Legion of the United States
The Legion of the United States was a reorganization and extension of the
United States Armyin 1792 under the command of Major General Anthony Wayne.
The impetus for the Legion came from General
Arthur St. Clair's disastrous defeat at the Battle of the Wabashby Blue Jacketand Little Turtle's tribal confederacy in November 1791.
Many of the Founding Fathers had been suspicious of standing armies, believing that the
militiawould be suited to all the nation's defense needs. However, the defeat of St. Clair and his predecessor, Josiah Harmar, whose forces were drawn principally from state militias, caused a shift in thinking. President Washington picked his old lieutenant, Wayne, to lead a new professional army. At the recommendation of Secretary of War Henry Knox, it was decided to recruit and train a "Legion" — i.e., a force that would combine all land combat arms of the day (cavalry, heavy and light infantry, artillery) into one efficient brigade-sized force divisible into stand-alone combined arms teams. Congress agreed with this proposal and agreed to augment the small standing army until "the United States shall be at peace with the Indian tribes."
The Legion was composed of four sub-legions, each commanded by a
brigadier general. These sub-legions were self-contained units with two battalions of infantry, a riflebattalion ( light infantryskirmishers armed with Pennsylvania longrifles to screen the infantry), a troopof dragoonsand a company of artillery.
The Legion received training at
Legionville, a frontier fort built by General Anthony Wayne in western Pennsylvania. General Wayne also established various forts along his line of march to ensure adequate re-supply, and garrisoned these forts with freshly trained legionnaires.
The Legion of the United States was engaged in several attacks on their convoys as the expedition pushed further into Native American strongholds chiefly towards the Maumee Rapids. On June 30, 1793, just outside the gates of
Fort Recovery(built on St. Clair's battlefield, present Fort Recovery, Ohio) a pack-horse train led by Major William Friend McMahon (of Yellow Springs, Ohio) was attacked by 2,000 Indians. After Major McMahon was killed and the rest of the survivors fled into the fort a general attack was made on the fort. Fortunately for the defenders, most of the men (@125) were expert riflemen. The fort also had artilleryto back them. The battle raged for two days but Fort Recovery was not taken. Some scholars believe there were more Indians at the attack of Fort Recovery than at Fallen Timbers. The most notable engagement in which the Legion participated was the Battle of Fallen Timbersnear present-day Toledo, Ohio.
The Legion by its very concept was formed and trained from its early days in
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvaniato fight in a woodland environment. Each Sub-Legion had its own attached artillery, dragoons and riflemen, light and heavy infantry. Officers, sergeants and enlisted personnel were trained to fight in small units and were used to being geographically separated and fighting on their own. General Anthony Wayne's tactics were to fire and move quick with the light infantry being his front line forces supported by heavy infantry. The Legion was taught to move quickly on the enemy thus not allowing him to re-load and to then attack with bayonets. This was the whole design and concept of the Legion. By August 20, 1794, the Legion of the United States had trained for over 25 months for this battle and was a finely honed machine. The Legion front was attacked by the Indians, the troops closed quickly and pressed with the bayonet. The Indian forces although well-led as usual just could not hold the force of the Legion's attack and broke and ran. The British in Fort Miamirefused to open the gates and the survivors were basically on their own. Although a short battle, Fallen Timbers was the culmination of an arduous campaign and owes its success to the intense training and discipline of the Legion of the United States. The success of the Legion is owed mostly to Major General Anthony Wayne but also to George Washingtonand Henry Knox.
On August 3, 1795, as a direct result of the
Battle of Fallen Timbers, the Native Americans signed the Treaty of Greenville, creating peace with the United States.
In 1796, Major General Anthony Wayne accepted surrender of all the British forts, including
Fort Niagaraand Fort Miami (Ohio)that were located illegally within the United States in violation of the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
Thus ended the mission of the Legion which had begun in June of 1792.
It is a common misnomer that the Legion was abandoned in 1796. It was not "abandoned". After the death of General Anthony Wayne in Erie, Pennsylvania on December 15, 1796, his second-in-command, Brigadier General
James Wilkinson(later found to be a spy for the Spanish government)tried to rid the army of everything Wayne had created including the Legionary structure of the army. Thus the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Sub-Legion became the 1st, 2nd , 3rd and 4th Regiments of the United States Army.
The device worn on the epaulette of the 3rd US Infantry (The Old Guard) shows a black hat with white plume. This is the colors of the 1st Sub-Legion.
The Coat of Arms for the 1st US Infantry shows part of the shield in red in honor of the 2nd Sub-Legion.
The Coat of Arms of the 4th US Infantry is green and white in honor of the 4th Sub-Legion.
1st Sub-Legion= White and Black2nd Sub-Legion= Red and White3rd Sub-Legion= Yellow and Black 4th Sub-Legion= Green and White
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