Gairdner Foundation International Award

The Gairdner Foundation International Award is given annually at a special dinner to three to six people for outstanding discoveries or contributions to medical science. Receipt of the Gairdner is traditionally considered a precursor to winning the Nobel Prize in Medicine;Harvard reference | Surname=Garfield | Given=Eugene | Authorlink=Eugene Garfield | Title=Who will win the Nobel Prize in Economics? Here's a forecast based on Citation Indicators. | Journal=Current Comments | Volume= | Issue=11 | year = March 12, 1990 | Pages=3-7 | URL=http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v13p083y1990.pdf ] as of 2007, 69 Nobel Prizes have been awarded to prior Gairdner recipients.cite web | author = Fraumeni, Paul | date = October 20, 2006 | url = http://www.news.utoronto.ca/bin6/061020-2657.asp | title = Gairdner Awards bring top medical minds to U of T | format = | work = News@UofT | publisher = University of Toronto | accessdate = 2006-10-24 | accessyear = ]

Past winners are: [cite web |url = http://www.gairdner.org/winners.html |title = List of winners |publisher = The Gairdner Foundation |accessdaymonth = 19 December |accessyear = 2007 ]

*1959 Alfred Blalock, Helen B. Taussig, Charles A. Ragan, Harry M. Rose, William D.M. Paton, Eleanor Zaimis, Wilfred G. Bigelow
*1960 Joshua H. Burn, John H. Gibbon Jr., William F. Hamilton, John McMichael, Karl Meyer, Arnold R. Rich
*1961 Russell Brock, Alan C. Burton, Alexander B. Gutman, Jonas H. Kellgren, Ulf S. von Euler
*1962 Francis H.C. Crick, Albert H. Coons, Clarence Crafoord, Henry G. Kunkel, Stanley J. Sarnoff
*1963 Murray L. Barr, Jacques Genest, Irvine H. Page, Pierre Grabar, C Walton Lillehei, Eric G.L. Bywaters
*1964 Seymour Benzer, Karl H. Beyer Jr., Deborah Doniach, Ivan M. Roitt, Gordon D.W. Murray, Keith R. Porter
*1965 Jerome W. Conn, Robin R.A. Coombs, Charles E. Dent, Charles P. Leblond, Daniel J. McCarty, F. Horace Smirk
*1966 Rodney R. Porter, Geoffrey S. Dawes, Charles B. Huggins, Willem J. Kolff, Luis F. Leloir, Jacques F.A.P. Miller, Jan Waldenström
*1967 Christian DeDuve, Marshall W. Nirenberg, George E. Palade, Julius Axelrod, Sidney Udenfriend, D. Harold Copp, Iain MacIntyre, Peter J. Moloney, J. Fraser Mustard
*1968 Bruce Chown, James L. Gowans, George H. Hitchings, Jacques Oudin, J. Edwin Seegmiller
*1969 Frank J. Dixon, John P. Merrill, Belding H. Scribner, Robert B. Salter, Earl W. Sutherland, Ernest A. McCulloch, F. Mason Sones, James E. Till
*1970 Vincent P. Dole, W. Richard S. Doll, Robert A. Good, Niels K. Jerne, Robert B. Merrifield
*1971 Charles H. Best, Rachmiel Levine, Frederick Sanger, Donald F. Steiner, Solomon A. Berson, Rosalyn S. Yalow
*1972 Karl S.D. Bergström, Britton Chance, Oleh Hornykiewicz, Robert R. Race, Ruth Sanger
*1973 Roscoe O. Brady, Denis P. Burkitt, John Charnley, Kimishige Ishizaka, Teruko Ishizaka, Harold E. Johns
*1974 David Baltimore, Howard M. Temin, Hector F. DeLuca, Roger Guillemin, Andrew V. Schally, Hans J. Müller-Eberhard, Juda Quastel
*1975 Ernest Beutler, Baruch S. Blumberg, Henri G. Hers, Hugh E. Huxley, John D. Keith, William T. Mustard
*1976 Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield, Thomas R. Dawber, William B. Kannel, Eugene P. Kennedy, George Klein, George D. Snell
*1977 K. Frank Austen, Cyril A. Clarke, Jean Dausset, Henry G. Friesen, Victor A. McKusick
*1978 Sydney Brenner, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Donald S. Fredrickson, Samuel O. Freedman, Phil Gold, Edwin G. Krebs, Elizabeth C. Miller, James A. Miller, Lars Terenius
*1979 Sir James W. Black, George F. Cahill Jr., Walter Gilbert, Elwood V. Jensen, Frederick Sanger, Charles R. Scriver
*1980 Paul Berg, Irving B. Fritz, H. Gobind Khorana, Efraim Racker, Jesse Roth, Michael Sela
*1981 Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein, Wai Yiu Cheung, Jerry H-C. Wang, Georges J. Köhler, César Milstein, Elizabeth F. Neufeld, Saul Roseman, Bengt Samuelsson
*1982 Gilbert Ashwell, Günter Blobel, Arvid Carlsson, Paul Janssen, Manfred M. Mayer
*1983 Donald A. Henderson, Bruce N. Ames, Gerald D. Aurbach, John A. Clements, Richard K. Gershon, Susumu Tonegawa
*1984 J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus, Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell, Yuet Wai Kan, Kresimir Krnjevic, Robert L. Noble
*1985 Stanley Cohen, Paul C. Lauterbur, Raymond U. Lemieux, Mary F. Lyon, Mark Ptashne, Charles Yanofsky
*1986 Jean-Francois Borel, James E. Darnell, Philip A. Sharp, Adolfo J. de Bold, T. Geoffrey Flynn, Harald Sonnenberg, Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Michael Smith
*1987 Peter J. Favaloro, Robert C. Gallo, Luc Montagnier, Walter J. Gehring, Edward B. Lewis, Eric R. Kandel, Michael G. Rossmann
*1988 Albert J. Aguayo, Michael J. Berridge, Yasutomi Nishizuka, Thomas R. Cech, Michael A. Epstein, Robert J. Lefkowitz
*1989 Mark M. Davis, Tak W. Mak, Jean-Marie Ghuysen, Louis M. Kunkel, Ronald G. Worton, Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann
*1990 Francis S. Collins, John R. Riordan, Lap-Chee Tsui, Victor Ling, Oliver Smithies, Edwin M. Southern, E. Donnall Thomas
*1991 Sydney Brenner, John E. Sulston, M. Judah Folkman, Robert F. Furchgott, David H. MacLennan, Kary B. Mullis
*1992 Leland H. Hartwell, Yoshio Masui, Paul M. Nurse, Richard Peto, Bert Vogelstein, Robert A. Weinberg
*1993 Mario R. Capecchi, Oliver Smithies, Alvin R. Feinstein, Stanley B. Prusiner, Michel M. Ter-Pogossian
*1994 Pamela J. Bjorkman, Don C. Wiley, Tony Hunter, Anthony J. Pawson, Donald Metcalf
*1995 Bruce Alberts, Arthur Kornberg, Roger Y. Tsien
*1996 Robert S. Langer, Barry J. Marshall, James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman, Janet Rowley
*1997 Corey S. Goodman, Erkki Ruoslahti, Richard O. Hynes, Alfred G. Knudson Jr.
*1998 Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol W. Greider, Giuseppe Attardi, Walter Neupert, Gottfried Schatz
*1999 Avram Hershko, Alexander J.Varshavsky, Robert Horvitz, Andrew Wyllie
*2000 Jack Hirsh, Roger D. Kornberg, Robert G. Roeder, Alain Townsend, Emil Unanue
*2001 Clay Armstrong, Bertil Hille, Roderick MacKinnon, Marc Kirschner
*2002 Philip P. Green, Eric Lander, Maynard V. Olson, John E. Sulston, J. Craig Venter, Michael S. Waterman, Robert Waterston, Jean Weissenbach, Francis Collins (Award of Merit), James D. Watson (Award of Merit)
*2003 Richard Axel, Linda B. Buck, Wayne A. Hendrickson, Seiji Ogawa, Ralph M. Steinman
*2004 Seymour Benzer, R. John Ellis, F. Ulrich Hartl, Arthur L. Horwich, George Sachs
*2005 Jeffrey M. Friedman, Douglas Coleman, Craig C. Mello, Andrew Z. Fire, Brenda Milner, Endel Tulving
*2006 Ralph L. Brinster, Ronald M. Evans, Alan Hall, Thomas D. Pollard, Joan A. Steitz
*2007 C. David Allis, Kim A. Nasmyth, Dennis J. Slamon, Harry F. Noller, Thomas A. Steitz
*2008 Victor Ambros, Harald zur Hausen, Gary Ruvkun, Nahum Sonenberg, Samuel Weiss

Notes and references

ee also

*Gairdner Foundation Wightman Award


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