John Jewel (sometimes spelled Jewell) (
May 24, 1522- September 23, 1571), was an English bishop of Salisbury.
He was the son of John Jewel of Buden,
Devon, was educated under his uncle John Bellamy, rector of Hampton, and other private tutors until his matriculation at Merton College, Oxford, in July 1535.
There he was taught by
John Parkhurst, afterwards bishop of Norwich; but on August 19, 1539he was elected scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He graduated BA in 1540, and MA in 1545, having been elected fellow of his college in 1542. He made some mark as a teacher at Oxford, and became after 1547 one of the chief disciples of Pietro Martire Vermigli, known in England as Peter Martyr. He graduated BD in 1552, and was made vicar of Sunningwell, and public orator of the university, in which capacity he had to compose a congratulatory epistle to Mary on her accession. In April 1554 he acted as notary to Cranmer and Ridley at their disputation, but in the autumn he signed a series of Catholic articles. He was, nevertheless, suspected, fled to London, and thence to Frankfort, which he reached in March 1555. There he sided with Coxe against Knox, but soon joined Martyr at Strasbourg, accompanied him to Zürich, and then paid a visit to Padua.
Reign of Queen Elizabeth I
Under Elizabeth's succession he returned to England, and made earnest efforts to secure what would now be called a low-church settlement of religion; he was strongly committed to the Elizabethan reforms. Indeed, his attitude was hardly distinguishable from that of the Elizabethan
Puritans, but he gradually modified it under the stress of office and responsibility. He was one of the disputants selected to confute the Romanists at the conference of Westminsterafter Easter 1559; he was select preacher at St Paul's Cross on June 15; and in the autumn was engaged as one of the royal visitors of the western counties. His " congé d'élire" as bishop of Salisburyhad been made out on July 27, but he was not consecrated until January 21, 1560.He now constituted himself the literary apologist of the Elizabethan Settlement. He had on November 26, 1559, in a sermon at St Paul's Cross, challenged all comers to prove the Roman case out of the Scriptures, or the councils or Fathers for the first six hundred years after Christ. He repeated his challenge in 1560, and Dr Henry Cole took it up. The chief result was Jewel's "Apologia ecclesiae Anglicanae", published in 1562, which in Bishop Creighton's words is the first methodical statement of the position of the Church of England against the Church of Rome, and forms the groundwork of all subsequent controversy. The work was translated into English by Anne Baconto reach a wider audience and was a significant step in the intellectual justification of Protestantism in England.
A more formidable antagonist than Cole now entered the lists in the person of Thomas Harding, an Oxford contemporary whom Jewel had deprived of his prebend in Salisbury Cathedral for
recusancy. He published an elaborate and bitter "Answer" in 1564, to which Jewel issued a Reply in 1565. Harding followed with a "Confutation", and Jewel with a "Defence of the Apology" in 1566 and 1567; the combatants ranged over the whole field of the Anglo-Roman controversy, and Jewel's theology was officially enjoined upon the Church by Archbishop Bancroft in the reign of James I. Latterly Jewel had been confronted with criticism from a different quarter. The arguments that had weaned him from his Zwinglian simplicity did not satisfyhis unpromoted brethren, and Jewel had to refuse admission to a benefice to his friend Lawrence Humphrey, who would not wear a surplice.
He was consulted a good deal by the government on such questions as England's attitude towards the
Council of Trent, and political considerations made him more and more hostile to Puritandemands with which he had previously sympathized. He wrote an attack on Thomas Cartwright; which was published after his deathby Whitgift. Collapsing after a sermon at Lacock, Wiltshire, he was taken to the episcopal manor house of Monkton Farleigh where he died on September 23 1571. He was buried in Salisbury Cathedral, where he had built a library. Richard Hooker, who speaks of Jewel as the "worthiest divine that Christendom bath bred for some hundreds of years," was one of the boys whom Jewel prepared in his house for the university; and his "Ecclesiastical Polity" owes much to Jewel's training.
Jewel's works were published in a folio in 1609 under the direction of Bancroft, who ordered the "Apology" to be placed in churches, in some of which it may still be seen chained to the lectern; other editions appeared at Oxford (1848, 8 vols) and Cambridge (Parker Soc., 4 vols). See also Gough's "Index to Parker Soc. Publ.";
Strype's "Works" (General Index); Calendars of Domestic and Spanish State Papers; Dixon's and Frere's "Church Histories"; and " Dictionary of National Biography" (art. by Bishop Creighton").
houseat Bishop Wordsworth's Schoolin Salisburyis named for him.
Jewel's "Apology of the Church of England"
After the theological pioneering of Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, Calvin, and the other first-tier reformers, the
Reformationbecame less about the theologies of individuals and more about the religion and politics of nations, kingdoms, and continents. John Jewel’s 1562 "Apology of the Church of England", a document more important in its political-historical significance than its theological significance, represents an attempt to provide a statement of faithfor the Church of Englandunder Elizabeth Iand answer challenges and accusations of the Romanists against the Protestants.
For these causes, I say, we have thought fit, by this book, to give an account of our faith, and to answer truly and publicly, what hath been publicly objected against us, that the whole world may see the parts and reasons of that faith, which so many good men have valued above their lives, and that all mankind may understand what kind of men they are, and what they think of God and religion . . . . (I.10)
In this way, the "Apology" serves to allow everyone to
determine with themselves, whether that faith which they must needs perceive to be consonant to the words of Christ and the writings of the apostles, and the testimonies of the catholic fathers, and which is confirmed by the examples of many ages, be only the rage of a sort of madmen, and a combination or conspiracy of heretics. (I.17)
Answering accusations of
heresyand “tumultuous defection,” among others, Jewel establishes the truth and legitimacy of the claims of not only the Church of England but the whole protestant reformationby demonstrating the continuity between the reformers and Scripture, the apostles(especially, Paul), the church fathers(i.e., Augustine, Tertullian, Ambrose, Jerome, etc.), and church councils. Says Jewel, “Thus we have been taught by Christ, by the apostles and holy fathers; and we do faithfully teach the people of God the same things . . .” (III.2).
At the core of the "Apology" is a positive statement of catholic
doctrine, which comprises the second section of the document. In tone and approach, this section is reminiscent of the " Augsburg Confession", a 1530 document written primarily by Philip Melanchthon throughout which he had maintained a strong emphasis that the reforming movement was no new sect or cult and had added no new or heretical doctrines: “Our churches dissent in no article of the faith from the Church Catholic, but only omit some abuses which are new, and which have been erroneously accepted by the corruption of the times.” In this spirit, the "Apology" begins its statement of doctrine in its second section with an exposition and affirmation of the Nicene Creed. Facing charges of heresy, many Protestant reformers realized that establishing their orthodoxy was paramount.
More than soteriology
Unlike the "Augsburg Confession", Jewel’s "Apology" is much more interested in doctrines and issues concerning the church than in
soteriology. "Apology" never treats grace, predestination, election, or justification"per se". The most explicit and important statement of soteriology in the piece—and one of the few statements concerning soteriology—amounts to a basic summary of the reformers’ view of soteriology and concomitant views of man, works, the law, and Christ.
We say that man is born in sin and leadeth his life in sin, and that no man can truly say his heart is clean; that the most holy man is an unprofitable servant; that the law of God is perfect, and requires of us a full and perfect obedience; and that we cannot in any way keep it perfectly in this life; and that there is no mortal who can be justified in the sight of God by his own deserts; and therefore our only refuge and safety is in the mercy of God the Father, by Jesus Christ, and in the assuring ourselves that he is the propitiation for our sins, by whose blood all our stains are washed out; that he has pacified all things by the blood of his cross; that he by that only sacrifice which he once offered upon the cross, hath perfected all things; and therefore, when he breathed out his soul, he said, IT IS FINISHED; as if by these words he would signify, Now the price is paid for the sins of mankind. (II.21)
In this statement, we see continuities with the early Protestant reformers and sharp discontinuity with the late
medieval Catholictheologians (e.g., Gabriel Biel, Robert Holcot) of the " via moderna". This is most evident in Jewel’s doctrine of man, or anthropology. First, we see evidence of Luther’s " totus homo" anthropology and corollary view that the Christian is " simul iustus et peccator". Jewel implies these views and causes a number of questions when he says that “no man can truly say his heart is clean,” that “the most holy man is an unprofitable servant,” and that “we cannot in any way keep it [the law] perfectly in this life.” Of these statements, the first two are ambiguous. In the first, Jewel is not clear on the word “man.” “Man” may refer either to the unsaved only or to both the saved and the unsaved. The second of these statements contains a similar ambiguity in the phrase “the most holy man.” This could refer either to the Christian who lives generally well or to the person who is not saved but who only acts righteous outwardly. If the latter is the case, it may represent something like the “civil righteousness” discussed in the "Augsburg Confession". Nevertheless, the third statement clearly evidences "simul iustus et peccator" and thus a "totus homo" anthropology. In this statement, Jewel is clearly referring to Christians. This is apparent when Jewel begins using first-person pronouns and when he says that no one is able to obey the law in this life (i.e., before glorification, when man will become unable to sin).
Second, Jewel, like the early Protestants, maintains that man, because of
original sinand his corrupt nature, possesses no soteriological resources. Man can produce no good or meritorious works, and so “there is no trust to be put in the merits of our works and actions” (II.23). Consequently, “no mortal who can be justified in the sight of God by his own deserts,” and so man must hope and trust in Christ for his salvation.
Such a doctrine of man completely uproots and destroys the whole theology of the "via moderna". For, the "moderni" hold that “God will not deny his grace to the man who does "quod in se est" ["what lies within oneself"] ”; and yet, if, as Luther sees it, "quod in se est" is corrupt and evil, it is 'impossible' for man to earn, or even initiate, salvation.
Jewel makes it clear that salvation comes by
faithin Christ. “It is our faith,” he says, “which applies the death and cross of Christ to us” (II.17). Jewel defines a true, saving faith as a “living faith” (II.23). When Jewel treats the sacraments, he emphasizes that not the sacraments themselves but the faith of the individual effects salvation. On this point, Jewel appeals to several church fathers:
‘The faith of the sacraments,’ saith St. Augustine, ‘justifies, and not the sacrament.’ And Origen saith, ‘He (Christ) is the priest and the propitiation, and the sacrifice; and that propitiation comes to every one by way of faith.’ And, therefore, agreeably hereunto, we say that the sacraments of Christ do not profit the living without faith” (II.17).Similarly, Jewel says, “For although we do not touch Christ with our teeth and lips, yet we hold and press him by faith, mind, and spirit” (II.15).
But Jewel is no
antinomianor abuser of Christian freedom, for a true and living faith “is not idle” but, as Paul says in Ephesians2:10, is called unto good works. “Christ himself dwelleth in our hearts by faith,” Jewel says, and Christians are called to sanctification(II.23).
Much of Jewel’s "Apology" concerns doctrine of the church. Concerning the role of the
clergy, Jewel on the one hand rails against the Roman Catholic practices of sacerdotalismand refutes the pope's claim to be the “vicar general of Christ,” but on the other hand maintains a need for specially called clergy. Jewel lists three church offices: deacon, presbyter, and bishop. The pope, who is more technically the bishop of Rome, must not be regarded as the “vicar general of Christ” or in any sense the foundation of the church but as equal to the other patriarchs in the church. The pope has become too powerful, says Jewel, and “usurps a power which belongs not to him.” He should be judged only by how well he executes the function of the office of bishop—that is, instructing, admonishing, and teaching the people and administering the sacraments. Like Luther in his 1520 work " On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church", Jewel says (referencing Augustine) that “bishop is the name of a work or office, and not a title of honour; so that he who would usurp an unprofitable preeminence in the church is no bishop” (II.6, 304). Moreover, Jewel, like Luther, compares the pope to “Lucifer” and says the pope has “become the forerunner of antichrist” (II.6).
Jewel’s sacramental theology follows the early Protestant reformers, such as Luther and Calvin. Jewel defines sacraments as “the sacred signs and ceremonies which Christ commanded us to use, that he might by them represent to our eyes the mysteries of our salvation, and most strongly confirm the faith we have in his blood, and seal in our hearts his grace” (II.11). This is especially close to Calvin’s own definition of a sacrament. Like the early Protestants, Jewel recognizes two sacraments,
baptismand the Eucharist. Baptism is a sacrament of the remission of sins, representing the Christian’s being washed in Christ’s blood (II.13). The Eucharist is a sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, representing the death and resurrection of Christ (II.14). It serves to remind Christians of Christ’s sacrifice and thereby to nourish hope of the resurrection and of eternal life. Concerning the nature of the Eucharistic elements, the "Apology" is slightly vague, although its position seems to be somewhere between Luther’s consubstantiationand the Catholics’ transubstantiation. Says Jewel, “The bread and wine are the holy and heavenly mysteries of the body and blood of Christ; and . . . in them Christ himself . . . is so exhibited to us as present, that we do by faith truly take his body and blood” (II.15). By at once acknowledging the presence of the body and blood of Christ but saying that these are only grasped by faith, the "Apology" would appeal to both Protestants and Catholics. “We assert that Christ in his sacraments doth exhibit himself truly present. In baptism, that we may put him on; in his supper that we may eat him by faith and in the spirit; and that by his cross and blood we may have life eternal” (II.15).
Except for section II, the "Apology" reads like Luther’s "Babylonian Captivity". It devotes considerable attention to criticizing the manifold abuses and corruptions in the Catholic church. Such issues include
marriage of clergy, which Jewel allows (II.9); sacerdotalism, a category of offence which would include, for example, making the massa sacrifice; veneration of saints, which the "Apology" denounces (II.20); private absolution, which it denies (II.8); and the language of the mass, which Jewel says should be in the vernacular (II.19).
The Church of England has broken from Catholic church, which, Jewel says, has departed from Scripture, the church fathers, and church councils; and Jewel asserts that the Protestant churches are the revival of the true Christian church (Conclusion.1).
We have departed from that church, which they had made a den of thieves, in which they had left nothing sound or like a church, and which they themselves confessed to have erred in many things, as Lot left Sodom, or Abraham Chaldea, not out of contention, but out of obedience to God; and have sought the certain way of religion out of the sacred Scriptures, which we know cannot deceive us, and have returned to the primitive church of the ancient fathers and apostles, that is, to the beginning a first rise of the church, as to the proper fountain. (Conclusion.1)
But while Jewel’s "Apology" makes clear the theological and religious reasons for the defection of the Church of England, the
English Reformationwas to a greater extent driven by politics than was, for example, the German Reformation, which began in one man’s tumultuous and uncertain conscience. Jewel’s "Apology of the Church of England" provides a good and valuable purview of the central issues—both religious and secular—of the English Reformation and the Reformation as a whole.
* cite book
last = Jewel
first = John
title = Apology of the Church of England
origyear = 1562
year = 1843
publisher = Presbyterian Board of Publication
location = Philadelphia
* cite book
last = Calvin
first = John
authorlink = John Calvin
others = trans. Ford Lewis Battles
Institutes of the Christian Religion
origyear = 1536
edition = 1536 edition
year = 1975
publisher = Eerdmans
location = Grand Rapids, MI
* Bishop Jewell is also recognised as one of the houses in
Bishop Wordsworth's School, Salisbury. The houses are all named after famous Bishops of Salisbury: John Jewell (using alternative spelling), Martival, Osmund and Richard Poore.
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