Alectis

Taxobox
name = "Alectis"
fossil_range = fossilrange|55|0
Eocene to Present [cite journal | last = Sepkoski | first = Jack | title = A compendium of fossil marine animal genera | journal = Bulletins of American Paleontology | volume = 364 | pages = p.560 | date = 2002 | url = http://strata.ummp.lsa.umich.edu/jack/showgenera.php?taxon=611&rank=class | accessdate = 2007-12-31 ]



image_caption = African Pompano
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Actinopterygii
ordo = Perciformes
subordo = Percoidei
superfamilia = Percoidea
familia = Carangidae
genus = "Alectis"
genus_authority = Rafinesque, 1815
type_species = "Gallus virescens"
Lacepède, 1802
synonyms =
*"Gallus" (Lacépède, 1802)
*"Scyris" (Cuvier, 1829)
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision =
*"Alectis alexandrinus"
*"Alectis ciliaris"
*"Alectis indicus"

"Alectis" is a genus of fish in the family Carangidae containing three extant species, all of which are large marine fishes. They are commonly known as threadfish, diamond trevallies and occasionally pompanos, although they have no close affiliation with the true pompano genus.

Taxonomy

"Alectis" is one of 33 genera in the jack and horse mackerel family Carangidae. The Carangidae are perciform fishes in the suborder Percoidei. [ITIS | ID = 168600 | taxon = Alectis | year = 2007 | date = 21 October]

The first fish in the genus to be described was "Alectis ciliaris" under the genus name of "Zeus", part of the dory family. Lacépède recognized the species was not a dory and assigned it to a new genus, "Gallus", however this was preoccupied by a bird. cite book | last = Hosese | first = D.F. | coauthors = Bray, D.J., Paxton, J.R. and Alen, G.R. | title = Zoological Catalogue of Australia Vol. 35 (2) Fishes | publisher = CSIRO | date = 2007 | location = Sydney | pages = 1150 | isbn =978-0-643-09334-8 ] In 1815, Rafinesque proposed the name "Alectis", into which three species were eventually placed. Georges Cuvier proposed a second name, "Scyris" for the genus in 1829, but "Alectis" had priority and has therefore been cemented for the time being.cite book | last = Carpenter | first = Kent E. | coauthors = Volker H. Niem (eds.) | title = FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae) | publisher = FAO | date = 2001 | location = Rome | pages = 2684 | url = http://ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/y4160e/y4160e00.pdf | isbn = 92-5-104587-9 ] The name "Alectis" is derived from one of three Erinyes in the Greek mythology; daughter of Acheronte with a terrible rage. [FishBase genus | genus = Alectis | year = 2007 | month = October]

A single species has been identified the fossil record; "Alectis simus", from the Eocene period of England. It was found alongside a number of extinct and extant carangid genera including "Caranx" and "Usacaranx" (extinct). [cite journal | last = Stinton | first = F.C. | title = Fish Otoliths from the English UK Eocene | journal = Palaeontographical Society Monographs | volume = 133 | issue = 558 | pages = 191–258 | location = London | date = 1979 | id = ISSN 0376-2734 | accessdate = 2008-01-04 ]

pecies

* African threadfish, "Alectis alexandrinus" (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817)
* African pompano, "Alectis ciliaris" (Bloch, 1787)
* Indian threadfish, "Alectis indicus" (Ruppell, 1830)
* "Alectis simus" (Stinton, 1979)Note: Extinct species denoted with a cross †

Biology

The fish of the genus are large, powerful fishes that look very similar to a number of other large jacks, with the main difference being the profile of the head and the characteristic long filamentous anal and dorsal fins displayed by juveniles of these species. They are generally a silver colour, with pale green to hyaline fins. "A. indica" is the largest of the genus, growing to a reported 165 m and 25 kg in weight.cite journal | last = Gunn | first = John S. | title = A revision of selected genera of the family Carangidae (Pisces) from Australian waters | journal = Records of the Australian Museum | volume = Supplement 12 | pages =1–78 | date = 1990 | accessdate = ]

The genus has a circum-tropical distribution, with adults generally restricted to reefs in coastal areas down to 100 m, while juveniles are often pelagic.cite book | last = Carpenter | first = Kent E. | coauthors = Volker H. Niem (eds.) | title = FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae) | publisher = FAO | date = 2001 | location = Rome | pages = 2684 | url = http://ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/y4160e/y4160e00.pdf | isbn = 92-5-104587-9 ] All three are predators of small fishes, cephalopods and crustaceans. A little is known of their reproductive habits and larval phases, with spawning occurring during daylight between pairs. [cite journal | last = Westernhagen | first = H. Von | title = Observations on the natural spawning of "Alectis indicus" (Rüppell) and "Caranx ignobilis" (Forsk.) (Carangidae) | journal = Journal of Fish Biology | volume = 6 | issue = 4 | pages = 513–516 | publisher = Blackwell Synergy | date = 1974 | doi = 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1974.tb04567.x | accessdate =2007-10-23 ]

Relationship to humans

The genus is of minor importance to both commercial and subsistence fisheries, with the species generally not numerous enough to warrant a specific fishery. All species are considered fine game fish, attaining large sizes and capable of blistering runs. The flesh of the genus is generally considered very good for culinary purposes, although at least one species has been implicated in a case of Ciguatera poisoning. [cite journal | last = Bourdeau | first = P. | coauthors = Bagnis, R. | title = Risk factors of ciguatera in the French West Indies in Saint-Barthelemy, Saint-Martin and Anguilla (Article in French) | journal = Revue d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux | volume = 42 | issue = 3 | pages = 393–410 | publisher = | location = | date = 1989 | id = ISSN 1951-6711 | accessdate = ] In Singapore, "A. indica" has successfully been bred in aquaculture for food production in relatively low numbers. Juveniles are occasionally used in saltwater aquariums, noted for their filamentous anal and dorsal fins. [cite web | last = Pet education | title = Indian threadfin | work = Fish | publisher = Foster & Smith, Inc | url = http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?cls=16&cat=1883&articleid=1944 | accessdate = 2007-10-23 ]

References

External links

* [http://www.fishbase.org/Eschmeyer/GeneraSummary.cfm?ID=Alectis "Alectis" at Fishbase]


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