TP 2476)] "and" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp13728/Menu.htm "Sample Examination - Private and Commercial Pilot Licences - Helicopter" (TP 13728)] ).
*Experience
**A minimum of 45 hours flight time "including"
***A maximum of 5 hours simulated flight time
***A minimum of 17 hours dual flight time with a flight instructor "including"
****A minimum of 3 hours dual cross-country flight time "and"
****A minimum of 5 hours dual instrument flight time "including"
****A maximum of 3 hours dual instrument ground time
**"and"
**A minimum of 12 hours solo flight time "including"
***A minimum of 5 hours solo cross-country flight time
*Skill
**The student must demonstrate the skill specified in and in accordance with the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/flttrain/PLANES/Pubs/TP3077/menu.htm "Flight Test Guide - Private and Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter" (TP 3077)] in a flight test conducted by a pilot examiner - private—helicopter. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14277/Helicopter/menu.htm "Pilot Examiner Manual - Private and Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter" (TP 14277)] ).

Applicable endorsements

* Individual type rating for each model of helicopter
*Night rating
*VFR-Over-the-Top rating
*Instrument rating----

Commercial pilot licence—aeroplane

The commercial pilot licence—aeroplane is the first of two professional pilot licences (aeroplane) issued by Transport Canada. This licence allows a person to fly professionally (for hire) as pilot-in-command (PIC) or co-pilot of an aircraft of type aeroplane and with a flight crew requirement of minimum one pilot. Generally, this means smaller and less complex aeroplanes than airliners which have a flight crew requirement of minimum two pilots. Examples of piloting for hire other than airliners are bush plane pilot, air taxi pilot, and flight instructor.

The commercial pilot licence—aeroplane entails more advanced piloting knowledge, skill, and especially experience than the private pilot licence—aeroplane. A private pilot licence—aeroplane is a prerequisite to earning a commercial pilot licence—aeroplane. A commercial pilot licence—aeroplane is in turn a prerequisite to earning an airline transport pilot licence—aeroplane or any class of flight instructor—aeroplane rating. The privileges of the ultra-light pilot permit, private pilot licence—aeroplane, and VFR-Over-the-Top (VFR OTT) rating are implicit to this licence.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_30 421.30] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for a commercial pilot licence—aeroplane. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 18 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1
*Knowledge
**A minimum of 80 hours ground school instruction specific to commercial pilots
**A minimum grade of 60% on the Transport Canada CPAER examination. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp12881/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide for Written Examinations for the Commercial Pilot Licence Aeroplane" (TP 12881)] ).
*Experience
**Have previously earned a private pilot licence—aeroplane "including"
***A minimum of 200 hours flight time "including"
****A minimum of 100 hours pilot-in-command flight time "including"
*****A minimum of 20 hours cross-country pilot-in-command flight time you only need a minimum of 100 hours total time to write the exam.
**"and"
**A minimum of 65 hours commercial pilot training flight time "including"
***A minimum of 35 hours dual flight time under the supervision of a flight instructor "including"
****A minimum of 5 hours night flight time "and"
****A minimum of 5 hours cross-country flight time "including"
*****A minimum of 2 hours cross-country night flight time
****A minimum of 20 hours instrument flight time "including"
*****A maximum of 10 hours simulated instrument flight time
***A minimum of 30 hours solo flight time under the supervision of a flight instructor "including"
****A minimum of 1 cross-country flight of minimum 300 miles and 3 intermediary landings
****A minimum of 5 hours solo night flight time "including"
*****A minimum of 10 takeoffs and landings All after the private pilot training
*Skill
**The student must demonstrate the skill specified in and in accordance with the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/flttrain/planes/Pubs/TP13462/menu.htm "Flight Test Guide - Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane" (TP 13462)] in a flight test conducted by a pilot examiner - commercial—aeroplane. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14277/Commercial/menu.htm "Pilot Examiner Manual - Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane" (TP 14277)] ).

"Note:" The CARs ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_30 421.30 (7)] ) provide for a number of significant options for credit in terms of knowledge and experience for pilots with previous experience under other permits and licenses.

Applicable endorsements

*NightGenerally, a pilot will have already earned a night rating prior to the training regimen for this licence. Transport Canada will issue a commercial pilot licence—aeroplane with a restriction for daylight only flying to a pilot who has fulfilled the requirements for this licence except for the night flight time requirements. This restriction is removed at such time that a pilot has fulfilled the night flight time training requirements ("see" CARs [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/401.htm#401_30 401.30 (2)-(4)] "and" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_30 421.30 (6)] ).
*Landplane rating
*Seaplane rating
*Multi-engine rating
*Multi-engine centre line thrust rating
*Instrument rating
*Second officer rating
*Flight instructor rating----

Commercial pilot licence—helicopter

The commercial pilot licence—helicopter is the first of two professional pilot licences (helicopter) issued by Transport Canada. This licence allows a person to fly professionally (for hire) as pilot-in-command (PIC) or co-pilot of an aircraft of type helicopter and with a flight crew requirement of minimum one pilot. Generally, this means smaller and less complex helicopters than multi-crew multi-engine helicopters that have a flight crew requirement of minimum two pilots. Examples of piloting for hire other than two-pilot helicopters are air taxi pilot and flight instructor.

The commercial pilot licence—helicopter entails more advanced piloting knowledge, skill, and especially experience than the private pilot licence—helicopter. A private pilot licence—helicopter is "not" a prerequisite to earning a commercial pilot licence—helicopter. However, in such a case the requirements for knowledge and experience are greater. A commercial pilot licence—helicopter is a prerequisite to earning an airline transport pilot licence—helicopter or any class of flight instructor—helicopter rating. The privileges of the private pilot licence—helicopter is implicit to this licence.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_31 421.31] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for a commercial pilot licence—helicopter. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 18 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1
*Knowledge
**Where a person has previously earned a private pilot licence—helicopter, a minimum of 40 hours ground school instruction specific to commercial helicopter pilots "or"
**Where a person has "not" previously earned a private pilot licence—helicopter, a minimum of 80 hours ground school instruction specific to commercial helicopter pilots
**A minimum grade of 60% on the Transport Canada CPHEL examination. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp2476/menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide - Private and Commercial Pilot Licence including Aeroplane to Helicopter Pilot Licences" (TP 2476)] "and" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp13728/Menu.htm "Sample Examination - Private and Commercial Pilot Licences - Helicopter" (TP 13728)] ).
*Experience
**A minimum of 100 hours flight time "including"
***A minimum of 35 hours pilot-in-command flight time "including"
****A minimum of 10 hours cross-country pilot-in-command flight time
**"and"
**Where a person holds a private pilot licence—helicopter
***A minimum of 60 hours commercial pilot training flight time "including"
****A minimum of 37 hours dual flight time under the supervision of a flight instructor "including"
*****A minimum of 5 hours cross-country flight time
*****A minimum of 5 hours night flight time "including"
******A minimum of 2 hours cross-country night flight time
*****A minimum of 10 hours instrument flight time "including"
******A maximum of 5 hours simulated instrument flight time
****A minimum of 23 hours solo flight time under the supervision of a flight instructor "including"
*****A minimum of 2 hours cross-country flight time "including"
******A minimum of 1 cross-country flight with a minimum duration of 2 hours and 3 intermediary landings
*****A minimum of 5 hours solo night flight time "including"
******A minimum of 10 takeoffs and landings
**Where a person does not hold a private pilot licence—helicopter
***A minimum of 100 hours commercial pilot training flight time "including"
****A minimum of 55 hours dual flight time under the supervision of a flight instructor "including"
*****A minimum of 5 hours cross-country flight time
*****A minimum of 10 hours instrument flight time "including"
******A maximum of 5 hours simulated instrument flight time
****A minimum of 35 hours solo flight time "including"
*****A minimum of 1 cross-country flight with a minimum duration of 2 hours and 3 intermediary landings

"Note:" The commercial pilot licence—helicopter is restricted to daylight only flying if it is earned by a person who has "not" previously earned a private pilot licence—helicopter. Also, the CARs ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_31 421.31 (7)] ) provide for a number of significant options for credit in terms of knowledge and experience for pilots with previous experience under other permits and licenses.

*Skill
**The student must demonstrate the skill specified in and in accordance with the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/flttrain/planes/Pubs/TP3077/menu.htm "Flight Test Guide - Private and Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter" (TP 3077)] in a flight test conducted by a pilot examiner - commercial—helicopter. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14277/Helicopter/menu.htm "Pilot Examiner Manual - Private and Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter" (TP 14277)] ).

Applicable endorsements

*NightGenerally, a pilot will have already earned a night rating prior to the training regimen for this licence. Transport Canada will issue a commercial pilot licence—helicopter with a restriction for daylight only flying to a pilot who has fulfilled the requirements for this licence except for the night flight time requirements. This restriction is removed at such time that a pilot has fulfilled the night flight time training requirements ("see" CARs [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/401.htm#401_31 401.31 (2)-(4)] "and" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_31 421.31 (6)] ).
*VFR-Over-the-Top rating
*Instrument rating
*Flight instructor rating----

Airline transport pilot licence—aeroplane

The airline transport pilot licence—aeroplane is the second and more advanced of two professional pilot licences (aeroplane) issued by Transport Canada. This licence allows a pilot to fly professionally (for hire) as pilot-in-command (PIC) or co-pilot of an aircraft of type aeroplane and with a flight crew requirement of minimum two pilots. Generally, this means larger and more complex aeroplanes such as airliners which have a flight crew requirement of minimum two pilots. In essence, it is this licence that is required in order to act as a professional airline pilot.

The airline transport pilot licence—aeroplane entails more advanced piloting knowledge, skill, and especially experience than the commercial pilot licence—aeroplane. A commercial pilot licence—aeroplane and a "Group 1" instrument rating are prerequisites to earning an airline transport pilot licence—aeroplane. The privileges of the ultra-light pilot permit, private pilot licence—aeroplane, and commercial pilot licence—aeroplane are implicit to this licence.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_34 421.34] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for an airline transport pilot licence—aeroplane. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 21 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1
*Knowledge
**A minimum grade of 70% on each of the following 3 Transport Canada examinations.
***SAMRA ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp690/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide for Written Examinations for the Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane" (TP 690)] )
***SARON ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp690/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide for Written Examinations for the Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane" (TP 690)] )
***INRAT ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp691/General.htm "Study and Reference Guide for the written examination for the Instrument Rating Aeroplane and Helicopter" (TP 691)] )
*Experience
**Have previously earned a commercial pilot licence—aeroplane that is "not" restricted to daylight only flying
**Have previously earned a "Group 1" instrument rating "including"
***A non-central thrust multi-engine rating
**A minimum of 1500 hours flight time "including"
***A minimum of 900 hours flight time in aeroplanes
***A minimum of 250 hours pilot-in-command (PIC) flight time in aeroplanes "including"
****A maximum of 100 hours PIC flight time under supervision [Air operators (airlines) may institute programs to give co-pilots pilot-in-command flight time ("see" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_11 CARs 421.11] "for details")] "and"
****A minimum of 100 hours PIC cross-country flight time "including"
*****A minimum of 25 hours PIC cross-country night flight time
***A minimum of 100 hours night flight time "including"
****A minimum of 30 hours night flight time in aeroplanes
***A minimum of 100 hours PIC cross-country flight time "or"
****A minimum of 200 hours co-pilot cross-country flight time
***A minimum of 75 hours instrument flight time "including"
****A maximum of 25 hours simulated instrument flight time (ground time)
***A maximum of 50 hours flight time in gliders
***A maximum of 50 hours flight time in ultra-light aeroplanes
*Skill
**There is no formal practical examination required to earn the airline transport pilot licence—aeroplane, however, the pilot must demonstrate the skills specified in the CARs ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_34 421.34 (5)] ) by having successfully passed a (multi-IFR or equivalent) flight test within 12 months preceding an application for the licence.

Applicable endorsements

*Second officer rating
*Flight instructor rating----

Airline transport pilot licence—helicopter

The airline transport pilot licence—helicopter is the second and more advanced of two professional pilot licences (helicopter) issued by Transport Canada. This licence allows a pilot to fly professionally (for hire) as pilot-in-command (PIC) or co-pilot of multi-crew multi-engine helicopters with a flight crew requirement of minimum two pilots.

The airline transport pilot licence—helicopter entails more advanced piloting knowledge, skill, and especially experience than the commercial pilot licence—helicopter. A commercial pilot licence—helicopter is a prerequisite to earning an airline transport pilot licence—helicopter. The privileges of the private pilot licence—helicopter and commercial pilot licence—helicopter are implicit to this licence.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_35 421.35] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for an airline transport pilot licence—helicopter. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 21 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1
*Knowledge
**A minimum grade of 70% on each of the following 2 Transport Canada examinations.
***HAMRA ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp11954/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide - Airline Transport Pilot License - Helicopter" (TP 11954)] )
***HARON ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp11954/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide - Airline Transport Pilot License - Helicopter" (TP 11954)] )
*Experience
**Have previously earned a commercial pilot licence—helicopter that is "not" restricted to daylight only flying
**A minimum of 1000 hours flight time "including"
***A minimum of 600 hours flight time in helicopters
***A minimum of 250 hours pilot-in-command (PIC) flight time in helicopters "including"
****A maximum of 150 hours PIC flight time under supervision [Air operators (airlines) may institute programs to give co-pilots pilot-in-command flight time ("see" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_11 CARs 421.11] "for details")]
***A minimum of 50 hours night flight time "including"
****A minimum of 15 hours night flight time in helicopters
***A minimum of 200 hours cross-country flight time "including"
****A minimum of 100 hours PIC cross-country flight time
***A minimum of 30 hours instrument flight time "including"
****A maximum of 10 hours simulated instrument flight time (ground time)
****A maximum of 15 hours instrument flight time in aeroplanes

"Note:" The airline transport pilot licence—helicopter is restricted to "aerial work" only while the night and instrument flight time requirements are not yet met. This means that the licence is restricted to commercial flying that does not include air transport (transportation of commercial passengers) nor flight training.

*Skill
**There is no formal practical examination required to earn the airline transport pilot licence—helicopter. However, the pilot must demonstrate the skills specified in the CARs ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_35 421.35 (5)] ).

Applicable endorsements
*VFR-Over-the-Top rating
*Flight instructor rating----

Flight engineer licence

Certain models of airliners are designed for operation by a third primary crew member in addition to the pilot and co-pilot called a flight engineer. The flight engineer is responsible for monitoring aircraft systems in flight and for checking the aircraft before and after each flight. The Boeing 747-300 is an example of an airliner that employs a flight engineer. Recent and current airliner design from major manufacturers such as the Boeing Company and Airbus S.A.S. are designed around a two pilot flight crew with flight management functions previously the responsibility of a flight engineer now handled by computerized automation. Nonetheless, many currently flying airliners around the world require a flight engineer.

The flight engineer licence allows a person to act as the flight engineer of an aeroplane requiring a flight engineer. Generally, this is an airliner. Being a pilot is not a prerequisite to earning a flight engineer licence, though many flight engineers do hold a commercial pilot licence—aeroplane or higher.

There is no blanket aircraft type rating associated with the flight engineer licence. The licence must be endorsed with an individual type rating for each and every model ("type") of aeroplane for which a person is to act as a flight engineer ("see also" Flight engineer rating). Upon earning the flight engineer licence, the flight engineer rating for the aeroplane type used by a person for training and qualification is simultaneously issued by Transport Canada.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_37 421.37] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for a flight engineer licence. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Minimum age: 18 years
*Medical fitness
**Standard ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/t42402.htm CARs standard 424 "Physical and Mental Requirement"] )
***Category 1 "or"
***Category 2
*Knowledge
**Have successfully completed an approved training regimen with respect to the aircraft type for which a flight engineer rating is to be simultaneously issued
**A minimum grade of 60% on the Transport Canada FLENG examination. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp4381/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide - Flight Engineer Licence - Aeroplane" (TP 4381)] .
*Experience
**Where a person does "not" hold a commercial pilot licence—aeroplane or higher
***A minimum of 100 hours flight engineer experience time under the supervision of a qualified flight engineer or second officer "including"
****A maximum of 50 hours simulated flight engineer experience time
**Where a person holds a commercial pilot licence—aeroplane or higher
***A minimum of 50 hours flight engineer experience time under the supervision of a qualified flight engineer or second officer "including"
****A maximum of 25 hours simulated flight engineer experience time
*Skill
**There is no formal practical examination required to earn the flight engineer licence. However, the student must demonstrate the skill appropriate to the licence and associated rating to a qualified flight engineer, second officer, chief pilot or flight examiner.

"Note:" Where a person holds a commercial pilot licence—aeroplane or higher as well as a second officer rating for the aircraft type used for training and qualification, a minimum of 50 hours flight engineer experience time is deemed to have met all knowledge, skill and experience requirements.

Applicable endorsements

*Flight engineer rating----

Ratings

Aircraft type ratings - blanket

Aeroplanes

Aeroplane class ratings

Aeroplane class ratings are specific to fixed-wing aircraft, as opposed to aircraft type ratings which may pertain to other types of aircraft such as a helicopter or an airship.

Seaplane rating

Landplane rating

Multi-engine rating

Multi-engine centre line thrust rating

----

Gliders

Motor-driven touring

----

Balloons

----

Ultra-light aeroplanes

Advanced ultra-light aeroplanes

----

Gyroplanes )

----

Aircraft type ratings - individual

Aeroplanes

Two crew

Two crew—restricted to cruise relief pilot duties only

High performance aeroplane

VSO >= 80 knots or VNE >= 250 knots

Flight engineer

Second officer

----

Helicopters

One pilot

Two pilots

----

Balloons

Airship or powered balloon

----

Gyroplanes (two-seat)

----

Flight crew ratings

Night rating

The night rating allows a pilot-in-command (PIC) to fly at night but in visual meteorological conditions (VMC). [Even in the darkness of night a pilot may fly and navigate using visual references to the ground. This is different from instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) where the pilot flies and maintains situational awareness strictly by using instruments and avionics.]

The night rating applies to the following permits and licences:

*Gyroplane pilot permit
*Balloon pilot licence
*Private pilot licence—aeroplane
*Private pilot licence—helicopter

Note that for the commercial and airline pilot licences (aeroplane) it is expected that the night rating will have already been earned. If not, a restricted licence may be issued by Transport Canada that restricts the pilot to daylight flying ( [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_30 CARs 421.30 (6)] ).

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_42 421.42] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements for a night rating. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

Private pilot licence—aeroplane "and"

Private pilot licence—helicopter "and"

Gyroplane pilot permit

The experience and skill requirements for the night rating are the same for holders of the private pilot licence—aeroplane, private pilot licence—helicopter, and gyroplane pilot permit.

*Experience
**A minimum of 20 hours total flight time "including"
***A minimum of 10 hours night flight time "including"
****A minimum of 5 hours dual night flight time "including"
*****A minimum of 2 hours dual night cross-country flight time
****"and"
****A minimum of 5 hours solo night flight time "including"
*****A minimum of 10 takeoffs and landings
***"and"
***A minimum of 10 hours dual instrument time "including"
****A maximum of 5 hours instrument ground time

*Skill
**The student must demonstrate the skill specified in and in accordance with the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/general/Flttrain/planes/Pubs/TP975/menu.htm "Flight Instructor Guide—Aeroplane" (TP 975)] in a qualifying flight conducted by a flight instructor.

Balloon pilot licence

*Experience
**A minimum of 1 dual night ascent
**A minimum of 1 solo night ascent
**A minimum of 4 hours dual night flight time

*Skill
**The night flying training under the supervision of a qualified flight instructor—balloon is sufficient in order to earn the night rating endorsement for the balloon pilot licence.----

VFR-Over-the-Top rating

The VFR-Over-the-Top (VFR OTT) rating allows a pilot daylight flying of an aircraft above and between cloud layers—without visual reference to the ground—with flight rules as specified by [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/PART6/602.htm#602_116 CARs 602.116] . The essence of 602.116 is that a pilot must takeoff from an aerodrome in normal VMC and VFR and must likewise land at the destination aerodrome with the same conditions. The cruise flight in between may be flown using the privilege of the special VFR OTT flight rules; namely, that the pilot-in-command need not continually maintain a visual reference to the ground as per normal VFR.

This rating is in essence an intermediary step between piloting privileges that allow only for VFR flying and a full instrument rating. As such, this rating is automatically issued by Transport Canada upon request of a pilot who has already earned an instrument rating.

The VFR OTT rating applies to the following licences:

*Private pilot—aeroplane
*Private pilot—helicopter
*Commercial pilot—helicopter
*Airline transport pilot—helicopter

Earning the rating for a licence in the aeroplane category also earns the rating for the helicopter category and "vice versa".

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_44 421.44] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements in order to earn a VFR OTT rating. The CARs contain further detail and is summarized as follows:

*Knowledge
**There is no Transport Canada written examination to earn this rating. The student must demonstrate to a qualified flight instructor the knowledge specified in and in accordance with the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/flttrain/PLANES/Pubs/TP12775/menu.htm "Instructor Guide — VFR Over-the-Top Rating" (TP 12775)] .

*Experience
**A minimum of 15 hours dual instrument flight time "including"
***A maximum of 5 hours instrument ground time

*Skill
**There is no Transport Canada practical examination to earn this rating. The student must demonstrate to a qualified flight instructor the skill specified in and in accordance with the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/flttrain/PLANES/Pubs/TP12775/menu.htm "Instructor Guide — VFR Over-the-Top Rating" (TP 12775)] .----

Instrument rating

The instrument rating allows a PIC to fly day or night in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), for example when cloud layers obscure the pilot's view of the ground. An instrument rated pilot is able to fly and maintain situational awareness strictly by using instruments and avionics. This rating is one of the more involved ratings to be earned and is a major step toward earning more advanced licences such as an airline transport pilot licence—aeroplane. The specific privileges of an instrument rating are in accordance with instrument flight rules (IFR) and as detailed in the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part6/602.htm#602_121 CARs (602.121)] .

The rating may only be exercised with that group of aircraft to which flying under IFR is applicable. That is, an aircraft may only be operated as specified by its flight authority. As such, only aircraft with a flight authority certifying IFR operations may be flown under IFR, and only by a pilot with an instrument rating in hand. Moreover, an instrument rating is often combined with other ratings to form a set of piloting privileges. For example, the multi-engine rating is required in addition to an instrument rating to fly a multi-engined aircraft under instrument flight rules.

Note that a VFR-Over-the-Top rating is implicit in an instrument rating and is issued automatically by Transport Canada upon request.

The instrument rating applies to the following licences:

*Private pilot licence—aeroplane
*Private pilot licence—helicopter
*Commercial pilot licence—aeroplane
*Commercial pilot licence—helicopter

The requirements for an instrument rating are the same for both a private pilot licence—aeroplane and a private pilot licence—helicopter. However, note that helicopters certified for operations in IMC are generally complex multi-crew multi-engine aircraft. As such, a helicopter instrument rating is generally practicable only in conjunction with other ratings. Transport Canada issues distinct instrument ratings for each of the following four groups of aircraft types dependent upon the nature of the training for the instrument rating and the associated flight test.

Four classes of instrument ratings issued by Transport Canada
Training inInstrument rating valid for
Group 1Multi-engine aeroplaneAll aeroplanes
Group 2Multi-engine center line thrust aeroplaneMulti-engine centre line thrust aeroplanes and
single engine aeroplanes
Group 3Single engine aeroplaneSingle engine aeroplanes
Group 4HelicopterAll helicopters

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_46 421.46] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements in order to earn an instrument rating. The CARs contain further detail on how the quantities below may be combined and are summarized as follows:

*Knowledge
**A minimum grade of 70% on the Transport Canada INRAT examination. ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp691/Menu.htm "Study and Reference Guide for the Written Examination for the Instrument Rating Aeroplane and Helicopter" (TP 691)] ).

*Experience
**A minimum of 50 hours of cross-country flight as a PIC
**A minimum of 40 hours of instrument flight time "including"
***A maximum of 20 hours of the instrument flight time may be instrument ground time
***A minimum of 5 hours of dual instrument flight time with a flight instructor
***A minimum of 15 hours dual instrument flight time with a flight instructor or an experienced pilot with an instrument rating
***A minimum of 5 hours flight time in the pertinent group class of aircraft ("see above")
***A minimum of 1 dual cross-country flight under actual or simulated IMC conditions

*Skill
**The student must demonstrate the skill specified in and in accordance with the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/flttrain/planes/Pubs/TP9939/menu.htm "Flight Test Guide - Instrument Rating" (TP 9939)] in a flight test conducted by a pilot examiner - aeroplane or pilot examiner - helicopter ("as applicable"). ("See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14277/Instrument.htm "Pilot Examiner Manual - Instrument Rating" (TP 14277)] ).
**"also"
**Successfully complete a Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC) for operations under IFR in accordance with the CARs. This entails:
***CARs Part VI
***"or (as applicable)"
***CARs Part VII "Commercial Air Services" Standard 722 "Aerial Work"
****"Pilot Proficiency Check—Aeroplane" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part7/Standards/a72201.htm (722.65 - Schedule I)]
****"or (as applicable)"
****"Pilot Proficiency Check—Helicopter" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part7/Standards/a72202.htm (722.65 - Schedule II)]
***"or"
***A Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) from an approved Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) is considered to have met the Part VI or Part VII PPC.----

Second officer rating

The second officer rating applies to the following licences:

*Commercial pilot licence—aeroplane
*Airline transport pilot licence—aeroplane

----

Passenger-carrying—ultra-light aeroplane rating

Transport Canada defines two general types of ultra-light aeroplane. The basic ultra-light aeroplane (BULA)'s flight authority does not allow for any passenger carrying capacity. The advanced ultra-light aeroplane (AULA) type has stricter requirements and includes the capacity to carry a single passenger if the PIC has an ultra-light pilot permit endorsed with this rating.

The passenger-carrying—ultra-light aeroplane rating applies only to the ultra-light pilot permit. Pilots with a recreational pilot permit—aeroplane or private pilot licence—aeroplane are deemed to have already acquired the necessary skills implicit in this rating.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/Standards/421.htm#421_55 421.55] of the CARs standard "Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings" specifies the requirements in order to earn a passenger-carrying—ultra-light aeroplane rating. The CARs contain further detail and is summarized as follows:

*Experience
**A minimum of 25 hours flight time under the supervision of a qualified flight instructor "including"
***A minimum of 15 hours dual flight time "including"
****A minimum of 2 hours dual cross-country flight time
***"and"
***A minimum of 5 hours solo flight time

*Skill
**The student must demonstrate the skill specified in and in accordance with the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/publications/tp13984/menu.htm "Flight Test Guide - Ultra-light Aeroplane" (TP 13984)] in a flight test conducted by a pilot examiner - ultra-light aeroplane. "See also" [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14277/Ultra/menu.htm "Pilot Examiner Manual - Ultra-light Aeroplane" TP 14277] .----

Aerobatic rating

There is no "de jure" aerobatic rating in Canada. Any pilot may conduct aerobatic maneuvers within the regulations of the CARs and the capabilities of the aircraft used. Nonetheless, it is commonly understood that conducting aerobatic maneuvers without relevant training is inherently dangerous.

Section [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/PART6/602.htm#602_28 602.28] of the CARs prescribes regulations concerning the carrying of a passenger while performing aerobatic maneuvers. These regulations pertain to required experience that a pilot must possess. The required level of experience is a regulation that must be adhered to, but does not constitute an explicit rating. In order to carry a passenger while conducting aerobatic maneuvers, one option 602.28 allows for is dual instruction with a flight instructor possessing the flight instructor—aeroplane-aerobatic rating.----

Flight instructor ratings

Flight instructor—aeroplane rating

Flight instructor—aeroplane rating - Class 4

Flight instructor—aeroplane rating - Class 3

Flight instructor—aeroplane rating - Class 2

Flight instructor—aeroplane rating - Class 1

----

Flight instructor—aeroplane-aerobatic rating

Flight instructor—aeroplane-aerobatic rating - Class 2

Flight instructor—aeroplane-aerobatic rating - Class 1

----

Flight instructor—helicopter rating

Flight instructor—helicopter rating - Class 4

Flight instructor—helicopter rating - Class 3

Flight instructor—helicopter rating - Class 2

Flight instructor—helicopter rating - Class 1

----

Flight instructor—gyroplane rating

----

Flight instructor—balloon rating

[http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/Exams/guides/tp10087/Menu.htm Flight instructor—balloon TP 10087] ----

Flight instructor—glider rating

----

Flight instructor—glider-aerobatic rating

----

Flight instructor—ultra-light aeroplane rating

----

Foreign licensing

Conversion between U.S. and Canadian pilot licences

As of 2006-12-01 Canadian pilots who hold certain pilot licences will be able to convert those licences into FAA Certificates with greater ease than is possible today. Similarly, American pilots who hold certain pilot certificates will be able to convert those certificates into Canadian licences. [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/general/personnel/USConversion.htm Further information] is available from the Transport Canada Web site, including the [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/general/personnel/USConversion/AppendixA.htm conditions for conversion] .

See also

*Flight training in Canada
*Pilot licensing in the United Kingdom
*Pilot certification in the United States
*Pilot licensing and certification

External links

* [http://www.icao.int International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)]
* [http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/Regserv/Affairs/cars/Part4/menu.htm Canadian Aviation Regulations—Personnel Licensing and Training]
* [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/general/personnel/faq.htm Transport Canada Personnel Licensing FAQ]
* [http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/menu.htm Transport Canada Civil Aviation]

References


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