Timeline of jet power
This article outlines some of the important developments in the early history of the development of the
jet engine. Although the most common type, the gas turbine powered jet engine, was certainly a 20th century invention, many of the needed advances in theory and technology leading to this invention were made well before this time.
The jet engine was clearly an idea whose time had come. In the mid-to-late 1930s there were six teams in the midst of developing their own independent ideas, three in
Germany, two in the UK and one in Hungary. By 1942 they had been joined by another half dozen British companies, three more in the United Statesand early efforts in the Soviet Unionand Japan. For some time after the World War II, British designs dominated practically all efforts, but by the 1950s jet technology was already a well understood and robust industry.
* 1st century:
Aeolipileby Hero of Alexandriasteam jet/rocket engine on a bearing
* 12th Century: rocket jet power used for weaponry by Chinese
The leadup (1791-1931)
John Barberreceives British patent #1833 for "A Method for Rising Inflammable Air for the Purposes of Producing Motion and Facilitating Metallurgical Operations". In it he describes a turbine.
Charles Algernon Parsonspatents the steam turbine. In the patent application he notes that the turbine could be driven "in reverse" to act as a compressor. He suggests using a compressor to feed air into a furnace, and a turbine to extract power to run the compressor. Although intended for factory use, he is clearly describing the gas turbine.
Gustaf de Lavalintroduces nozzles design of small steam turbines.
Sanford Mosspublishes a paper on turbocompressors. He builds and runs a testbed example in 1903.
Ægidius Ellingbuilds a gas turbine using a centrifugal compressorwhich runs under its own power. By most definitions, this is the first working gas turbine.
* 1903-1906: The team of Armengaud and Lemale in
Francebuild a complete gas turbine engine. It uses three separate compressors driven by a single turbine. Limits on the turbine temperatures allow for only a 3:1 compression ratio, and the turbine is not based on a Parsons-like "fan", but a Pelton wheel-like arrangement. The engine is so inefficient, at about 3% thermal efficiency, that the work is abandoned.
Hans Holzwarthstarts work on extensive research on an "explosive cycle" gas turbine, based on the Otto cycle. This design burns fuel at a constant volume and is somewhat more efficient. By 1927, when the work ended, he has reached about 13% thermal efficiency.
René Lorinpatents a design for the ramjetengine.
* 1909: Marconnt proposes a modification of Lorin's design using a resonant compression chamber, creating the
Henri Coandăbuilds and flies the world's first jet powered aircraft, the Coanda-1910. It uses an engine-powered compressor mounted in a short duct. Efficiency is low and he abandons the concept, although his studies of burning resulted in the discovery of the Coanda effect. Although this is the first design to be powered by a jet of air, it does not get its power from a gas turbine and is thus not a "jet engine" in the current meaning of the term.
Auguste Rateausuggests using exhaust-powered compressors to improve high-altitude performance, the first example of the turbocharger.
Sanford Mossstarts work on turbochargers at General Electric, which goes on to be the world leader in this technology.
* 1917: J.S. Harris patents a "Motor Jet" design, similar to
* 1920: W.J. Stern reports to the
Royal Air Forcethat there is no future for the turbine engine in aircraft. He bases his argument on the extremely low efficiency of existing compressor designs. Stern's paper is so convincing there is little official interest in gas turbine engines anywhere, although this does not last long.
* 1921: Maxime Guillaume patents the
axial-flowturbine engine. It uses multiple stages in both the compressor and turbine, combined with a single very large combustion chamber. Although sightly different in form, the design is significantly similar to future jet engines in operation.
Edgar Buckinghamat the United States National Bureau of Standardspublishes a report on jets, coming to the same conclusion as W.J. Stern, that the turbine engine is not efficient enough. In particular he notes that a jet would use five times as much fuel as a piston engine. [http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19930091225_1993091225.pdf]
* 1925: Wilhelm Pape patents a constant-volume engine design.
Alan Arnold Griffithpublishes his groundbreaking paper "Aerodynamic Theory of Turbine Design", changing the low confidence in jet engines. In it he demonstrates that existing compressors are "flying stalled", and that major improvements can be made by redesigning the blades from a flat profile into an airfoil, going on to mathematically demonstrate that a practical engine is definitely possible and showing how to build a turboprop.
Aurel Stodolapublishes his "Steam and Gas Turbines" - basic reference for jet propulsion enginers in the USA.
* 1927: A testbed single-shaft turbocompressor based on Griffith's blade design is tested at the
Royal Aircraft Establishment. Known as "Anne", the tests are successful and plans are made to build a complete compressor-turbine assembly known as "Betty".
Frank Whittle's thesis on future aircraft design is published. In it he talks about the needs for high-speed flight and the use of motorjets as the only reasonable solution to the problem of propeller efficiency.
* 1930: Whittle realizes that the compressor of a motorjet could be powered by the turbine, and quickly designs a complete jet engine, passing it to the
Air Ministry. They pass the paper to Griffiths, who says the idea is impracticable, pointing out a mathematical error, noting the low efficiency of his design, and stating that Whittle's use of a centrifugal compressorwould make his proposal useless for aircraft applications.
* 1930: Whittle receives official notice that the
Air Ministryis not interested in his concepts, and that they don't even feel that it is worthy of making secret. He is devastated, but friends in the Royal Air Forceconvince him to patentthe idea anyway. This turns out to be a major stroke of luck, because if the Air Ministry had made the idea secret, they would have become the official owners of the rights to the concept.
* 1930: Schmidt patents a pulsejet engine in Germany.
Secondo Campinipatents his motorjetengine, referring to it as a thermojet.
First steps (1933-1938)
Hans von Ohainwrites his thesis at the University of Goettingen, describing an engine almost identical to Frank Whittle's with the exception that it uses a centrifugal "fan" as the turbine as well as the compressor.
* 1934: von Ohain hires a local mechanic,
Max Hahn, to build his a prototype of his engine design at Hahn's garage.
Secondo Campinistarts work on the Campini Caproni CC.2, based on his "thermojet" engine.
* 1935: Whittle allows his patent to lapse after finding himself unable to pay the £5 renewal fee. Soon afterward he is approached by several ex-RAF men with a proposal to set up a company to develop his design and
Power Jets, Ltd is created.
* 1936: von Ohain is introduced to
Ernst Heinkelby a former professor. After being grilled by Heinkel engineers for hours, they conclude his idea is genuine. Heinkel hires von Ohain and Hahn, setting them up at their Rostock-area factory.
* 1936: Junkers starts work on axial-flow
turbopropdesigns under the direction of Herbert Wagnerand Adolf Müeller.
Junkers Motoren(Jumo) is merged with Junkers, formerly separate companies.
* 1936: A stationary gas turbine is installed at the Sun Oil refinery in
Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania
* 1936: French engineer
René Leduc, having independently re-discovered René Lorin's design, successfully demonstrates the world's first operating ramjet. The Armée de l'Airorders a prototype aircraft, the Leduc 010, a few months later.
* March, 1937: The
Heinkel HeS 1experimental hydrogenfueled centrifugalengine is tested at Hirth.
* April, 1937: Whittle's experimental centrifugal engine is tested at the
British Thomson-Houstonplant in Rugby
* September, 1937: von Ohain's
Heinkel HeS 1is converted to run on gasoline. Ernst Heinkelgives the go-ahead to develop a flight-quality engine and a testbed aircraft to put it in.
Hayne Constant, Griffith's partner at the RAE, starts negotiations with Metropolitan-Vickers(Metrovick), a British heavy industry firm, to develop a Griffith-style turboprop.
* 1937: At Junkers, Wagner and Müller decide to re-design their work as a pure jet.
* 1938: Metrovick receives a contract from the
Air Ministryto start work with Constant.
György Jendrassikstarts work on a turboprop engine of his own design.
* April, 1938:
Hans Mauchtakes over the RLM rocket development office. He expands the charter of his office and starts a massive jet development project, under Helmut Schelp. Mauch spurns Heinkeland Junkers, concentrating only on the "big four" engine companies, Daimler-Benz, BMW, Jumoand Bramo. Mauch and Schelp visit all four over the next few months, and find them uninterested in the jet concept.
* 1938: A small team at
BMWled by Hermann Östrichbuilds and flies a simple thermojet. They turn to true jet engine design almost immediatey.
* 1938: The
Heinkel He 178V1 jet testbed is completed, awaiting an engine.
* 1938: The
Heinkel HeS 3"flight quality" engine is tested. This is the first truly usable jet engine. The engine flies on a Heinkel He 118later that year, eventually becoming the first aircraft to be powered by jet power alone. This engine is tested until it burns out after a few months, and a second is readied for flight.
* 1938: Wagner's
axial-flowengine is tested at Junkers.
Messerschmittstarts the preliminary design of a twin-engine jet fighter under the direction of Waldermar Voight. This work develops into the Messerschmitt Me 262.
* A stationary gas turbine is installed in a new electrical generating plant in
* A 2,200
horsepowergas turbine is built by Asea Brown Boveriand used to power an experimental trainin Switzerland.
* BMW's team led by
Hermann Östrichtests their axial-flow design.
Bramostarts work on two axial-flowdesigns, the P.3301and P.3302. The P.3301 is similar to Griffith's contrarotating designs, the P.3302 using a simpler compressor/stator system.
* Bramo is bought out by
BMW, who abandon their own jet project under Östrich, placing him in charge of Bramo's efforts.
Jumois awarded a contract to develop an axial-flowengine, starting work under Anselm Franz. Müller decamps with half the team to Heinkel.
Frank Whittle's patent drawing for his engine is published in the German magazine Flugsport.
* August: Heinkel He 178 V1 flies for the first time, powered by the HeS 3B.This is the first jet powered aircraft.
* September: A team from the
Air Ministryvisits Power Jets once again, but this time Frank Whittledemonstrates a jet engine at full power for a continuous 20-minute run. They are extremely impressed, and immediately offer contracts to Whittle to develop a flyable design, and production contracts are offered to practically every engine company in England. These companies also set up their own design efforts, making the possibility of financial rewards for Power Jets slim.
* September: The Air Ministry also contracts
Glosterto build an experimental airframe for testing Whittle's engines, the Gloster E.28/39
* After hearing of Whittle's successful demonstration, Hayne Constant realizes that exhaust thrust is practical. The Metrovick efforts are immediately reworked into a turbojet design, the
* November: Müller's team restarts work on their
axial-flowdesign at Heinkel, now known as the Heinkel HeS 30.
René Anxionnazof France's Rateaucompany received a patenton an advanced jet design incorporating bypass.
* Leist joins
Dailmer-Benzand starts work on an advanced contra-roating turbofandesign, the DB 6001
* A shakeup at the RLM's engine division places
Helmut Schelpin control, and results in development contracts for all existing engine designs. The designs are also given consistent naming, the Heinkel HeS 8 becoming the 109-001, the HeS 30 the -006, BMW's efforts the -002 and -003, and Jumo's the -004. Porsche's project becomes the -005, although work never starts on it. DB gets -007. Numbers starting in the 20s are saved for turboprops, and 500 and up for rockets.
Campini Caproni CC.2flies for first time. The flights were highly publicized, and for many years the Italianswere credited with having the first jet powered aircraft.
* NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) starts work on a CC.2 like motorjet for assisted takeoffs, and they later design an aircraft based on it. This work ends in 1943 when turbojets start to mature, and rockets take over the role of
JATO, or jet assisted takeoff.
* von Ohain's larger
Heinkel HeS 8(-001) engine is tested.
* BMW's P.3302 (-003) axial-flow engine is tested
* September: Glider testing of the
Heinkel He 280twin-jet fighter begins, while it waits for the HeS 8 to mature.
Henry Tizardvisits the United Statesto show them many of the advanced technologies they are working on, becoming known as the Tizard Mission. Among many other details, Tizard first mentions their work on jet engines.
* October: Rover is selected to build the flight-quality Power Jets W.1. They set up shop at a disused mill in
Barnoldswick, but also set up a parallel effort at another factory in Clitheroestaffed entirely by their own engineers. Frank Whittleis incensed.
* November: The
Junkers Jumo 004axial-flow engine is tested.
Gloster Aircraft Company's proposal for a twin-engine jet fighter is accepted, becoming the Gloster Meteor.
* December: Whittle's flight-quality W.1X runs for the first time.
Lockheed Corporationstarts work on the L-1000 axial-flow engine, the United States's first jet design.
Northrop Corporationstarts work on the T-37 "Turbodyne", the United States's first turboprop. design.
* After only two years of development, the
Jendrassik Cs-1turboprop engine is tested. Designed to produce 1,000 horsepower, combustion problems limit it to only convert|400|hp when it first runs. Similar problems plagued early Whittle designs, but help was immediately available from the rest of the industry. It appears György Jendrassikhad no similar talent pool to draw on.
* February: The
Air Ministryplaces an order for 12 Gloster Meteor.
* February: NACA starts testing their "Propulsive duct engine", a
ramjet, unaware of earlier similar efforts. Since ramjets need to be moving in order to work, NACA engineers take the simple step of mounting it at the end of a long arm and spinning it.
* April: The He 280 flies under its own power for first time, powered by two
Heinkel HeS 8(-001) engines. The HeS 8's continue to have reliability issues.
* May: The
Gloster E.28/39flies for the first time. Over the next few weeks, the top speed soon passes any existing propeller aircraft.
Heinkel HeS 30(-006) axial-flow engine runs for first time.
General Electricis awarded a USAAF contract to develop a turbopropengine, leading to the TG-100 / TG-31 / XT-31 series, and later the J35.
* Work on the Jendrassik Cs-1 ends. Intended to power a twin-engine
heavy fighter, the factory is selected to produce Daimler-Benz DB 605engines under license for the Messerschmitt Me 210instead.
* October: A Power Jets W.2B is sent to General Electric to start production in the US.
Sandford Mossis lured out of retirement to help on the project.
Switzerlandturbine-powered trainenters testing.
Metrovick F.2is tested.
* Work on the BMW 002 is stopped as it is proving too complex. Work continues on the 003.
* Work on the HeS 8 (-001) and HeS 30 (-006) is stopped, although the later appears to be reaching production quality. Heinkel is ordered to continue on the more advanced
Heinkel HeS 011.
Messerschmitt Me 262flies for the first time, powered by a Junkers Jumo 211piston engine in the nose. The BMW 003has been selected to power the production versions, but is not yet ready for flight tests. The design, offering more internal fuel capacity than the He 280, is selected over its now 003-powered competitor for production.
* A Jumo 004 flies, fitted to a
Daimler-Benz 007 axial-flowengine is tested, similar to Griffith's "contraflow" design that uses two contra-rotating compressor stages for added efficiency.
* The "production-quality" BMW 003 is first tested.
* July 18, 1942: The
Messerschmitt Me 262flies for the first time under jet power.This is the first jet powered fighter aircraft.
Frank Whittlevisits the United States to help with General Electric's efforts to build the W.1. The engine is running soon after, known as the "General Electric Type 1", and later as the I-16, referring to the convert|1600|lbf|abbr=on thrust. They also start work on an improved version, the I-40, with convert|4000|lbf|kN|abbr=on thrust. The majority of United States jet engines from this time through the mid-1950s are licensed versions of British designs.
* Whittle returns to Power Jets and starts development of the improved Power Jets W.2/500 and /700 engines, so named for their thrust in kilograms-force (kgf).
* Westinghouse starts work on an axial-flow engine design, the WE-19.
* October: The Bell XP-59 flies, powered by a General Electric Type I-A (W.1).
Fieseler Fi 103"V-1" pulsejetpowered cruise missileflies for the first time.
Armstrong Siddeleystarts work on an axial-flow design, the ASX.
* December: After meeting held at a pub, Rover agrees to hand over the jet development to Rolls-Royce, in exchange for their
Rolls-Royce Meteortank engine factory.
January 1: Rolls takes over the Rover plants, although the official date is several months later. Stanley Hookerleads a team including Fred Morley, Arthur Rubbraand Harry Pearson. Several Rover engineers decide to stay on as well, including Adrian Lombard, leader of Rover's "offshoot" design team. They focus on making the W.2B production quality as soon as possible.
* After only a few short months at Rolls, the W.2B/23, soon to be known as the
Rolls-Royce Welland, starts production.
* The parallel Rover design effort, the W.2B/26, is tested. It becomes the
de Havilland Goblinengine is tested, similar in most ways to the Derwent.
* March: A license for the Goblin is taken out in the
United Statesby Allis-Chalmers, later becoming the J36. Lockheed is awarded a contract to develop what would become the P-80 Shooting Star, powered by this engine.
* Production of Jumo 004B starts.
* Production of BMW 003A starts.
* First running turbofan the German
Daimler-Benz DB 670(aka 109-007) operated on its testbed on April 1 1943
* Throughout 1943, the Jumo 004 and BMW 003 continue to destroy themselves at an alarming rate due to turbine failures. Efforts in the
United Kingdom, at one point years behind due to official indifference, have now caught up due to the availability of high temperature alloys which allowed for considerably more reliable high-heat sections of their designs.
* Design work on the
* The US decides to rename all existing jet projects with a single numbering scheme. The L-1000 becomes the J37, GE's Type I the J31, and Westinghouse's WE-19 the J30. Newer projects are fitted into the remaining "30's".
Turbopropdesigns become the T series, also starting at 30.
* September: Allis-Chalmers runs into difficulty on the J36, and the Shooting Star project is re-engined with the
General Electric J33, a licensed version of the W.2B/26, or Rolls-Royce Derwent. GE later modifies the design to produce over twice the thrust, at convert|4000|lbf|kN|abbr=on.
Frank Whittle's W.2B/700 engine is tested, fitted to a Vickers WellingtonMk II bomber.
* March: Westinghouse's X19A axial-flow engine is bench tested at convert|1165|lbf|abbr=on.
Miles Aircrafttest an all-moving tailplane as part of the Miles M.52 supersonicresearch aircraft design effort.
* A Welland-powered prototype
* The Goblin-powered
de Havilland Vampireflies.
Lyul'kaVDR-2 axial-flow engine tested, the first Sovietjet design.
General Electric J31, their version of the W.2B/23, is tested.
* November: The Metrovick F.2 is tested on a modified
Gloster Meteor. Although more powerful, smaller and more fuel efficient than the Welland, the design is judged too complex and failure prone. In his quest for perfection, Griffith instead delivers an impractical design. Work continues on a larger version with an additional compressor stage that over doubles the power.
* The Armstrong Siddeley ASX is tested.
BMWtests the 003R, a 003 with an additional rocket engine for boost on takeoff and combat.
Stanley Hookervisits General Electricand is alarmed by the success of their team in improving the power of the Derwent as the I-40. He decides that their team at Rolls-Royce should beat them and produce an even more powerful engine. In a short 6-month period they design and build the Rolls-Royce Neneat convert|5000|lbf|kN|abbr=on, but it sees only limited use in the United Kingdom.
* April: With internal design efforts underway at most engine companies, Power Jets have little possibility of profitability, and are nationalized, becoming a pure research lab as the "National Gas Turbine Establishment".
* June: Design work on a gas turbine engine for powering tanks begins under the direction of Müller, who left
Heinkelin 1942. The first such system, the GT 101, is completed in November and fit to a Panther tankfor testing.
* June: A Derwent II engine is modified with an additional turbine stage powering a gearbox and five-bladed propeller. The resulting RB.50, or
Rolls-Royce Trent, is not further developed, but is test flown on a modified Gloster Meteor.
Junkers Ju 287jet bomber is tested.
BMW 018engine is tested. Work ends soon after when the entire tooling and parts supply are destroyed in a bombing raid.
Junkers Jumo 012engine is tested, it stands as the most powerful engine in the world for some time, at convert|6600|lbf|abbr=on.
* The J35, a development of an earlier
turbopropeffort, runs for the first time.
* Ford builds a copy of the V-1's engine, known as the PJ-31-1.
Ishikawajima Ne-20first runs in Japan. Originally intending to build a direct copy of the BMW003, the plans never arrived and the Japanese engineers instead built an entirely new design based on a single cutaway image and several photographs.
Doblhof WNF-4flies, the first ramjetpowered helicopter.
* April 5: The nearly-complete prototype of the
Leduc 010 ramjet-powered aircraft, under construction at the Montaudranairfield near Toulouse, Franceunbeknownst to German occupation authorities, is heavily damaged by a Royal Air Forcebombing raid.
* April: The
Messerschmitt Me 262first enters combat service Germany.
* June: The
Messerschmitt Me 262enters squadron service in Germany.
* July: The
Gloster Meteorenters squadron service in the United Kingdom.
* An effort starts in Germany to build a simple jet fighter, the "Volksjäger". The contract is eventually won by the
Heinkel He 162, to be powered by the BMW 003.
* December: Northrop's T-37
turbopropis tested. The design never matures and work is later stopped in the late 1940s.
Stanley Hookerscales the Nene down to Gloster Meteorsize, producing the RB.37, also referred to, confusingly, as the Derwent V. A Derwent V powered Meteor sets the world speed record at 606 mph at the end of the year. This performance is so outstanding that immediate development of more powerful engines is considered unimportant.
Junkers 022 turbopropruns.
afterburnerequipped Jumo 004 is tested.
Lyul'ka VDR-3axial-flow engine tested.
Lyul'ka TR-1axial-flow engine tested.
* The RB.39
Rolls-Royce Clydeturboprop runs, combining axial and centrifugal stages in the compressor. It is considered too complex to bother with.
Avia S-92, a version of the Me 262, is built in Czechoslovakia.
* January: A dispirited
Frank Whittleresigns from what is left of Power Jets. Gradually the company is broken up, with only a small part remaining to administer its patents.
* Development of the
Rolls-Royce Dartstarts. The Dart would go on to become one of the most popular turbopropengines made, with over 7,000 being produced before the production lines finally shut down in 1990.
* April 21: The
Leduc 010, the world's first ramjetpowered aircraft, finally completes its maiden flight in Toulouse, France. The aircraft's rate of climb exceeds that of the best contemporary turbojetpowered fighters.
* late 1950
Rolls-Royce Conwaythe worlds first production turbofanenters service, significantly improving fuel efficiency and paving the way for further improvements
TF39 high bypass turbofanenters service delivering greater thrust and much better efficiency
X-15rocket plane flys at more than 50 miles altitude at more than 3000 mph.
HyShotscramjet ignited and operated
Hyper-Xfirst scramjet to maintain altitude
Hyper-Xfirst airbreathing (scram)jet to attain mach 10
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Timeline of steam power — See Steam engine, Steam power during the Industrial Revolution. Steam power developed slowly over a period of several hundred years, progressing through expensive and fairly limited devices in the early 1600s, to useful pumps for mining in 1700,… … Wikipedia
Jet engine — For a general overview of aircraft engines, see Aircraft engine. A Pratt Whitney F100 turbofan engine for the … Wikipedia
Jet Airways — Infobox Airline airline = Jet Airways logo size =300 fleet size = 84 (+ 48 Orders) destinations = 64 IATA = 9W ICAO = JAI callsign = JET AIRWAYS parent = Tailwinds Limited company slogan = The Joy of Flying founded = 1993 frequent flyer = Jet… … Wikipedia
Timeline of hydrogen technologies — A timeline of the history of hydrogen technology.Timeline1600s* 1625 First description of hydrogen by Johann Baptista van Helmont. First to use the word gas . * 1650 Turquet de Mayerne obtained by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on iron a gas … Wikipedia
Timeline of nuclear fusion — Timeline of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion:*1929 Atkinson and Houtermans used the measured masses of low mass elements and applied Einstein s discovery that E=mc2 to predict that large amounts of energy could be… … Wikipedia
Timeline of the War in Darfur — Timeline The starting point of the conflict in the Darfur region is typically said to be 26 February 2003, when a group calling itself the Darfur Liberation Front (DLF) publicly claimed credit for an attack on Golo, the headquarters of Jebel… … Wikipedia
Timeline of largest projects in the Russian economy — Moscow International Business Center under construction … Wikipedia
Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under Hosni Mubarak's rule — This article is about timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution before Hosni Mubarak s resignation. For subsequent events, see Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. Main article: Timeline of the 2011… … Wikipedia
Timeline of the 2008 South Ossetia war — The 2008 South Ossetia war started on August 7, 2008 and involves Georgia, Russian Federation, South Ossetia and Abkhazia.Military conflict TimelineThe tensions have been escalating through the year of 2008, but the countdown to the open… … Wikipedia
Timeline for aircraft carrier service — Aircraft carriers have their origins during the days of World War I. Based on the first faltering steps made during that war, no one then could have imagined how important the aircraft carrier was to prove to be. Japan, the United Kingdom and the … Wikipedia