A truck driver (Commonly called a trucker, driver or
teamsterin the United Statesand Canada, a truckie or ute driver in Australiaand New Zealandand a lorry driver or driver in Irelandand the United Kingdom) is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck, usually a semi truck, box truck, or dump truck.
Truck drivers provide an essential service to
industrializedsocieties by transportingfinished goods and raw materialsover land, typically from manufacturing plantsto retailor distribution centers. Truck drivers are also responsible for the inspection and maintenance of the vehicle used. Others, such as Driver/Sales workers, are also responsible for salesand customer service.
Types of truck drivers
There are two major types of truck driver employment:
Owner-operators (also known as O/Os) are individuals that own the trucks they drive and can either leasetheir trucks by contract with a trucking company to haul freight for that company using their own trucks, or they haul loads for a number of companies and are self employed independent contractors.
* Company drivers are employees of a particular trucking company and drive trucks that are provided by their employer.
Both owner operators/owner driver and company drivers can be in these categories.
*Auto haulers work hauling cars on specially built trailers and require specific skills loading and operating this type of specialized trailer.
*Dry Van drivers haul the majority of goods over highways in large trailers. Contents are generally non perishable goods.
*Flat Bed drivers haul an assortment of large bulky items. A few examples are tanks, steel pipes and lumber. Drivers require the ability to balance the load correctly.
*LTL drivers or "less than truck load" are usually local delivery jobs where goods are delivered and unloaded by the driver at multiple locations, usually involving the pulling of double or triple trailer combinations.
*Reefer drivers haul refrigerated or frozen goods.
*Local drivers work only within the limits of their hometowns or only to nearby towns. They return home nightly.
*Household Goods drivers, or Bedbuggers haul personal effects for families who are moving from one home to another.
*Regional drivers may work over several states near their homes. They are usually away from home for short periods.
*Interstate drivers (otherwise known as "over the road" or "long-haul" drivers) often cover distances of thousands of miles and are away from home for a week or more. To help keep drivers, companies can employ team drivers.
*Team drivers are two drivers who take turns driving the same truck in shifts (sometimes husband and wife), or several people in different states that split up the haul to keep from being away from home for such long periods.
*Tanker drivers (in truck driver slang "tanker yankers") haul liquids, such as gasoline (petrol), diesel fuel, milk, & crude oil, and dry bulk materials, such as plastics, sugar, flour & cement in tanks. Liquid tanker drivers need special driving skills due to the load balance changing from the liquid movement. This is especially true for milk tankers, which do not contain any baffles and are a single compartment (due to sanitation requirements).
*Vocational drivers drive a
vocational trucksuch as a dump truck, garbage truck, or cement mixer.
*Container Intermodal drivers do all of the above, except their
cargo containersare lifted on or off the chassis, at special intermodal stations.
Drivers working hours
All drivers are bound by laws limiting the amount of time they can work to prevent driver fatigue.
European Union, drivers working hoursare regulated by EU regulation (EC) No 561/2006 [http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32006R0561:EN:HTML] which entered into force on April 11, 2007. The non-stop driving time may not exceed 4.5 hours. After 4.5 hours of driving the driver must take a break period of at least 45 minutes. however, this can be split into 2 breaks, the first being at least 15 minutes, and the second being at least 30 minutes in length. The weekly driving time may not exceed 56 hours. In addition to this, a driver cannot exceed 90 hours driving in a fortnight.
United States, the hours of service(HOS) are regulated by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration(FMCSA). Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers are not allowed to drive more than 11 hours in a 14-hour period, which then must be followed by a 10-hour break. Drivers are not allowed to drive more than 70 hours within a period of 8 days. [cite web |url=http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/rules-regulations/administration/fmcsr/fmcsrruletext.asp?rule_toc=764§ion=395.3§ion_toc=1940 |title=395.3 |accessdate=2008-01-31 |work=Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration] Drivers must complete a logbook documenting time spent driving. The logbook must be kept current, and must be presented to law enforcement officials upon demand.
Australia, drivers of trucks and truck and trailer combinations with gross vehicle mass greater than 12 tonnes [http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/heavyvehicles/regulations/hv_drivinghours.html] must rest for 30 minutes every 5 hours and stop for 10 hours of sleep for every 14 hours of work (includes driving and non-driving duties). After 72 working hours (not including time spent resting or sleeping) a driver must spend 24 hours away from his/her vehicle. Truck drivers must complete a logbook documenting hours and kilometres spent driving. [http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/heavyvehicles/regulations/hv_standardhours.html]
In Australia heavy vehicle licences are issued by the states but are a national standard; there are 5 classes of licence required by drivers of heavy vehicles:
* A Light Rigid (LR class) licence covers a rigid vehicle with a gross vehicle mass (GVM) not more than 8 tonnes, with a towed trailer not weighing more than 9 tonnes GVM. Also buses with a GVM up to 8 tonnes which carry more than 12 adults including the driver.
* A Medium Rigid (MR class) licence covers a rigid vehicle with 2 axles and a GVM of more than 8 tonnes, with a towed trailer not weighing more than 9 tonnes GVM.
* A Heavy Rigid (HR class) licence covers a rigid vehicle with 3 or more axles and a GVM of more than 8 tonnes, with a towed trailer not weighing more than 9 tonnes GVM. Also
* A Heavy Combination (HC class) licence covers semi-trailers, or rigid vehicles towing a trailer with a GVM of more than 9 tonnes.
* A Multi-Combination (MC class) licence covers multi-combination vehicles like Road Trains and B-Double Vehicles.
A person must have a C class (car) licence for 1 year before they can apply for an LR or MR class licence and 2 years before they can apply for an HR, to upgrade to an HC class licence a person must have an MR or HR class licence for 1 year and to upgrade to an MC class licence a person must have an HR or HC class licence for 1 year. [http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/licensing/downloads/national_driver_licence_classes_06.pdf]
In the UK, one or more of the categories of
Large Goods Vehicle(LGV) licenses is required. This is still widely known as an HGV or Heavy Goods Vehicle license after its former name.
The United States employs a
truck classificationsystem, and truck drivers are required to have a Commercial Driver's License(CDL) to operate a CMV weighing in excess of 26,000 pounds. Although some state motor vehicle departments administer the CDL program, most are tested through a third party organization. Acquiring a CDL requires a skills test (driving test), and knowledge test (written test) covering the unique handling qualities of driving a large, heavily loaded 18-wheeler, and the mechanical systems required to operate such a vehicle (air brakes, suspension, cargo securement).
U.S. Department of Transportation(DOT) spells out the various classes of CDLs and the requirements to obtain one.cite web |url=http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/registration-licensing/cdl/cdl.htm |title=Commercial Drivers License Program |accessdate=2008-01-25 |work=http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov |publisher=U.S. Department of Transportation - Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration ]
* Class A - Any combination of vehicles with a
GVWR(gross vehicle weight rating) of 26,001 or more pounds provided the GVWR of the vehicle(s) being towed is in excess of 10,000 pounds.
* Class B - Any single vehicle with a GVWR of 26,001 or more pounds, or any such vehicle towing a vehicle not in excess of 10,000 pounds GVWR.
* Class C - Any single vehicle, or combination of vehicles, that does not meet the definition of Class A or Class B, but is either designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver, or is
placarded for hazardous materials.
A CDL can also contain separate endorsements required to operate certain trailers or to haul certain goods. These abbreviations appear as "endorsements" on the license and often appear in advertisements outlining the requirements for such jobs.
* T - Double/Triple Trailers (Knowledge test only)
* P - Passenger (Knowledge and Skills Tests. Required for
* N - Tank Vehicle (Knowledge Test only)
* H - Hazardous Materials (Knowledge Test only, also requires fingerprint and background check since the
9/11terror attacks) [cite web |url=http://www.tsa.gov/what_we_do/layers/hazmat/index.shtm |title=HAZMAT Endorsement Threat Assessment Program |accessdate=2008-02-04 |publisher=Transportation Security Administration ]
* X - Combination of Tank Vehicle and Hazardous Materials
If a driver either fails the air brake component of the general knowledge test or performs the skills test in a vehicle not equipped with air brakes, the driver is issued an air brake restriction, restricting the driver from operating a CMV equipped with air brakes.
Specifically, the five-axle tractor-semitrailer combination that is most commonly associated with the word "truck" requires a Class A CDL to drive. Beyond that, the driver's employer (or shipping customers, in the case of an independent owner-operator) generally specifies what endorsements their operations require a driver to possess. Truck drivers are considered technical professionals because they are required to obtain specialized education and professional licensure. At some truck driving schools, the required training can be completed in as little as three weeks.
Truck regulations on size, weight, and route designations
Truck drivers are responsible for checking their own vehicle's axle and gross weights, usually by paying to be weighed at a truck stop scale. Truck weights are then checked by state authorities at a
Commercial motor vehicles are subject to various state and federal laws regarding limitations on truck length (measured from bumper to bumper), and truck axle length (measured from axle to axle or
fifth wheelto axle for trailers). The relationship between axle weight and spacing, known as the Federal Bridge Gross Weight Formula, is designed to protect bridges. [cite web |url=http://www.randmcnally.com/pdf/tdm/Federal_Bridge.pdf |title=Federal Bridge Gross Weight Formula |accessdate=2008-02-03 |work=http://www.randmcnally.com |publisher=Rand McNally |format=PDF ]
A standard 18-wheeler consists of three axle groups: a single front (steering axle), the tandem (dual) drive axles, and the tandem trailer axles. Federal weight limits for NN traffic are: [cite web |url=http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/rules-regulations/administration/fmcsr/fmcsrruletext.asp?rule_toc=778§ion=658.17§ion_toc=2135 |title=658.17 |accessdate=2008-02-03 |publisher=Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration ]
# 20,000 pounds for a single axle.
# 34,000 pounds for a tandem axle.
# 80,000 pounds for total weight.
The FMCSA regulates the length, width, and weight limits of CMVs for "interstate" commercial traffic. Interstate commercial traffic is generally limited to a network of interstate freeways and state highways known as the National Network (NN). Provided the truck remains on the NN, they are not subject to the state limits. State limits (which can be lower or higher than federal limits) come into effect for "intrastate" commercial traffic, provided the vehicle is "not" on the NN. There is no federal height limit, and states may set their own limits which range from 13 feet 6 inches (mostly on the east coast) to 14 feet (west coast). [cite web |url=http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/publications/size_regs_final_rpt/size_regs_final_rpt.pdf |title=Federal Size Regulations for Commercial Motor Vehicles |accessdate=2008-02-03 |work=http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/ |publisher=Federal Highway Administration |format=PDF ] As a result, the majority of trucks are somewhere between 13' 6" and 14' high. Truck drivers are also responsible for checking bridge height clearances (usually indicated by a
warning sign). Not having enough vertical clearance, resulting in a "top out," can be a serious detriment to a driver's record.
Implementation of drug detection
Beginning in 1980, the administration of
president Ronald ReaganFact|date=February 2008 proposed to put an end to drug abusein the trucking industry with the then-recently developed technique of urinalysis, in a move to require regular random drug testingof all truck drivers nationwide.
However, it was decided that implementing the measure at too great a speed could result in a shortage of truck drivers, which could in turn plunge the nation's economy into a
recession, or worse, a depression.Fact|date=February 2008 In the early 1980s, random drug testing was begun, and in the following years and decades was increased more and more at a gradual rate. Since that time, a large number of tractor-trailer operators have left the industry in search of other employment and a new generation of drivers has come in. It has now become extremely difficult for truck drivers to engage in drug use and remain undetected.
Truck driver issues (U.S.)
Turnover and driver shortage
In 2006, the U.S. trucking industry as a whole employed 3.4 million drivers. [cite web |url=http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos246.htm#projections_data |title=Truck Drivers and Drivers/Sales Workers |accessdate=2008-01-25 |date=2007-12-18 |work=Occupational Outlook Handbook |publisher=Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor] A major problem for the long-haul trucking industry is that a large percentage of these drivers are aging, and are expected to retire. Very few new hires are expected in the near future, resulting in a driver shortage. Currently, within the long-haul sector, there is an estimated shortage of 20,000 drivers. That shortage is expected to increase to 111,000 by 2014. [cite web |url=http://www.gsa.gov/gsa/cm_attachments/GSA_DOCUMENT/ATADriverShortageStudy05_R25-c-d_0Z5RDZ-i34K-pR.pdf |title=The U.S. Truck Driver Shortage: Analysis and Forecasts |accessdate=2008-02-04 |month=May | year=2005 |publisher=U.S. General Services Administration |author=Global Insight, Inc. |format=PDF ] Trucking (especially the long-haul sector) is also facing an image crisis due to the long working hours, long periods of time away from home, the dangerous nature of the work, the relatively low pay (compared to hours worked), and a "driver last" mentality that is common throughout the industry.
Employee turnover within the long-haul trucking industry is notorious for being extremely high. In the 4th quarter of 2005, turnover within the largest carriers in the industry reached a record 136% [cite web |url=http://memphis.bizjournals.com/memphis/stories/2006/04/03/story3.html?jst=s_cn_hl |title=Truck driver turnover reaches record level |accessdate=2008-01-31 |work=Memphis Business Journal |author=Einat Paz-Frankel ] , which means for every 100 new employees hired, 136 drivers quit their jobs.
Drivers are expected to follow the
hours of servicerules set forth by the DOT. A majority of long-haul drivers are paid by the mile, not by the hour. Consequently, these drivers receive no overtime payfor hours worked in excess of the standard forty-hour work week.
For these reasons, a number of drivers choose to break the rules and drive longer than is allowed, putting their health and safety, as well as other drivers on the road, at risk. Frequent slow-downs such as breakdowns,
traffic jams, long hours spent loading and unloading, getting put "out of service" by the DOT due to equipment violations, combined with the relatively high expense of living away from home for long periods of time, also provide incentive for breaking the rules.Drivers can get away with this rule-breaking due to their paper-based log books. As a driver records their time spent behind the wheel, there is very little to stop them from forging (commonly known as "fudging") their log books. There is very superficial oversight and some drivers take advantage of this fact. As a response to this, one company, Werner Enterprises, has implemented electronic on-board recorders (EOBR) which automatically record the driving time and cannot be forged. Any violation of the HOS will automatically be recorded and reported to the company which will result in almost immediate discipline or termination of employment. As a result of their success with EOBRs, the FMCSA is considering making them mandatory for all motor carriers. [cite web |url=http://driversmag.com/cover/eobr_black_box_fmcsa_021506/ |title=EOBR debate heats up
accessdate=2008-01-31 |work=Drivers |author=Sean Kilcarr ]
Due to the high demands of the job, O/O's are known to work for months at a time without taking days off to go home. Some of them even prefer to forgo a traditional house, and take up permanent residence within the truck (usually with the largest sleeper berth, equivalent to a small
RV). Long-haul company drivers often receive as little as one day off for every week of work, such as working for four weeks and taking four days off. Regional drivers (who often drive dedicated routes between the same locations) usually work five days a week, and receive weekends off. LTL drivers most often work normal hours and do not sleep in their trucks, having nights (or days, depending on the shift worked) and weekends off.
From 1992–1995, truck drivers had a higher "total" number of fatalities than any other occupation, accounting for 12% of all work related deaths. [cite web |url=http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfar0023.pdf |title=Fatalities and Injuries Among Truck and Taxicab Drivers |accessdate=2008-02-01 |date=Fall 1997 |work=Compensation and Working Conditions |publisher=Bureau of Labor Statistics |author=Andrew T. Knestaut |format=PDF ] Truck drivers are five times more likely to die in a work related accident than the average worker. [cite web |url=http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfar0024.pdf |title=Profile of Fatal Work Injuries in 1996 |accessdate=2008-02-01 |date=Spring 1998 |work=Compensation and Working Conditions |publisher=Bureau of Labor Statistics |coauthors=Guy A. Toscano and Janice A. Windau |format=PDF ] Highway accidents accounted for a majority of truck driver deaths, most of them caused by confused drivers in passenger vehicles who are unfamiliar with large trucks.
Truck drivers often spend their nights parked at a
truck stop, rest area, or on the shoulder of a freewayramp. Sometimes these can be in secluded areas or dangerous neighborhoods, which account for a number of deaths due to drivers being targeted by thieves for their valuable cargo or money. Drivers of trucks towing flatbed trailers are responsible for securing and strapping down their cargo (which often involves climbing onto the cargo itself), which accounts for a number of deaths and injuries from falling. Drivers spend long hours behind the wheel, which can cause strain on the back muscles. Some drivers are responsible for unloading their cargo, which can lead to many back strains and sprains due to overexertion and improper lifting techniques.
Most companies today utilize some type of
satellitevehicle tracking or trailer trackingto assist in fleet management, and for increased productivity. This allows a driver to input the information from a bill of lading(BOL) into a simple dot matrixdisplay screen (commonly called a " Qualcomm", for their ubiquitous OmniTRACS system). This also allows the driver to communicate with their dispatcher, who is normally responsible for determining and informing the driver of their pick-up and drop-off locations.
The driver inputs the information, using a keyboard, into an automated system of pre-formatted messages known as macros. There are macros for each stage of the loading and unloading process, such as "loaded and leaving shipper" and "arrived at final destination". This system also allows the company to track the drivers fuel usage, speed, gear optimization, engine
idletime, location, direction of travel, and amount of time spent driving. Werner Enterprises, a U.S. company based in Omaha, Nebraska, has utilized this system to implement a "paperless log" system. Instead of keeping track of working hours on a traditional pen and paper based logbook, the driver informs the company of his status using a macro.
Truck driver slang
Truck drivers once had a highly elaborate
vocabularyof CB s _sl. turnoverin the industry in recent decades, this has all but vanished. Most of the newer generation of drivers in the U.S. today speak to one another over their CB radios in more or less standard English(as understood in the various regions of the country), although a few of the slang words and phrases have remained, and many of these have passed into use in the colloquiallanguage of the general public.
“Smokey” and “bear” are still used to refer to
police officers, especially state patrolmen (and sometimes “diesel bear” for a DOT officer), though many new-school drivers merely say “police,” “policeman” and “cop.” “Hammer” still refers to the accelerator pedal, and “hammer lane” the left lane or passing laneon a freeway, in which traffic generally travels faster. “Handle”, meaning a nickname, was once exclusively truck-driver slang, but has now passed into common use by the public, especially for pseudonymsused on the Internet. Most of the “ ten codes” have been discontinued, except “10/4,” meaning “message received,” “affirmative,” “okay,” “understood,” which is still commonly used, and occasionally "10/20," referring to the driver's location.
While not slang, one form of communication between drivers is to flash
headlightsor high beams on or off to indicate that a passing truck has cleared the passed vehicle and may safely change lanes. The passing driver may then flash the trailer or marker lights to indicate gratitude. This practice is sometimes also understood by the public; drivers of smaller vehicles occasionally use it to signal truck drivers as well.
Additionally, there is variation in the meanings of hand gestures within the industry. In the U.S., when passing it is common for drivers to greet by lifting a hand off the steering wheel, backhand facing the other driver, with the index and middle fingers extended (known as the peace sign, or
V sign), a gesture that in the UK would be equivalent to the raising of the middle finger at someone. However, this meaning in England is largely unknown by Americans, and among American truck drivers it is intended as a friendly gesture of greeting between fellow workers in the industry.
Some truck-driver slang:
* Smokey bear- A police officer, used because of the resemblance between police officer's
campaign hat, and the Forest Service's smokey bearmascot.
* Chicken coop- A
weigh station, used because of the resemblance of the small offices to chicken coops.
* In the middle- Parked on the median, usually the location of a speed trap or broken down vehicle.
* Taking your picture - A cop using
radar gunto check the speed of a vehicle.
* Piggy bank/Cash box- A toll plaza.
* On your back door- A vehicle that is behind you.
* Yardstick- A
* Pickle park- A
rest areaon the highway.
* The zipper- The lane markings in the middle of a highway.
* Alligator- A blown out tire casing.
* Parking lot- An auto carrier truck.
* Plain white wrapper- White, unmarked police vehicle.
* Four-wheeler- Passenger vehicle (as opposed to semis which are eighteen-wheelers).
* Closed Chicken Coop- A closed
weigh station, see Chicken coop
* Bobtail- Tractor without a trailer.
* Lot Lizard- prostitute, especially one that frequents truck stops.
* Evel Knievel– A Police motocycle
* Candy Car– Highway Patrol Police Car usually with high-visibility police decals.
* Flash for Cash–
Speed camera(not to be confused with a manned radar gun).
* The Scalies– Transport safety inspectors who man Checking/Weigh stations.
* Hot Plate– Weigh Station
In popular culture
Truck drivers have been the subject of many films, such as "
They Drive By Night" (1940), but they became an especially popular topic in popular culturein the mid-1970s, following the release of "White Line Fever", and the hit song "Convoy" by C.W. McCall, both in 1975. The main character of "Convoy" was a truck driver known only by his CB handle (C.B. name), "Rubber Duck." Three years later, in 1978, a film was released with the same name. In 1977, another film " Smokey and the Bandit", was released, which revolves around the escapades of a truck driver and his friend as they transport a load of beeracross state lines. "Smokey and the Bandit" spawned two sequels. The 1978 film " F.I.S.T." was a fictionalized account of the unionizationof the trucking industry in the earlier 20th century, while the future of truck driving was speculated on in the 1996 film " Space Truckers" in which trucking has gone beyond planetaryloads to interplanetaryones. One episode of " Cowboy Bebop", "Heavy Metal Queen", also features space-faring "truck" drivers.
B.J. and the Bear" was a television seriesdepicting the exploits of a truck driver and his chimpanzeecompanion. Another was "Movin' On", starring Claude Akinsand Frank Converse. Trucker Buddy is a lovable (albeit terrifying) trucker that makes appearances in " The Mediocre Show".That character should not be confused with Trucker Buddy, the non-profit international penpal organization (www.truckerbuddy.org) in which truck drivers are teamed with an elementary school class from 2nd-8th grade. Drivers send weekly postcards and write letters describing the trucking industry, lifestyle, and travel, and sometimes even make classroom visits so the kids can meet 'their driver' in person and see a big rig up close! T.B.I. was founded in the 1992 by the late Gary King and now has a membership of nearly 4000 drivers with classrooms throughout North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Iceland.
17 June 2007, the History Channelbegan to air " Ice Road Truckers", a documentary-style reality televisionseries following truck drivers as they drive across the ice roads (frozen lakes in mid-winter), in the Northwest Territoriesin Canada, as they transport equipment to the diamond mines in that area.
Trucking organizations (U.S.)
Owner-Operator Independent Driver Association(OOIDA)
American Trucking Association(ATA)
United Truck Drivers Association(UTDA)
Major trucking companies
Roadway Express Inc.
Major truck manufacturers
Trucking industry in the United States
Tarcutta, New South Wales
* [http://www.telematique.eu/publications/GoGr06_ITSC2006.en.html Drivers Working Hours in Vehicle Routing and Scheduling]
* [http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/ Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration]
* [http://www.dot.gov/ U.S. Department of Transportation]
* [http://www.ooida.com OOIDA - Owner-Operator Independent Driver Association]
* [http://www.truckline.com ATA - American Trucking Association]
* [http://www.unitedtrucker.com UTDA - United Truck Drivers Association]
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