Kidney stone formers

Kidney stone formers

There are a number of documented cases of historical figures and distinguished members of society who were kidney stone formers. This condition is caused by nephrolithiasis, which are more commonly known as kidney stones, or urolithiasis, where the stone forms in the urinary system. These are crystal deposits that can accrete in the urinary system when certain chemical substances become concentrated in the urine. [cite book
first=Daniel D. | last=Chiras | year=2007
title=Human Biology
publisher=Jones & Bartlett Publishers
] Among the symptoms associated with nephrolithiasis are intense colicky pain, nausea, fever, chills, and the reduction or blockage of urine flow.cite journal
last=Parmar | first=Malvinder S. | title=Kidney stones
journal=British Medical Journal | year=2004
volume=328 | issue=7453 | pages=1420–1424
] Historically, the condition of having a kidney or bladder stone was referred to as "the stone" or "the gravel".

In certain cases, kidney stone formation played a pivotal role in history. Most notably, some members of the royalty and military leaders became debilitated at important moments, such as Napoleon III of France during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and Athenian commander Nicias in the disastrous Sicilian Expedition of 415–3 BCE. Despite this condition, artists such as Arthur Sullivan and Michel de Montaigne managed to produce historically distinguished works; providing an example of perseverance in the face of severe and chronic pain. The medical advances of the Twentieth century have allowed important members of society to survive the condition, whereas in the past it may have proven debilitating or fatal (as shown by the examples below). [cite conference
first=Michael E. | last=Moran
title=Famous Stone Patients and their Disease
booktitle=Conference Proceedings, 1st Annual International Urolithiasis Research Symposium
pages=412–416 | publisher=American Institute of Physics
date=November 2-3, 2006 | location=Indianapolis, Indiana

According to "Guinness World Records", the largest and heaviest kidney stone ever removed from a human came from Peter Baulman of Australia. It was removed from his right kidney in December 2003, and weighed 356 g (12.5 oz). At its widest point, the stone measured 11.86 cm (4.66 in). [cite web
author=Staff | year=2008
title=Heaviest Kidney Stone
publisher=Guinness World Records

Actors and media figures

* In 1954, movie actress Ava Gardner was hospitalized in Madrid with kidney stones. In her torment, she apparently yelled curses that caused the Spanish nuns to blush. [cite book
first=Lee | last=Server | year=2007
title=Ava Gardner: Love Is Nothing
publisher=Macmillan | isbn=0312312105

* During the shooting of the film "Family Plot", Alfred Hitchcock underwent surgery for colitis and a kidney stone. He was also fitted with a pacemaker. [cite book
first=Charlotte | last=Chandler | year=2006
title=It's Only a Movie: Alfred Hitchcock: A Personal
publisher=Hal Leonard | isbn=1557836922

* Hollywood talent agent Lew Wasserman was suffering from a kidney stone during the 1970s. As he was about to embark on an oceanic voyage, he insisted that it be surgically removed despite the risk and the reluctance of his doctor. [cite book
first=Dennis | last=McDougal | year=2001
title=The Last Mogul: Lew Wasserman, MCA, and the Hidden History of Hollywood
publisher=Da Capo Press | isbn=0306810506

* Early in the filming of "Live and Let Die" (1973), actor Roger Moore was hospitalized from a pre-existing kidney stone condition. [cite book
first=Alan | last=Barnes | coauthors=Hearn, Marcus
title=Kiss Kiss Bang! Bang!: The Unofficial James Bond 007 Film Companion
year=2003 | publisher=Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.

* During the shooting of the "City Heat" (1984), actor Burt Reynolds became debilitated from a kidney stone, and had to resort to medications to continue filming. He also suffered a broken jaw when struck by a metal chair and displayed inner ear problems. [cite book
first=Patrick | last=McGilligan | year=2002
title=Clint: The Life and Legend
publisher=Macmillan | isbn=0312290322

* Commentator Bill O'Reilly dislikes doctors, and so for two years he avoided medical attention for a kidney stone. It was surgically removed in 2002 and he was back on the air within four hours. [cite book
first=Marvin | last=Kitman | year=2007
title=The man who would not shut up: the rise of Bill O'Reilly
publisher=Macmillan | isbn=0312314353

* On October 19, 2005, while working on the set of "Boston Legal", actor William Shatner was taken to the emergency room for lower back pain. He eventually passed a kidney stone, but recovered and soon returned to work. Shatner sold his kidney stone in 2006 for $75,000 to The money will go to a housing charity. [cite web
last=Shatner | first=William | date=2006-01-20
title=Getting Stoned |

* English radio producer Karl Pilkington was diagnosed with kidney stones in late August 2006. [cite news
author=Staff | date=2006-09-17
title=The Idiot Philosopher | publisher=The Telegraph

* Buzz Kilman, Chicago radio personality, took leave from the Steve Dahl show while on-air (announcing, "I gotta go") in order to have his kidney stone treated. [cite web
last=Dahl | first=Steve | date=2007-09-14
title=Show Logs | publisher=JACK FM, Steve Dahl Show

* Other actors who have suffered through a kidney stone include Rob Schneider, [cite news
author=Staff | date=2003-05-23
title=Rob Schneider: It's not easy being a slob
publisher=The Independent
] Kiefer Sutherland, [cite web
last=Seal | first=Mark | year=2005
title=Celebrated Weekend: 24 Hours in Toronto with Kiefer Sutherland
publisher=American Airlines, Inc
] and date=February 2008
title=Burn Fat, Not Time | publisher=Men's Health
accessdate=2008-06-27 ]

Artists and musicians

in between bouts of excruciating pain from his kidney stones.cite book
first=Arthur | last=Sullivan
coauthors=Schwenck, William; Gilbert, Ian Bradley | year=1996
title=The Complete Annotated Gilbert and Sullivan
pages=115–116 | publisher=Oxford University Press

* In 1549, Italian Renaissance painter Michelangelo was treated for kidney stones by anatomist Realdo Colombo. Michelangelo appears to have suffered for many years from recurrent uric acid stones and may have died from obstructive nephropathy. His condition may account for his artistic interest in kidneys. [cite journal
last=Eknoyan | first=Garabed
title=Michelangelo: Art, anatomy, and the kidney
journal=Kidney International
year=2000 | volume=57 | pages=1190–1201

* Five years after retiring because of ill-health, in 1612 Italian composer Giovanni Gabrieli died from an attack of kidney stones. [cite book
first=David Mason | last=Greene | year=1985
title=Greene's biographical encyclopedia of Composers
publisher=Reproducing Piano Roll Fnd.

* Arthur Sullivan, of the musical partnership Gilbert and Sullivan, began to suffer from kidney stones in 1872. This would affect him for the remainder of his life, although he would continue to write while suffering from pain. He underwent surgery in 1874 in an attempt to treat the condition. [cite book
first=Isaac | last=Goldberg | year=1928
title=The Story of Gilbert and Sullivan; Or, The 'Compleat' Savoyard
publisher=John Murray | location=London

* Crooner Bing Crosby suffered from recurring kidney stones from 1951 onward, according to biographer George Carpozi, Jr.. [cite book
first=George | last=Carpozi | year=1977
title=The Fabulous Life of Bing Crosby
publisher=Manor Books

* Among his many medical maladies, in 1964 composer Cole Porter was hospitalized for the removal of kidney stones. He died two days later, most likely bronchopneumonia in his chest. He was also found to have chronic nephrosclerosis, or degeneration of the kidneys. [cite book
first=Charles | last=Schwartz | year=1979
title=Cole Porter: a biography
publisher=Da Capo Press | isbn=0306800977

* Opera singer Birgit Nilsson painfully passed a kidney stone following a concert in Göteborg, Sweden. [cite book
first=Birgit | last=Nilsson
coauthors=Popper, Doris Jung; Tueller, Peggy
title=La Nilsson: My Life in Opera
year=2007 | publisher=UPNE | isbn=1555536700

* Other musicians who have suffered from a kidney stone include Nick Drake [cite news
last=Orzeck | first=Kurt | date=2001-01-23
title=Nick Drake | publisher=Virgin Mega Magazine
] and Billy Joel. [cite web
author=Columbia Records
title=Billy Joel | publisher=MTV


* The post-mortem examination of noted diarist Samuel Pepys revealed, "a nest of no less than seven stones" in his left kidney. These weighed a total of 4.5 ounces. When he was younger, Samuel had undergone bladder surgery, pre-anesthesia, for removal of a large stone. He carried this stone with him to try to persuade fellow sufferers to endure the painful surgery. [cite book
first=Samuel | last=Pepys
coauthors=Smith, John A.; Smith, George G.
year=1905 | title=Diary of Samuel Pepys

* Michel de Montaigne, the French Renaissance writer who popularized the essay, began to suffer from chronic kidney stones in 1578. His father had died from kidney stones.cite book
first=Michel | last=de Montaigne
coauthors=Frame, Donald M. | year=1958
title=The complete essays of Montaigne
publisher=Stanford University Press

* Mary Ann Evans wrote under the male pen name of George Eliot. She had suffered from various health problems for all of her life, and starting in February 1874 she endured a series of kidney stone attacks that lasted until her death. [cite book
first=Tim | last=Dolin | year=2005
title=George Eliot
publisher=Oxford University Press

* While visiting Italy, the author Llewelyn Powys began coughing up blood because of his tuberculosis and also suffered from a kidney stone. After he returned home to Dorset, he passed the stone with excruciating pain. He had to take medication for the remainder of his life to avoid forming another stone. [cite book
first=Richard Perceval | last=Graves
year=2002 | title=The Brothers Powys
publisher=Routledge | isbn=0710093233

* American author Jack London used morphine to alleviate the pain of kidney stones. He most likely died at the age of forty from kidney failure and possibly a toxic dose of pain reliver. [cite book
first=Dale L. | last=Walker | year=2006
title=The Calamity Papers: Western Myths and Cold Cases
publisher=Macmillan | isbn=0765308320

* At the end of her life in 1980, author Ethel Wilson was hospitalized and suffering from recurrent small strokes. The day before she passed away, she was in physical distress from passing a kidney stone. A doctor injected her with medication to ease the pain. [cite book
first=David | last=Stouck | year=2003
title=Ethel Wilson: A Critical Biography
publisher=University of Toronto Press

* Author Isaac Asimov suffered from kidney stones, and wrote about how his pain was treated with morphine, saying that he feared becoming addicted to morphine if he ever needed it again. [cite book
first=Isaac | last=Asimov | year=1995
title=I. Asimov: A Memoir
publisher=Bantam | isbn=055356997X
] During the 1980s, his problem with kidney stones developed into kidney disease, which resulted in multiple hospitalizations. [cite book
first=Michael | last=White | year=2005
title=Isaac Asimov: A Life of the Grand Master of Science Fiction
publisher=Carroll & Graf Publishers

* In his book "A Year at the Movies", "Mystery Science Theatre 3000" writer and performer Kevin Murphy describes his ordeal with a kidney stone: "Being gut-stabbed with a dirty spoon in a prison cafeteria is less painful." [cite book
first=Kevin | last=Murphy | year=2002
title=A Year at the Movies: One Man's Filmgoing Odyssey
publisher=Harper Paperbacks | isbn=0060937866
] [cite news
last=Stanley | first=Jonathan | date=2002-09-27
title=Kevin Murphy talks about movies, life, 'fanboys'
publisher=The Herald of Arkansas State University

* Chuck Palahniuk, the award-winning author of "Fight Club", wrote about his experience with passing a kidney stone in his nonfiction book "". [cite book
first=Chuck | last=Palahniuk | year=2005
title=Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories
publisher=Anchor | isbn=0385722222

*"Washington Post" columnist and Pulitzer Prize winner Art Buchwald suffered from a kidney stone late in his life. [cite book
first=Art | last=Buchwald | year=2006
title=Too Soon to Say Goodbye | publisher=Random House

Nobility and emperors

* Caesar Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire, suffered from various physical maladies including kidney and bladder stones. [cite book
first=Richard A. | last=Gabriel | year=2000 | pages=p. 194
title=Great Captains of Antiquity
publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group

* From at least 1518, Frederick III, Elector of Saxony suffered from gout and kidney stones. [cite book
first=Thomas Brian | last=Deutscher | year=2003
title=Contemporaries of Erasmus: A Biographical Register of the Renaisance and Reformation
publisher=University of Toronto Press

* James I of England suffered from several symptoms characteristic of kidney stones, including abdominal colic and passing red urine. Following his death in 1625, stones were found in his kidney. [cite book
first=Geoffrey | last=Dean | year=2005
title=The Turnstone: A Doctor's Story
publisher=Liverpool University Press

* While he was alive, King Louis XIV of France frequently voided kidney stones but without suffering apparent pain. A small stone was found in the left kidney of his corpse. [cite book
first=Henry | last=Dupey | editor=Johnson, James
title=The Medico-chirurgical Review, Volume Twelve
chapter=XLVII. Post-Mortem Examinations of the Kings of France
publisher=Richard & George S. Wood
year=1830 | location=New York

* In 1722 the Russian ruler Peter the Great began to experience kidney problems. The symptoms grew worse during 1723 and by the following year it was diagnosed as the stone. He suffered from extreme pain in the loins and then tumors began to form on his thighs. Early in 1725 he passed away. [cite book
first=Kazimierz | last=Waliszewski
others=Translated by Lady Mary Loyd | year=1897
title=Peter the Great | publisher=William Heinemann
accessdate=2008-05-30 | location=London

* Empress Anna of Russia was known to suffer from kidney stones, and in 1740 her condition became more acute. After becoming bedridden, she died later the same year. An autopsy showed that the stones resembled branching coral. [cite book
first=Evgeniĭ Viktorovich | last=Anisimov
coauthors=Carroll, Kathleen | year=2004
title=Five Empresses: Court Life in Eighteenth-Century Russia
pages=p. 124 | publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group

* After his death, English King George IV was found to have a bladder stone that had become encysted. [cite journal
last=John | first=Adams | title=Lithotomy in Children
journal=The London Lancet: A Journal of British and Foreign Medical, Surgical and Chemical Science
year=1858 | volume=1 | pages=275–277
] A year before his death he had complained of a pain in his bladder. [cite book
first=Saul | last=David | year=2000
title=Prince of Pleasure: The Prince of Wales and the
publisher=Grove Press | isbn=0802137032

* With his health deteriorating, in 1860 Lord Thomas Cochrane twice underwent surgery for kidney stones. He died during the second operation. [cite book
first=Brian | last=Vale | year=2008
title=Cochrane in the Pacific: Fortune and Freedom in Spanish America
publisher=I. B. Tauris | isbn=1845114469

* King Leopold I of Belgium underwent a lithotrity in 1862 for the removal of a kidney stone. However, the operation was only partly successful and he underwent a second surgery in 1863. For the latter operation, Sir Henry Thompson was appointed surgeon-extraordinary to the King. [cite journal
title=Obituary: Sir Henry Thompson
journal=The Medical Press and Circular
year=1904 | volume=77 | pages=463

* Napoleon I of France became ill with a kidney stone during the Battle of Borodino, September 7, 1812. This condition may help explain his unoriginal tactics during the battle. [cite book
first=Steven | last=Englund | year=2004
title=Napoleon: A Political Life
publisher=Simon and Schuster

* Dom Pedro I of Brazil suffered from frequent kidney stone attacks. [cite book
first=Neill | last=Macaulay | year=1986
title=Dom Pedro: The Struggle for Liberty in Brazil
publisher=Duke University Press

* Napoleon III of France may have lost the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 in part because of a massive kidney stone. He died from kidney stone surgery in 1873.cite book
first=David I. | last=Kertzer | year=2004
title=Prisoner of the Vatican: The Popes' Secret Plot
publisher=Houghton Mifflin Books

* Maori Queen Dame Te Atairangikaahu was hospitalized for kidney surgery in 2005, a few weeks after the 40th anniversary of her coronation. [cite news
author=Staff | date=2006-08-16
title=Dame Te Ata, 75, Maori Queen and Promoter of Their Culture, Dies
publisher=The New York Times

Politicians and military commanders

* In the disastrous Sicilian Expedition (415–3 BCE), the Athenian commander Nicias was afflicted with kidney stones during the entire period he was in charge.cite book
first=Victor Davis | last=Hanson | coauthors=Keegan, John
year=2000 | title=The Western Way of War: Infantry Battle in
publisher=University of California Press

* The English military and political leader Oliver Cromwell may have suffered from kidney stones during the 1650s. His doctor said that, "being much troubled with the stone, he used sometimes to swill down several sorts of liquor, and then stir his body by some violent motion ... that by such agitation he might disburden his bladder." [cite book
first=H. F. | last=McMains | year=2000
title=The Death of Oliver Cromwell
publisher=University Press of Kentucky

*In 1659, Myles Standish, who served as military officer of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony, became "sick of the stone" and died after suffering much "dolorous pain". [cite book
first=Thomas Cruddas | last=Porteus | year=1920
title=Captain Myles Standish: His Lost Lands and Lancashire Connections
chapter=Chapter I. The Character and Career of Captain Standish
publisher=Longmans, Green & Co.

* Sir Robert Walpole, generally regarded as the first Prime Minister of Great Britain, suffered from the stone, as did his brother Horace Walpole and his mother Catherine. [cite journal
last=Flynn | first=J. | title=Heredity and Disease
journal=Australasian Medical Gazette
year=1901 | volume=20 | pages=225-238

* John Hart, a member of the Continental Congress representing New Jersey and signer of the Declaration of Independence, died of kidney stones in 1779 after much suffering. [cite web
last=Staller | first=Grace Keiper
title=John Hart, Delaware, (1713-1779)
publisher=Descendents of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence

* British General James Wolfe suffered from "the gravel" prior to the Battle of Quebec during the Seven Years War. [cite book
first=Beckles | last=Willson
coauthors=Wolfe, James | year=1909
title=The Life and Letters of James Wolfe
publisher=William Heinemann

* The eleventh President of the United States, James K. Polk, suffered from kidney stones during his youth. At the age of seventeen he underwent a successful lithotomy without anaesthetic for removal of a urinary stone. Thereafter he was sufficiently well to be able to receive a formal education.cite book
first=John | last=Seigenthaler | year=2002
title=James K. Polk | publisher=Macmillan

* Colonel Edward M. House was the foreign policy advisor to President Woodrow Wilson until removed from that post in 1919. In that year he suffered through a painful kidney stone, and he had recurrences in 1928 and 1930. [cite book
first=Godfrey | last=Hodgson | year=2006
title=Woodrow Wilson's Right Hand: The Life of Colonel Edward M. House
publisher=Yale University Press

* In 1959, Indian President Indira Gandhi began to suffering from severe pain in the stomach and back. She was diagnosed with a kidney stone and underwent successful surgery in February 1960 to have it removed. [cite book
first=Katherine | last=Frank | year=2002
title=Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi
publisher=Houghton Mifflin Books | isbn=039573097X

* Sukarno, the first President of Indonesia, suffered from recurrent kidney stones. He was twice forced to seek medical treatment in Vienna; the second time for removal of a kidney stone. [cite book
first=Angus | last=McIntyre | year=2005
title=The Indonesian Presidency: The Shift From Personal toward Constitutional Rule
publisher=Rowman & Littlefield | isbn=0742538273

* U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson suffered from kidney stones at various times in his life. He was reluctant to seek treatment because of the effect it may have on his political image. [cite book
first=Robert E. | last=Gilbert | year=1998
title=The Mortal Presidency: Illness and Anguish in the White House
publisher=Fordham Univ Press

* The perjury trial of Deputy White House Chief of Staff Michael Deaver was twice delayed because he was suffering from kidney stones. [cite news
last=Franklin | first=Ben A. | date=1987-11-13
title=Deaver's Illness Delays Trial
publisher=The New York Times

* Bosnian Serb military commander Ratko Mladić underwent surgery in Belgrade for a kidney stone in 1995, during the final year of the Serbian conflict with Bosnia. [cite news
last=Perlez | first=Jane | date=1995-11-02
title=Conflict in the Balkans: The Serbs; Banja Luka: Not a Target Of Assault, Yet Beaten
publisher=The New York Times
] He was later indicted by the UN War Crimes Tribunal for genocide and other crimes. [cite news
last=Perlez | first=Jane | date=2005-06-06
title=Profile: Ratko Mladic | publisher=BBC News

* Former Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Dennis Hastert, has had a number of kidney stones, necessitating kidney stone removal surgery. [cite news
author=Staff | date=2001-04-03
title=Hastert released after kidney stone surgery | publisher=CNN
] Senator John McCain has had four small kidney stones and he takes the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide to prevent their formation. [cite news
author=Staff | date=2008-05-03
title=McCain in 'excellent health,' doctor says
publisher=CNN | accessdate=2008-06-13
] Other congress members who have experienced kidney stones include Representatives Tom Price and Mike Simpson, [cite news
author=Staff | date=2005-04-13
title=Kidney stone alert | publisher=The Hill
] and Senator Ted Kennedy. [cite news
last = Nagourney
first = Adam
title = Determined to Give Speech, Kennedy Left Hospital Bed
publisher = The New York Times
date = 2008-08-26
url =
accessdate = 2008-08-26

* Former White House Deputy Chief of Staff Karl Rove under U.S. President George W. Bush was hospitalized in September 2005 due to kidney stones. [cite news
last=Allen | first=Mike | date= 2008-08-29
title=Living Too Much in the Bubble?
publisher=Time Magazine

* Former Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom John Prescott was hospitalized on Christmas Day, 2006 for a kidney stone. [cite news
author=Staff | date=2007-06-04
title=Prescott undergoes tests in hospital
publisher=Guardian News and Media Limited

Religious figures

* Pope Vigilius, whose papacy began in 537, died in Sicily while suffering from kidney stones, 555. [cite book
first=James Allan | last=Evans | year=2005
title=The Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire
publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group

* Saint Ailred of Rievaulx took frequent baths and consumed wine to alleviate the severe pain from his kidney stones. [cite book
first=Thomas J. | last=Heffernan | year=1988
title=Sacred Biography: Saints and Their Biographers
publisher=Oxford University Press US

* The German monk Martin Luther periodically suffered from kidney stones, and he almost died in 1537 from being unable to urinate. During his lengthy journey home, the jostling motion of the carriage released the stone and so spared his life. [cite book
first=Eric W. | last=Gritsch | year=2006
title=The Wit of Martin Luther
publisher=Fortress Press

* During his life, the French Protestant John Calvin would suffer from a variety of physical ailments, including kidney stones, arthritis, a bleeding stomach, gout and nephritis. [cite book
first=William J. | last=Bouwsma | year=1988
title=John Calvin: A Sixteenth-century Portrait
publisher=Oxford University Press US

* Cardinal Mazarin, the successor to Cardinal Richelieu as the French King's Chief Minister, began to suffer from kidney stones in 1659. He died two years later while also suffering from gout and deteriorating health. [cite book
first=Anthony | last=Levi | year=2004
title=Louis XIV
publisher=Carroll & Graf Publishers

* After surviving the plague year of 1665, English clergyman, author and chief founder of the Royal Society John Wilkins became ill from kidney stones and he was unable to pass urine. He most likely died from the opiates or other medications that were used to treat his condition.cite book
first=Stephen | last=Inwood | year=2005
title=The Forgotten Genius: The Biography of Robert Hooke 1635-1703
publisher=MacAdam/Cage Publishing

* Pope Innocent XI survived primitive surgery for the extraction of kidney stones. [cite journal
last=Carrieri | first=Maria Patrizia | coauthors=Serraino, Diego
title=Longevity of popes and artists between the 13th and the 19th century
journal=International Journal of Epidemiology
year=2005 | volume=34 | issue=6 | pages=1435–1436
] After his death in 1689, he was found to have a "stone weighing nine ounces in the left kidney and another weighing six ounces in the right side."cite book
first=Albert Émile | last=Debout | year=1883
title=Medical guide to Contrexéville
pages=pp. 96–119
publisher=J. & A. Churchill | location=London
id=ISBN 0195218337

* Mary Baker Eddy was the founder of Christian Science, a movement that discouraged its members from seeking help from doctors for their illnesses. In 1903 she began to suffer from extreme pain and consented to a visit by a doctor. After a diagnosis of kidney stones, she agreed to injections of morphine to alleviate the pain. [cite book
first=Stephen | last=Gottschalk | year=2005
title=Rolling away the stone: Mary Baker Eddy's Challenge to Materialism
publisher=Indiana University Press | isbn=0253346738

* In 1954, when Billy Graham was preparing to preach at Berlin's Olympic Stadium, he began to suffer pain from a kidney stone. Wondering whether the Devil might be mounting a vengeful attack against him, [cite book
first=Roger | last=Bruns | year=2004
title=Billy Graham: A Biography
publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group
] he chose to continue the public service without painkillers, rather than appearing groggy or undergoing hospitalization. [cite book
first=Billy | last=Graham
authorlink=Billy Graham | year=1999
title=Just as I Am: The Autobiography of Billy Graham
publisher=HarperCollins | isbn=0060633921

* After praying to Mother Teresa, a half-inch diameter kidney stone disappeared from the lower ureter of Father V. M. Thomas in Guwahati, India. This occurred a day before the priest was scheduled to undergo surgery for the stone's removal. The surgeon said that, "the disappearance of the calculus (stone) was beyond medical explanation." This alleged miracle was used to support the case for sainthood of Mother Teresa. [cite news
author=Staff | date=2007-10-01
title=Indian priest says his cure was miracle through Mother Teresa
publisher=Catholic news Service

cholars, scientists and philosophers

* In 271 or 270 BC, the Greek Philosopher Epicurus died from a stone blockage of his urinary tract lasting a fortnight, according to his successor Hermarchus and reported by his biographer Diogenes Laertius. [cite journal
last=Bitsori | first=Maria | coauthors=Galanakis, Emmanouil
title=Epicurus’ death | journal=World Journal of Urology
year=2004 | volume=22 | issue=6 | pages=466–469

* The Dutch humanist and theologian Desiderius Erasmus suffered from gout, kidney stone and hypochondria. [cite book
first=Roy | last=Porter | year=1999
title=The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity
publisher=W. W. Norton & Company

* In describing his kidney stones, the physician Thomas Sydenham said, "The pain is like that of a dislocation and yet parts feel as if cold water had been poured over them... Now it is a gnawing pain and now it is a pressure and tightening. So exquisite and lively meanwhile is the feeling of the part affected, that it cannot bear the weight of the bedclothes nor the jar of a person walking in the room."cite book
first=Walter | last=Gratzer | year=2005
title=Terrors of the Table: The Curious History of Nutrition
publisher=Oxford University Press

* Robert Boyle, regarded as the first modern chemist, was troubled for much of his adult life by kidney stones. [cite book
first=Marie Boas | last=Hall | year=1965
title=Robert Boyle on Natural Philosophy: an Essay with Selections from his Writings
publisher=Indiana University Press

* After retiring from the Lumleian lectureship at Cambridge University in 1655, the aging physician William Harvey was known to suffer from gout and kidney stones. He is noted for his correct description of blood and the circulatory system. [cite book
first=John Galbraith | last=Simmons | year=2002
title=Doctors and discoveries: lives that created
publisher=Houghton Mifflin Reference Books

* In 1686, Danish anatomist and geologist Nicholas Steno became gravely ill from kidney stones. He suffered great pain and his stomach became distended. Shortly before he died, he prayed that, "My God I beg you not to take the pains from me, but to give me the patience to bear them." [cite book
first=Karen | last=Ascani
coauthors=Kermit, Hans; Skytte, Gunver | year=2002
title=Niccolò Stenone (1638-1686): anatomista, geologo, vescovo
publisher=L'Erma di Bretschneider

* Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, French naturalist, suffered from kidney stones in 1771 and their "passing caused him very sharp pains". He had 57 stones at time of autopsy in 1788. [cite book
first=Jacques | last=Roger
others=translated by Sarah Lucille Bonnefoi
year=1997 | title=Buffon: A Life in Natural History
publisher=Cornell University Press | isbn=0801429188

* During Sir Isaac Newton's later life, he was troubled by painful urinary incontinence, probably due to uric acid stones in the bladder. [cite journal
last=Ostad | first=Edward | coauthors=Wise, Gilbert J.
title=Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems
journal=BJU International
year=2005 | volume=95 | issue=1 | pages=24–26

* The distinguished mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz died from a combination of gout and the stone. Although he was a member of several distinguished societies, he had fallen into such disfavor that only one man came to his funeral. [cite book
first=John Theodore | last=Merz
year=1884 | title=Leibniz
publisher=William Blackwood and Sons
location=Edinburgh and London

* In the final years of his life, Benjamin Franklin is known to have used laudanum, an alcoholic herbal preparation of opium, to alleviate the pain of recurrent kidney stones. [cite journal
last=Musto | first=David F.
title=Opium, Cocaine and Marijuana in American History
journal=Scientific American
date=July 1991 | pages=20–27

* The eminent Italian anatomist and surgeon Antonio Scarpa suffered severely from a stone for several years. This caused a bladder inflammation which led to his demise in 1832. [cite book
author=Various | year=1841
title=Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, volume 21
publisher=Charles Knight & Co. | location=London

ports figures

* Nearing the end of his life, in 1985 the father of competitive weightlifting, Bob Hoffman, suffered from a number of physical ailments, including kidney stones. [cite book
first=John D. | last=Fair | year=1999
title=Muscletown USA: Bob Hoffman and the Manly Culture of York Barbell
publisher=Penn State Press | isbn=0271018550

* New York Giants football coach Bill Parcells underwent medical treatment for a kidney stone in 1990. Against his doctor's advice, Bill Parcels attempted to coach the next game against the Minnesota Vikings, but a reporter noted he "appeared drawn and in pain". [cite news
author=Staff | date=1990-12-11
title=Parcells Home After Treatment
publisher=The New York Times

* During a 1996 attempt to cross Antarctica, explorer and endurance record holder Sir Ranulph Fiennes was forced to turn back because of kidney stones. He lists it as his most painful experience. [cite web
last=Patalay | first=Ajesh | date=2007-01-20
title=The world of Sir Ranulph Fiennes
publisher=The Telegraph | accessdate=2008-06-01

* At the age of 50, Olympic gold medalist Bruce Jenner discovered that he had a kidney stone after undergoing a full body EBCT scan. [cite news
last=Morain | first=Claudia | date=2000-10-01
title=New Tests See Right Through Potential Problems
publisher=San Francisco Chronicle

* L.A. Lakers head coach Phil Jackson underwent a lithotripsy procedure to treat a kidney stone in 2003. It was the first time he missed a game as coach. He had experienced symptoms for two years prior to the surgery. [cite news
author=Staff | date=2003-02-25
title=L.A. Lakers coach has kidney stone removed
publisher=Daily Vidette, Illinois State University

* Professional golfer Davis Love III had to withdraw from the 2007 Wyndham Championship to undergo surgery for a kidney stone. Afterward he said that, "Except for feeling like I've been punched in the side, I feel fine." [cite news
last=Jones | first=Brent | date=2007-08-17
title=Davis Love III recovering after kidney stone surgery
publisher=The Associated Press/USA Today

* Bernhard Langer had to pull out of the 2007 Deutsche Bank Players' Championship to undergo an operation for kidney stone removal. [cite news
author=Staff | date=2007-07-26
title=Bernhard Langer pulls out of Deutsche Bank Players' Championship after kidney operation
publisher=International Herald Tribune


* Baseball Hall of Famer Tony Gwynn had a kidney stone removed arthroscopically in 1997. [cite web
author=Staff | date=1997-08-11
title=Kidney Stones Sideline Gwynn
publisher=The New York Times

* New York Mets' relief pitcher Dennis Cook began to suffer from a kidney stone just as his team reached the World Series in 2000. However, he was able to pitch during the first game. [cite news
last=Rubin | first=Roger | coauthors=Garcia, Julian
title=On Computer, Yankees More than Game in Opener
date=2000-10-21 | publisher=NY Daily News

* In 2004, Minnesota Twins catcher Joe Mauer had surgery for kidney stones. A stent was used to allow two stones to successfully pass. [cite web
author=Staff | date=2004-10-16
title=Joe Mauer | publisher=RotoTimes
] [cite web
first=Mark | last=Sheldon | date=2004-08-19
title=Notes: Hard knocks for Mauer
publisher=MLB Advanced Media L.P.

* Chicago White Sox manager Ozzie Guillen was hospitalized while passing a kidney stone in 2004. He said, "that was something I don't wish anybody has, even my worst enemy." [cite news
author=Staff | date=2004-08-18
title=Guillen returns to ballpark after passing kidney stone
publisher=ESPN/Associated Press

* Rich Aurilia, an infielder for the San Francisco Giants, was rushed to a hospital in 2008 because of a kidney stone. He said, "it felt like somebody stuck a knife in my rib cage". [cite news
last=Haft | first=Chris | date=2008-05-30
title=Aurilia waiting on kidney stone
publisher=Major League Baseball

* Other baseball players who have had kidney stones include Derek Bell, [cite news
author=Staff | date=1998-03-14
title=For baseball players, other athletes, creatine monhydrate has powerful lure
publisher=Reporter News | accessdate=2008-06-26
] Tony Fernandez, [cite news
first=George | last=Vecsey | date=1993-09-03
title=Sports of The Times; Fernandez Finds Life After Mets
publisher=New York Times | accessdate=2008-06-26
] Whitey Kurowski, [cite book
first=Danny | last=Litwhiler
coauthors=Sargent, James E.; Musial, Stan; Sargent, Jim
title=Danny Litwhiler: Living the Baseball Dream
year=2007 | publisher=Temple University Press
] Tom Niedenfuer [cite news
author=Staff | date=1984-06-20
title=Sports People; Comings and Goings
publisher=The New York Times
] Miguel Olivo [cite news
author=Staff | date=2004-07-01
title=Mariners place Olivo on DL
publisher=CBC Sports
] Jay Payton, [cite news
first=Tyler | last=Kepner | date=2000-04-23
title=Baseball: Mets Notebook; Reed's Left Hand Still Hurts, and He May Miss Next Start
publisher=New York Times | accessdate=2008-06-26
] Brian Roberts, [cite news
title=Pain Free After Two Days, Roberts Expects to Return
publisher=Washington Post
] Tim Salmon, [cite news
author=Staff | date=2003-07-07
title=American League: Roundup; Lima Impressive Again As Royals Beat Tigers
publisher=New York Times | accessdate=2008-06-26
] Josh Willingham [cite news
first=Rob | last=Maadi | date=2007-08-09
title=Marlins Beat Phils, Avoid Sweep
publisher=Washington Post
] and Robin Yount. [cite news
author=Staff | date=1991-07-16
title=Sports People: Baseball; Brewers Place Yount On the Disabled List
publisher=New York Times | accessdate=2008-06-26


* The Soap Lady, a mysterious mummified female on exhibit at the Mütter Museum, may have suffered from a kidney stone or gallstone. [cite web
last=Colimore | first=Edward | date=2008-05-17
title=Learning secrets of the 'soap lady'
publisher=The Philadelphia Enquirer

* Dutch blacksmith Jan de Doot is remembered for having his portrait painted with the "four ounce palpable stone" that he supposedly removed from his perineum using a kitchen knife in 1651. [cite journal
last=Murphy | first=L. J.
title=Self-performed operations for stone in the bladder
journal=British Journal of Urology
year=1969 | volume=41 | issue=5 | pages=515–29

* In 1981, Bart Giamatti, the President of Yale University and future Commissioner of Baseball, had a kidney stone removed. [cite book
first=Robert P. | last=Moncreiff | year=2007
title=Bart Giamatti: A Profile
publisher=Yale University Press

* The CIA believes that terrorist Osama bin Laden may have kidney stones, an enlarged heart, low blood pressure and is missing two toes. [cite news
last=Windrem | first=Robert | date=2006-08-03
title=How the CIA diagnoses world leaders from afar
publisher=NBC News

* Between 2001 and 2006, 14 American astronauts developed kidney stones during space missions. [cite news
author=Staff | date=2006-06-27
title=Study Examines Kidney Stone Prevention In Astronauts
publisher=Science Daily
] During long-duration space flights, astronauts are at higher risk for kidney stones because of an increase in the amount of calcium in their blood. This is caused by a loss of bone density in zero gravity. [cite journal
last=Ciftçioglu | first=N.
coauthors=Haddad, R. S.; Golden, D. C.; Morrison, D. R.; McKay D. S.
title=A potential cause for kidney stone formation during space flights: enhanced growth of nanobacteria in microgravity
journal=Kidney International
year=2005 | volume=67 | issue=2 | pages=483–91


Fictional incidents of kidney stones have been portrayed in the media on several occasions.

* In season two, episodes 15–16 of "Deadwood", Al Swearengen (Ian McShane) suffers from kidney stones. These are painfully treated by Doc Cochran (Brad Dourif) using a makeshift device. [cite book
first=David | last=Lavery | year=2006
title=Reading Deadwood: A Western to Swear by
publisher=I.B.Tauris | isbn=1845112210

* During the 100th episode of the situational comedy "Friends", Joey Tribbiani (Matt LeBlanc) suffers back pains and later passes kidney stones. ["The One with the Triplets". Friends. 1998-10-08. No. 100, season 5.]

* On an episode of "Seinfeld", Kramer (Michael Richards) suffers from a kidney stone. He eventually passes the stone at a carnival, but the pain induced by its passing causes him to scream so loudly that he interrupts the carnival and causes a tightrope walker to fall. ["The Gymnast". Seinfeld. 1994-11-03. No. 6, season 6. ]


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