linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verbdefines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. For example, in English the difference between "I swim" and "I am swimming" is a difference of aspect.
Aspect, as discussed here, is a "formal" property of a
language. Some languages distinguish a large number of formal aspects (see the list below), while others distinguish none at all. Even languages that do not mark aspect formally, however, can convey such distinctions by the use of adverbs, phrases, serial verb constructions or other means.
Grammatical aspect may have been first dealt with in the work of the Indian linguist
Yaska(ca. 7th century BCE), who distinguishes actions that are processes ("bhāva"), from those where the action is considered as a completed whole ("mūrta"). This is of course the key distinction between the imperfective and perfective. Yaska applies the same distinction also for between a verb and an action nominal.
Common aspectual distinctions
The most fundamental aspectual distinction, represented in many languages, is between
perfective aspectand imperfective aspect. This is the basic aspectual distinction in the Slavic languages. It semantically corresponds to the distinction between the tenses known respectively as the aoristand imperfectin Greek, the preteriteand imperfect in Spanish, the simple past(passé simple) and imperfect in French, and the perfect and imperfect in Latin. Essentially, the perfective aspect refers to a single event conceived as a unit, while the imperfective aspect represents an event in the process of unfolding or a repeated or habitual event. In the past tense, the distinction often coincides with the distinction between the simple past "X-ed", as compared to the progressive "was X-ing". For example, the perfective would translate both verbs in the sentence "He raised his sword and struck the enemy". However, in the sentence "As he was striking the enemy, he was killed by an arrow", the first verb would be rendered by an imperfective and the second by a perfective.
Aspect vs. tense
Aspect is a somewhat difficult concept to grasp for the speakers of most modern
Indo-European languages, because they tend to conflate the concept of aspect with the concept of tense. (The two concepts are, however, mostly independent in Slavic languagesand Greek.) Although English largely separates tense and aspect formally, its aspects (neutral, progressive, perfect and progressive perfect) do not correspond very closely to the distinction of perfective vs. imperfective that is common in most other languages. Furthermore, the separation of tense and aspect in English is not maintained rigidly. One instance of this is the alternation, in some forms of English, between sentences such as "Have you eaten yet?" and "Did you eat yet?". Another is in the past perfect ("I had eaten"), which sometimes represents the combination of past tense and perfect aspect ("I was full because I had already eaten"), but sometimes simply represents a past action which is anterior to another past action ("A little while after I had eaten, my friend arrived"). (The latter situation is often represented in other languages by a simple perfective tense. Formal Spanish and French use a past anteriortense in cases such as this.)
In most dialects of Ancient Greek, aspect is indicated uniquely by tense. For example, the very frequently used
aoristtense, though a functional preteritetense in the indicative mood, conveys historic or 'immediate' aspect in the subjunctive and optative. The perfect tense in all moods is used solely as an aspect marker and not, ironically, as a tense, conveying the sense of a resultant state. E.g. IPA|ὅραω - I see (present); IPA|εἶδον - I saw (aorist); IPA|οἶδα - I am in a state of having seen = I know (perfect).
Many Sino-Tibetan languages, like
Mandarin, lack grammatical tense but are rich in aspect.
Lexical vs. grammatical aspect
It is extremely important to distinguish between grammatical aspect, as described here, and
lexical aspect. Lexical aspect is an inherent property of verbs, and is not marked formally in most languages. The distinctions made as part of lexical aspect are different from those of grammatical aspect, usually relating to situation aspect rather than viewpoint aspect. Typical distinctions are between states ("I have"), activities ("I shop") and achievements ("I buy"). These distinctions are often relevant syntactically. For example, states and activities, but not usually achievements, can be used with a prepositional "for"-phrase describing a time duration: "I had a car for five hours", "I shopped for five hours", but not "*I bought a car for five hours". Lexical or situation aspect is sometimes called " Aktionsart", especially by German and Slavic linguists. Lexical or situation aspect is marked in Athabaskan languages.
One of the factors in situation aspect is
telicity. Telicity might be considered a kind of lexical aspect, except that it is typically not a property of a verb in isolation, but rather a property of an entire verb "phrase". Achievements and accomplishments have telic situation aspect, while states, activities and semelfactives have atelic situation aspect.
The other factor in situation aspect is duration, which is also a property of a verb phrase. Accomplishments, states, and activities have duration, while achievements and semelfactives do not.
Usage of aspects
In some languages, aspect and time are very clearly separated, making them much more distinct to their speakers. There are a number of languages that mark aspect much more saliently than time. Prominent in this category is Chinese, which differentiates many aspects but relies exclusively on (optional) time-words to pinpoint an action with respect to time. In other language groups, for example in most modern
Indo-European languages(except Slavic languages), aspect has become almost entirely conflated, in the tense system, with time.
In Russian, aspect is more salient than tense in narrative. Russian, like other Slavic languages, uses different lexical entries for the different aspects, whereas other languages mark them morphologically, and still others with auxiliaries (e.g., English).
In high Arabic (الفصحى, "al-Fusha", the clear (language)) the verb is marked for tense but not aspect, according to the indigenous tradition. The "Past Verb" (فعل ماضي, fi'l maadiy) denotes an event (حدث, hadath) completed in the past, but says nothing about the relation of this past event to present status, nor about aspect, at least not directly. For example, "وصل", "wasala", "he arrived", indicates that arrival occurred in the past without saying anything about the present status of the arriver - maybe he stuck around, maybe he turned around and left, etc. - nor about the aspect of the past event except insofar as completeness can be considered aspectual. This "Past Verb" is clearly similar if not identical to the Greek Aorist, which is considered a tense but is more of an aspect marker. In the Arabic, aorist aspect is the logical consequence of past tense. By contrast, the "Verb of Similarity" (فعل المضارعة, fi'l al-mudaara'ah), so called because of its resemblance to the active participial noun, is considered to denote an event in the present or future without committing to a specific aspectual sense beyond the incompleteness implied by the tense: يضرب "yadribu", he strikes/is striking/will strike/etc. Those are the only two "tenses" in Arabic (not counting "أمر"، "amr", command, which the tradition counts as denoting future events.) At least that's the way the tradition sees it. To explicitly mark aspect, Arabic uses a variety of lexical and syntactic devices.
Contemporary Arabic dialects are another matter. One major change from al-Fusha is the use of a prefix particle (ب "bi" in most dialects) to explicitly mark progressive, continuous, or habitual aspect: بيكتب, bi-yiktib, he is now writing, writes all the time, etc.
Aspect can mark the stage of an action. The
inchoativeidentifies that the action is soon to take place. The inceptive aspect identifies the beginning stage of an action (e.g. Esperantouses "", e.g. "Mi ekmanĝas", "I am beginning to eat."). Aspects of stage continue through progressive, pausative, resumptive, cessive, and terminative.
*Although the perfective is often thought of as representing a "momentary action", this is not strictly correct. It can equally well be used for an action that took time, as long as it is "conceived of" as a unit, with a clearly defined start and end, such as "Last summer I visited France".
*Grammatical aspect represents a formal distinction encoded in the grammar of a language. Although languages that are described as having imperfective and perfective aspects will agree in most cases in their usage of these aspects, no two languages will agree in every situation. For example:
**Some languages have additional grammatical aspects. Spanish and Ancient Greek, for example, have a
perfect aspect(not the same as the perfective), which refers to a state resulting from a previous action (also described as a previous action with relevance to a particular time, or a previous action viewed from the perspective of a later time). This corresponds (roughly) to the "have X-ed" construction in English, as in "I have recently eaten". Languages that lack this aspect (such as Portuguese, which is closely related to Spanish) often use the past perfective to render the present perfect (compare the roughly synonymous English sentences "Have you eaten yet?" and "Did you eat yet?").
**In some languages, the formal representation of aspect is optional, and can be omitted when the aspect is clear from context or does not need to be emphasized. This is the case, for example, in Mandarin Chinese, with the perfective suffix "le" and (especially) the imperfective "zhe".
**For some verbs in some languages, the difference between perfective and imperfective conveys an additional meaning difference; in such cases, the two aspects will typically be translated using separate verbs in English. In Greek, for example, the imperfective sometimes adds the notion of "try to do something" (the so-called "conative imperfect"); hence the same verb, in the imperfective (present or imperfect tense) and aorist, respectively, is used to convey "look" and "see", "search" and "find", "listen" and "hear". (For example, ηκουομεν "ēkouomen" "we listened" vs. ηκουσαμεν "ēkousamen" "we heard".) Spanish has similar pairs for certain verbs, such as (imperfect and preterite, respectively) "sabía" "I knew" vs. "supe" "I found out", "podía" "I was able to" vs. "pude" "I succeeded (in doing something)", "quería" "I wanted to" vs. "quise" "I tried to", "no quería" "I did not want to" vs. "no quise" "I refused (to do something)". Such differences are often highly language-specific.
Aspect in English
According to one prevalent account, the English tense system has only two basic "times", present and past. No primitive future tense exists in English; the futurity of an event is expressed through the use of the
auxiliary verbs "will" and " shall", by use of a present form, as in "tomorrow we go to Newark", or by some other means. Present and past, in contrast, can be expressed using direct modifications of the verb, which may be modified further by the progressive aspect(also called the "continuous" aspect), the perfect aspect(also called the "completed" aspect), or both. Each tense is named according to its combination of aspects and time. These two aspects are also referred to as BE + ING (for the first) and as HAVE +EN (for the second). Although a little unwieldy, such tags allow us to avoid the suggestion that uses of the aspect BE + ING always have a "progressive" or "continuous" meaning, which they do not.
For the present tense:
*Present Simple (not progressive/continuous, not perfect; simple): "I eat"
*Present Progressive (progressive, not perfect): "I am eating"
*Present Perfect (not progressive, perfect): "I have eaten"
*Present Perfect Progressive (progressive, perfect): "I have been eating"
For the past tense:
*Past Simple (not progressive/continuous, not perfect; simple): "I ate"
*Past Progressive (progressive, not perfect): "I was eating"
*Past Perfect (not progressive, perfect): "I had eaten"
*Past Perfect Progressive (progressive, perfect): "I had been eating"
(Note that, while many elementary discussions of English grammar would classify the Present Perfect as a past tense, from the standpoint of strict linguistics – and that elucidated here – it is clearly a species of the present, as we cannot say of someone now deceased that he "has eaten" or "has been eating"; the present auxiliary implies that he is in some way "present" (alive), even if the action denoted is completed (perfect) or partially completed (progressive perfect).)
The uses of these two aspects are quite complex. They may refer to the viewpoint of the speaker: :I was walking down the road when I met Michael Jackson's lawyer. (Speaker viewpoint in middle of action):I have travelled widely, but I have never been to Moscow. (Speaker viewpoint at end of action)
But they can have other meanings:
:You are being stupid now. (You are doing it deliberately):You are not having chocolate with your sausages! (I forbid it):I am having lunch with Mike tomorrow. (It is decided)
Another aspect that does survive in English, but that is no longer productive, is the
frequentative, which conveys the sense of continuously repeated action; while prominent in Latin, it is omitted from most discussions of English grammar, as it suggests itself only by Scandinavian suffixes no longer heard independently from the words to which they are affixed (e.g., "blabber" for "blab", "chatter" for "chat", "dribble" for "drip", "crackle" for "crack", etc.).
Note that the aspectual systems of certain dialects of English, such as
Hawaiian Creole Englishand African-American Vernacular English, are quite different from standard English, and often distinguish aspect at the expense of tense.
Aspect in Slavic languages
Slavic languagesthere is only one type of aspectual opposition which forms two grammatical aspects: perfective and imperfective (in contrast with English which has two aspectual oppositions: perfect vs. neutral and progressive vs. nonprogressive). The aspectual distinctions exist on the lexical level - there is no unique method to form a perfective verb from a given imperfective one (or conversely).
With a few exceptions each Slavic verb is either perfective or imperfective. Most verbs form strict pairs of one perfective and one imperfective verb with generally the same meaning. However, each Slavic language contains a number of verbs which are bi-aspectual and act as both imperfective and perfective. They are mainly borrowings from non-Slavic languages, but some native verbs also belong to this group. As opposed to them, mono-aspectual verbs are mainly native. There are mono-aspectual imperfective verbs without perfective equivalents (among others, verbs with the meaning 'to be' and 'to have') as well as perfective verbs without imperfective equivalents (for instance, verbs with the meaning 'become ...', e.g. 'to become paralyzed', etc.).
The perfective aspect allows the speaker to describe the action as finished, completed, finished in the natural way. The imperfective aspect does not present the action as finished, but rather as pending or ongoing.
An example is the verb 'to eat' in the
Serbo-Croatian language. The verb translates either as "jesti" (imperfective) or "pojesti" (perfective). Now, both aspects could be used in the same tense of Serbian. For example (omitting, for simplicity, feminine forms like "jela"):
"Ja sam pojeo" signals that the action was completed. Its meaning can be given as "I ate (something) and I finished eating (it)"; or "I ate (something) up".
"Ja sam jeo" signals that the action took place (at a specified moment, or in the course of one's life, or every day, etc.); it may mean "I was eating", "I ate" or "I have been eating".
The following examples are from Polish.
Imperfective verbs mean:
* actions in progress, just ongoing states and activities, with significant course (in opinion of the speaker);
* activities posing the background for other (perfective) activities, ex. "czytałem książkę, gdy zadzwonił telefon" 'I was reading the book when the telephone rang';
* simultaneous activities, ex. "będę czytać książkę, podczas gdy brat będzie pisać list" 'I will be reading the book while brother will be writing the letter';
* durative activities, lasting through some time, e.g. "krzyczał" 'he was shouting', "będzie drgać" 'it will be vibrating';
* motions without a strict aim, ex. "chodzę" 'I am walking here and there';
* multiple (iterative) activities, ex. "dopisywać" 'to insert many times to the text', "będziemy wychodziły" 'we will go out (many times)';
* non-resultative activities, only heading towards some purpose: "będę pisał list" 'I will be writing the letter';
* continuous states, ex. "będę stać" 'I will be standing'.
Perfective verbs mean past or future, but not present activities – an activity which is happening now cannot be ended, so it cannot be perfective. Perfective verbs mean:
* states and activities which were ended (even if a second ago) or which will be ended, with insignificant course, short or treated as a whole by the speaker, ex. "krzyknął" 'he shouted', "drgnie" 'it will stir';
* single-time activities, ex. "dopisać" 'to insert to the text', "wyszedł" 'he has gone out';
* actions whose goals have already been achieved, even if with difficulty, ex. "przeczytałem" 'I have read', "doczytała się" 'she finished reading and found what she had sought';
* reasons for the state, ex. "pokochała" 'she came to love', "zrozumiesz" 'you (sg.) will understand', "poznamy" 'we will get to know';
* the beginning of the activity or the state, ex. "wstanę" 'I will stand up' (and I will stand), "zaczerwienił się" 'he reddened';
* the end of the activity or the state, ex. "dośpiewaj" 'sing until the end';
* activities executed in many places, on many objects or by many subjects at the same time, ex. "powynosił" 'he carried out (many things)', "popękają" 'they will break out in many places', "poucinać" 'to cut off many items';
* actions or states which last some time, ex. "postoję" 'I will stand for a little time', "pobył" 'he was (there) for some time'.
Most simple Polish verbs are imperfective (the same in other Slavic languages), ex. "iść" 'to walk, to go', "nieść" 'to carry', "pisać" 'to write'. But there are also few simple perfective verbs, ex. "dać" 'to give', "siąść" 'to sit down'. There exist many perfective verbs with suffixes and without prefixes, ex. "krzyknąć" 'to shout', "kupić" 'to buy' (cf. the imperfective "kupować" with a different suffix).
Numerous perfective verbs are formed from simple imperfectives by prefixation. To create the perfective counterpart, verbs use various prefixes without any clear rules. The actual prefix can even depend on a dialect or special meaning, ex. the perfective counterpart to "malować" is "pomalować" when it means 'to paint a wall', or "namalować" when it means 'to paint a picture'.
Besides the strict perfective equivalent, a number of other prefixed verbs may be formed from a given simple imperfective verb. They all have similar but distinct meaning. And they form, as a rule, their own imperfective equivalents by means of suffixation (attaching
suffixes) or stem alternation. Example:
* "prać" 'to wash / clean clothes with water and soap / washing powder' is a simple imperfective verb;
* "uprać" is its perfective counterpart while "doprać", "przeprać", "oprać" are other derived perfective verbs with a little different meanings;
* "dopierać", "przepierać", "opierać" are secondary imperfective verbs which are counterparts for "doprać, przeprać, oprać" respectively; "*upierać" does not exist because the basic verb "prać" is the imperfective counterpart of "uprać".
There is a number of verbs which form their aspectual counterparts by simultaneous prefixation and suffixation or by suppletion, ex. (the first one is imperfective) "stawiać - postawić" 'to set up', "brać - wziąć" 'to take', "widzieć - zobaczyć" 'to see'.
Special imperfective verbs are those which express aimless motions. They are mono-aspectual, i.e. they have no perfective equivalents. They are formed from other imperfective verbs by stem alternations or suppletion, ex. "nosić" 'to carry around' (from "nieść"), "chodzić" 'to walk around, to go around' (from "iść" 'to go, to walk'). However, when such a verb gets an aim anyway, it becomes iterative: "chodzić do szkoły" 'to go to school'.
Other iteratives build another group of mono-aspectual imperfective verbs. They are formed from other imperfective verbs, including the previous group: "chadzać" 'to walk around usually (from "chodzić"), "jadać" 'to eat usually' (from "jeść" 'to eat'). Both groups are not too numerous: most Polish verbs cannot form iterative counterparts.
Perfective verbs which express activities executed in many places, on many objects or by many subjects at the same time, and those which express actions or states which last some time, have no imperfective counterparts. They are formed with the prefix "po-" (which can have other functions as well).
States and activities which last for some time can be expressed by means of both imperfective and perfective verbs: "cały dzień leżał w łóżku" 'he was in bed all day long' (literally: 'he lay in bed') means nearly the same as "cały dzień przeleżał w łóżku". The difference is mainly stylistic: imperfective is neutral here, while using perfective causes stronger tone of the statement.
Aspect in Slavic is a superior category in relation to
tenseor mood. Particularly, some verbal forms (like infinitive) cannot distinguish tense but they still distinguish aspect. Here is the list of Polish verb forms which can be formed by both imperfective and perfective verbs (such a list is similar in other Slavic languages). The example is an imperfective and a perfective Polish verb with the meaning 'to write'. All personal forms are given in third person, masculine singular:
* infinitive: "pisać - napisać";
* passive participle: "pisany - napisany";
* gerund: "pisanie - napisanie";
* past impersonal form: "pisano - napisano";
* past impersonal form in subjunctive: "pisano by - napisano by";
* past tense: "pisał - napisał";
* future tense: "będzie pisać / będzie pisał - napisze";
* conditional, first form: "pisałby - napisałby";
* conditional, second form: "byłby pisał - byłby napisał";
* imperative: "pisz - napisz".
The following may be formed only if the verb is imperfective:
* contemporary adverbial participle – "pisząc";
* active participle – "piszący";
* present tense – "pisze".
One form may be created only if the verb is perfective, namely:
* anterior adverbial participle – "napisawszy".
Aspect in Finnic languages
Finnish and Estonian, among others, have a grammatical aspect contrast of
telicitybetween telic and atelic. Telic sentences signal that the intended goal of an action is achieved. Atelic sentences do not signal whether any such goal has been achieved. The aspect is indicated by the case of the object: accusativeis telic and partitiveis atelic. For example, the (implicit) purpose of shooting is to kill, such that:
* "Ammuin karhun" -- "I shot the bear (succeeded; it is done)"; i.e., "I shot the bear dead".
* "Ammuin karhua" -- "I shot at the bear"; i.e., "I shot the bear (and I am not telling if it died)". Sometimes, corresponding telic and atelic forms have as little to do with each other semantically as "take" has with "take off". For example, "naida" means "to marry" when telic, but "to have sex with" when atelic.
Also, derivational suffixes exist for various aspects. Examples:
*"-ahta-" "do suddenly by itself" as in "ammahtaa" "to shoot up" from "ampua" "to shoot"
*"-ele-" "repeatedly" as in "ammuskella" "to go shooting around"
There are derivational suffixes for verbs, which carry
frequentative, momentane, causative, and inchoativeaspect meanings; also, pairs of verbs differing only in transitivityexist.
Confusing terminology: perfective vs. perfect
The terms "perfective" and "perfect" are used in an unfortunate and highly confusing fashion in different writings about linguistics. Traditional Greek grammar uses the term "perfect" to refer to a grammatical tense encoding what is variously described as a past action with present relevance or a present state resulting from a past action. (For example, "I have gone to the cinema" implies both that I went to the cinema and that I am now in the cinema.) The perfect is opposed to the
aorist, describing a simple past action, and the imperfect, describing an ongoing past action. From this, the aspectual nature of the perfect tense was generalized into the perfect aspect, describing a previously completed action with relevance to a particular time. Accordingly, English grammar speaks of the " present perfect" ("I have gone"), the " past perfect" or " pluperfect" ("I had gone"), and the " future perfect" ("I will have gone").
Latin, however, lacks a distinction between aorist and perfect, and for morphological reasons the single tense representing the combination of both meanings is called the "perfect". The two-way distinction here between imperfect and perfect is carried over into the terminology of various modern languages, such as the
Slavic languagesand the Romance languages, where a distinction between "imperfective" and "perfective" aspect corresponds to a distinction between an event viewed as ongoing or with internal structure and an event viewed as a simple whole. That is, what is called "perfective" is similar to the aspectual nature of the original Greek aorist, "not" the Greek perfect.
Many linguists have tried to maintain this terminology. The web site of
SIL International, for example, describes the "perfective aspect" as "an aspect that expresses a temporal view of an event or state as a simple whole, apart from the consideration of the internal structure of the time in which it occurs". [ [http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsPerfectiveAspect.htm © 2004 SIL International] ] This has led other linguists to categorize the three-way aspectual distinction visible in Greek, English, Spanish and various other languages as a distinction between "imperfective", "perfective" and "perfect". Not surprisingly, the latter two are constantly confused, and "perfective" is often taken to be synonymous with "perfect".
Examples of various aspects rendered in English
* Perfective (aorist, simple; see above): 'I struck the bell.' (single action)
* Perfect (sometimes confusingly called "perfective"; see above): 'I have arrived at the cinema.' (hence, I am now in the cinema)
* Progressive (continuous): 'I am eating.' (action is in progress)
Habitual: 'I walk home from work.' (every day): 'I would walk [OR: used to walk] home from work.' (past habit)
* Imperfective (either progressive or habitual): 'I am walking to work' (progressive) or 'I walk to work every day' (habitual).
* Prospective: 'I am about to eat' OR: 'I am going to eat."
Recent Perfector After Perfect: 'I just ate' OR: 'I am after eating." (Hiberno-English)
Inceptive: 'I am beginning to eat.'
Inchoative(not clearly distinguished from prospective): 'The apples are about to ripen.'
Continuative: 'I am still eating.'
* Terminative: 'I am finishing my meal.'
Conative: 'I am trying to eat.'
* Cessative: 'I am quitting smoking.'
* Defective : 'I almost fell.'
* Pausative: 'I stopped working for a while.'
* Resumptive: 'I resumed sleeping.'
* Punctual: 'I slept.'
* Durative: 'I slept for an hour.'
* Delimitative: 'I slept for a while.'
* Protractive: 'The argument went on and on.'
* Iterative: 'I read the same books again and again.'
Frequentative: 'It sparkled', contrasted with 'It sparked'. Or, 'I run around', vs. 'I run'.
* Experiential: 'I have gone to school many times.'
* Intentional: 'I listened carefully.'
* Accidental: 'I knocked over the chair.'
* Generic: 'Mangoes grow on trees.'
Intensive: 'It glared.'
* Moderative: 'It shone.'
* Attenuative: 'It glimmered.'
* Semelfactive (
momentane): 'The mouse squeaked once.' (contrasted to 'The mouse squeaked/was squeaking.')
*Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics (ISBN 0-415-20319-8), by
Hadumod Bussmann, edited by Gregory P. Trauthand Kerstin Kazzazi, Routledge, London 1996. Translation of German "Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft" Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart 1990.
*Smith, Carlota. "The Parameter of Aspect". Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997.
* [http://www.ling.helsinki.fi/~lcarlson/02-03/ctl104/ctl104h03facit.html Morfofonologian harjoituksia] , Lauri Carlson
* [http://www.scar.utoronto.ca/~binnick/old%20tense/ Robert Binnick annotated tense/aspect bibliography] (around 9000 entries)
* [http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/dissertations/2004-0309-140804/inhoud.htm Anna Katarzyna Młynarczyk: Aspectual Pairing in Polish] , a pdf version of the book
* [http://www.lbt-languages.de/english/lernhilfe/lernhilfe.html Grammar Tutorials] - a column overview of the English tenses
* [http://www.bcbsr.com/greek/gtense.html Greek tenses]
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