Spring Heeled Jack
Creature_Name = Spring Heeled Jack
Image_Caption = Illustration circa 1890
Hoax/ Mass hysteria/ Demon/Alien
Country = UK
Habitat = Urban
First_Reported = 1837
Last_Sighted = 1986 Spring Heeled Jack (also "Springheel Jack", "Spring-heel Jack", etc), is a character from
English folkloresaid to have existed during the Victorian eraand able to jump extraordinarily high. The first claimed sighting of Spring Heeled Jack that is known occurred in 1837. [Sharon McGovern ("The Legend of Spring Heeled Jack") claims that a letter to the editor of the "Sheffield Times" in 1808 talks of a ghost by that name years previously; McGovern neither specifies the day in 1808 so that the letter can be verified nor lists any secondary source (for this or anything else).In addition, the "Sheffield Times" did not launch until April 1846.] Later alleged sightings were reported all over England, from Londonup to Sheffieldand Liverpool, but they were especially prevalent in suburban London and later in the Midlandsand Scotland. [For an account of an incident from Edinburgh that was misinterpreted as a sighting of Spring-heeled Jack, see "The Weekly Scotsman", 16 January1897.]
Many theories have been proposed to ascertain the nature and identity of Spring Heeled Jack. The
urban legendof Spring Heeled Jack gained immense popularity in its time due to the tales of his bizarre appearance and ability to make extraordinary leaps, to the point where he became the topic of several works of fiction.
Spring Heeled Jack was described by people claiming to have seen him as having a terrifying and frightful appearance, with diabolical
physiognomythat included clawed hands and eyes that "resembled red balls of fire". One report claimed that, beneath a black cloak, he wore a helmet and a tight-fitting white garment like an " oilskin". Many stories also mention a "Devil-like" aspect. Spring Heeled Jack was said to be tall and thin, with the appearance of a gentleman, and capable of making great leaps. Several reports mention that he could breathe blue and white flames and that he wore sharp metallic claws at his fingertips. At least two people claimed that he was able to speak in comprehensible English.
The first accounts of Spring Heeled Jack were made in London in 1837 and the last reported sighting is said in most of the secondary literature to have been made in Liverpool in 1904.David Cordingly, " [http://living.scotsman.com/people.cfm?id=1465132006 Lives and Times: Spring-Heeled Jack] ", "
The Scotsman" 7 October 2006. Excerpted from the "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography."] Rupert Mann, "Spring Heeled Jack", "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004; ISBN 019861411X).]
The first reports of Jack was from a businessman returning home late one night from work, who told of being suddenly shocked as a mysterious figure jumped with ease over the high railings of a cemetery, landing right in his path. No attack was reported, but the submitted description was disturbing: a muscular man with devilish features including large and pointed ears and nose, and protruding, glowing eyes.
Later, in October 1837, a girl by the name of Mary Stevens was walking to
Lavender Hill, where she was working as a servant, after visiting her parents in Battersea. On her way through Clapham Common, according to her later statements, a strange figure leapt at her from a dark alley. After immobilising her with a tight grip of his arms, he began to kiss her face, while ripping her clothes and touching her flesh with his claws, which were, according to her deposition, "cold and clammy as those of a corpse". In panic, the girl screamed, making the attacker quickly flee from the scene. The commotion brought several residents who immediately launched a search for the aggressor, who could not be found.
The next day, the leaping character is said to have chosen a very different victim near Mary Stevens' home, inaugurating a method that would reappear in later reports: he jumped in the way of a passing
carriage, causing the coachmanto lose control, crash, and severely injure himself. Several witnesses claimed that he escaped by jumping over a nine foot-high (2.7 m) wall while babbling with a high-pitched and ringing laughter.
Gradually, the news of the strange character spread, and soon the press and the public gave him a name: "Spring-heeled Jack". [Clark, "Unexplained!" mentions that the press referred variously to "Spring-heeled Jack" or "Springheel Jack". Haining, "The Legend and Bizarre Crimes of Spring Heeled Jack," asserts that the term "springald" was rather the origin of the name Spring Heeled Jack, to which it evolved later; alas, there is no proof to support this claim, according to Clark. Dash, op. cit., reveals that there is no contemporary evidence that this term was used in the 1830s, and establishes that the first original name was "Steel Jack", a possible reference to his supposed armoured appearance.]
quote|It appears that some individuals (of, as the writer believes, the highest ranks of life) have laid a wager with a mischievous and foolhardy companion, that he durst not take upon himself the task of visiting many of the villages near London in three different disguises — a ghost, a bear, and a devil; and moreover, that he will not enter a gentleman's gardens for the purpose of alarming the inmates of the house. The wager has, however, been accepted, and the unmanly villain has succeeded in depriving seven ladies of their senses, two of whom are not likely to recover, but to become burdens to their families.
At one house the man rang the bell, and on the servant coming to open door, this worse than brute stood in no less dreadful figure than a spectre clad most perfectly. The consequence was that the poor girl immediately swooned, and has never from that moment been in her senses.
The affair has now been going on for some time, and, strange to say, the papers are still silent on the subject. The writer has reason to believe that they have the whole history at their finger-ends but, through interested motives, are induced to remain silent. [As quoted by Jacqueline Simpson, "Spring-Heeled Jack" (2001).]
Though the Lord Mayor seemed fairly sceptical, a member of the audience confirmed, "servant girls about
Kensington, Hammersmithand Ealing, tell dreadful stories of this ghostor devil". The matter was reported in " The Times" on 9 January, and other national papers on 10 January, and the day after that ( January 11) the Lord Mayor showed a crowded gathering a pile of letters from various places in and around London complaining of similar "wicked pranks". The quantity of letters that poured into the Mansion House suggests that the stories were widespread in suburban London. One writer said several young women in Hammersmith had been frightened into "dangerous fits", and some "severely wounded by a sort of claws the miscreant wore on his hands". Another correspondent claimed that in Stockwell, Brixton, Camberwelland Vauxhallseveral people had died of fright, and others had had fits; meanwhile, another reported that the trickster had been repeatedly seen in Lewishamand Blackheath.
The Lord Mayor himself was in two minds about the affair: he thought "the greatest exaggerations" had been made, and that it was quite impossible "that the ghost performs the feats of a devil upon earth", but on the other hand someone he trusted had told him of a servant girl at Forest Hill who had been scared into fits by a figure in a bear's skin; he was confident the person or persons involved in this "pantomime display" would be caught and punished. [Peter Haining, "The Legend and Bizarre Crimes of Spring Heeled Jack," based on reports from
The Timesof 10th and 12 January1838.] The police were instructed to search for the individual responsible, and rewards were offered.
A peculiar report from "The Brighton Gazette", which appeared in the April 14, 1838 edition of "The Times" related how a gardener in Rosehill, Sussex, had been terrified by a creature of unknown nature. "The Times" wrote that "Spring-heeled Jack has, it seems, found his way to the Sussex coast", even though the report bore little resemblance to other accounts of Jack. The incident occurred on April 13, when it appeared to a gardener "in the shape of a bear or some other four-footed animal". Having attracted the gardener's attention by a growl, it then climbed the garden wall and ran along it on all fours, before jumping down and chasing the gardener for some time. After terrifying the gardener, the apparition scaled the wall and made its exit. [cite news | last = | first = | coauthors = | title = | work =
The Times| pages = p. 7 | language = | publisher = | date = April 14, 1838 | url = | accessdate = 2008-07-16"(via the [http://archive.timesonline.co.uk TimesArchive] )"]
The Scales and Alsop reports
Perhaps the best known of the alleged incidents involving Spring Heeled Jack were the attacks on two teenage girls, Lucy Scales and Jane Alsop. The Alsop report was widely covered by the newspapers, including a piece in "
The Times"cite news | last = | first = | coauthors = | title = The Late Outrage At Old Ford | work = The Times| pages = | language = | publisher = | date = March 2, 1838 | url = | accessdate = ] , while a single paper covered the Scales report, presumably because Alsop came from a comfortably well-off family and Scales from a family of tradesmen. This coverage by newspapers fuelled the collective hysteria surrounding the case.
Miss Jane Alsop reported that on the night of
February 19she answered the door of her father's house to a man claiming to be a police officer, who told her to bring a light, claiming "we have caught Spring-heeled Jack here in the lane". She brought the person a candle, and noticed that he wore a large cloak. The moment she had handed him the candle, however, he threw off the cloak and "presented a most hideous and frightful appearance", vomiting blue and white flame from his mouth while his eyes resembled "red balls of fire". Miss Alsop reported that he wore a large helmet and that his clothing, which appeared to be very tight-fitting, resembled white oilskin. Without saying a word he caught hold of her and began tearing her gown with his claws which she was certain were "of some metallic substance". She screamed for help, and managed to get away from him and ran towards the house. He caught her on the steps and tore her neck and arms with his claws. She was rescued by one of her sisters, after which her assailant fled.cite book | last = Burke | first = Edmund | authorlink = Edmund Burke | coauthors = Ivison Stevenson | title = The Annual Register of World Events: A Review of the Year | publisher = Longmans, Green | year = 1839 | location = London | pages = p. 24 | url = http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=sdkHAAAAIAAJ | doi = | id = | isbn = ]
Eight days after the attack on Miss Alsop, on
February 28, 1838[Peter Haining, "The Legend and Bizarre Crimes of Spring Heeled Jack" based on reports from " The Times" of 22 February 1838] , 18-year-old Lucy Scales and her sister were returning home after visiting their brother, a butcher who lived in a respectable part of Limehouse. Miss Scales stated in her deposition to the police that as she and her sister were passing along Green Dragon Alley, they observed a person standing in an angle of the passage. She was walking in front of her sister at the time, and just as she came up to the person, who was wearing a large cloak, he spurted "a quantity of blue flame" in her face, which deprived her of her sight, and so alarmed her, that she instantly dropped to the ground, and was seized with violent fits which continued for several hours. [Burke, pp. 27-28]
Her brother added that on the evening in question, he had heard the loud screams of one of his sisters moments after they had left his house and on running up Green Dragon Alley he found his sister Lucy on the ground in a fit, with her sister attempting to hold and support her. She was taken home, and he then learned from his other sister what had happened. She described Lucy's assailant as being of tall, thin, and gentlemanly appearance, covered in a large cloak, and carrying a small lamp or bull's eye lantern similar to those used by the police. The individual did not speak nor did he try to lay hands on them, but instead walked quickly away. Every effort was made by the police to discover the author of these and similar outrages, and several persons were questioned, but were set free. [Burke, pp. 27-28]
The legend spreads
"The Times" reported the alleged attack on Jane Alsop on March 2, 1838 under the heading "The Late Outrage At Old Ford". This was followed with an account of the trial of one Thomas Millbank, who, immediately after the reported attack on Jane Alsop, had boasted in the Morgan's Arms that he was Spring Heeled Jack. He was arrested and tried at Lambeth Street court. The arresting officer was James Lea, who had earlier arrested William Corder, the
Red Barn Murderer. Millbank had been wearing white overalls and a greatcoat, which he dropped outside the house, and the candle he dropped was also found. He escaped conviction only because Jane Alsop insisted her attacker had breathed fire, and Millbank admitted he could do no such thing. Most of the other accounts were written long after the date; contemporary newspapers do not mention them.After these incidents, Spring Heeled Jack became one of the most popular characters of the period. His alleged exploits were reported in the newspapers and became the subject of several Penny Dreadfuls and plays performed in the cheap theatres that abounded at the time. The devil was even renamed "Spring Heeled Jack" in some Punch and Judyshows, as recounted by Henry Mayhewin his " London Labour and the London Poor":
But, even as his fame was growing, reports of Spring Heeled Jack's appearances became less frequent if more widespread. In 1843, however, a wave of sightings swept the country again. A report from
Northamptonshiredescribed him as "the very image of the Devil himself, with horns and eyes of flame", and in East Angliareports of attacks on drivers of mail coaches became common. He was linked with the so-called " Devil's Footprints" that appeared in Devonin February 1855.
The last reports
In the beginning of the 1870s, Spring Heeled Jack was reported again in several places distant from each other. In November 1872, the "
News of the World" reported that Peckham was "in a state of commotion owing to what is known as the " Peckham Ghost", a mysterious figure, quite alarming in appearance". The editorial pointed out that it was none other than "Spring Heeled Jack, who terrified a past generation". [News of the World, 17 November 1872, cited in "Fortean Studies volume 3" (1996), pp. 78-79, ed. Steve Moore, John Brown Publishing] Similar stories were published in " The Illustrated Police News". In April and May of 1873, there were numerous sightings of the " Park Ghost" in Sheffield, which locals also came to identify as Spring Heeled Jack.
s at him, merely used to make warning shots. The strange figure then disappeared into the surrounding darkness. [The Times, 28 April 1877, cited in "Fortean Studies volume 3" (1996), pp. 95, ed. Steve Moore, John Brown Publishing]
In the autumn of the same year, Spring Heeled Jack was reportedly seen at
Newport Arch, in Lincolnshire, wearing a sheep skin. An angry mob supposedly chased him and cornered him, and just as in Aldershot a while before, residents fired at him to no effect. As usual, he was said to have made use of his leaping abilities to lose the crowd and disappear once again. [Illustrated Police News, 3 November 1877, cited in "Fortean Studies volume 3" (1996), pp. 96, ed. Steve Moore, John Brown Publishing]
By the end of the 19th century, the reported sightings of Spring Heeled Jack were moving towards western England. In September 1904, in Everton, in north Liverpool, Spring Heeled Jack allegedly appeared on the rooftop of Saint Francis Xavier's Church, in Salisbury Street. Witnesses reported that he suddenly jumped and fell to the ground, landing behind a nearby house. When they rushed to the point, so the story goes, they faced there a tall and muscular man, fully dressed in white and wearing an "egg shaped" helmet, standing there waiting. He laughed hysterically at the crowd and rushed towards them, making several women gasp in dismay. Clearing them all with a gigantic leap, he disappeared behind the neighbouring houses. [News of the World, 25 September 1904, cited in "Fortean Studies volume 3" (1996), pp. 97, ed. Steve Moore, John Brown Publishing]
A similar figure known as
Perak, the Spring Man of Praguewas seen in Czechoslovakiaaround 1939-45. This character, like Jack, went on to become a folklore hero, even starring in several animated superhero cartoons, fighting the SS.
June 18 1953, a figure in part resembling some descriptions of Spring Heeled Jack was sighted in a pecantree in the yard of an apartment building in Houston, Texas. Mrs. Hilda Walker, Judy Meyers, and Howard Phillips described a man in a "black cape, skin-tight pants, and quarter-length boots", and "grey or black tight-fitting clothes".
South Herefordshire, not far from the Welsh border, a travelling salesman named Marshall claimed at some unspecified time until as late as 1997 to have had an encounter with a Spring Heeled Jack–like entity in 1986. The man leaped in enormous, inhuman bounds, passed Marshall on the road, and slapped his cheek. He wore what the salesman described as a black ski-suit, and Marshall noted that he had an elongated chin. [" [http://www.highlanderweb.co.uk/haunted/haunt1.htm Spring Heeled Jack] " (Haunted Scotland).]
Finally, Jack also resembles in appearance and behavior (though Jack is more mischeivious than malicious) the Japanese thunder god,
Raiden. Stories gave Raiden a black appearance with red eyes and prodigious leaping abilities, but unlike Jack, Raiden was predatory, allegedly consuming men's navels.
No one was ever caught and identified as Spring Heeled Jack; combined with the extraordinary abilities attributed to him and the very long period during which he was reportedly at large, this has led to all sorts of theories of his nature and identity. While several researchers seek a rational explanation for the events, other authors explore the more fantastic details of the story to propose different kinds of
Sceptical investigators have dismissed the stories of Spring Heeled Jack as mass hysteria which developed around various stories of a
bogeymanor devil which have been around for centuries, or from exaggerated urban myths about a man who clambered over rooftops claiming that the Devil was chasing him. [Randles, "Strange and Unexplained Mysteries of the 20th Century"]
, as the main suspect. Haining suggested this may have been due him having previously had bad experiences with women and police officers. [Haining, "The Legend and Bizarre Crimes of Spring Heeled Jack".]
The Marquess was frequently in the news in the late 1830s for drunken brawling, brutal jokes and vandalism, and was said to do anything for a bet; his irregular behaviour and his contempt for women earned him the moniker "the Mad Marquis", and it is also known that he was in the London area by the time the first incidents took place. But "The Waterford Chronicle" was able to report his presence at the St Valentine's Day Ball at Waterford Castle, giving him an alibi for the reported attacks on Jane Allsop and Lucy Scales that are central to Jack's alleged existence. Nevertheless, in 1880 he was named as the perpetrator by the Rev. E. C. Brewervague|Where did Brewer write this?|date=March 2008, who attested that the Marquess "used to amuse himself by springing on travellers unawares, to frighten them, and from time to time others have followed his silly example". [Jacqueline Simpson, "Spring-Heeled Jack".] In 1842, the Marquess of Waterford married and settled in Curraghmore House,
Ireland, and reportedly led an exemplary life until he died in a riding accident in 1859. Spring Heeled Jack remained active for decades after, which leads the aforementioned modern researchersWho|date=June 2007 to the same conclusion as Brewer's.
Sceptical investigators have asserted that the story of Spring Heeled Jack was exaggerated and altered through mass hysteria, a process in which many sociological issues may have contributed. These include unsupported rumours, superstition,
oral tradition, sensationalist publications, and a folklore rich in tales of fairies and strange roguish creatures. Gossip of alleged leaping and fire-spitting powers, his alleged extraordinary features and his reputed skill in evading apprehension captured the mind of the superstitious public — increasingly so with the passing of time, which gave the impression that Spring Heeled Jack had suffered no effects from ageing. As a result, a whole urban legend was built around the character, being reflected by contemporary publications, which in turn fuelled this popular perception. [Massimo Polidoro, " [http://www.csicop.org/si/2002-07/strange.html Notes on a Strange World: Return of Spring-Heeled Jack] ", "Skeptical Enquirer", July. Accessed on March 24 2005.]
A variety of paranormal explanations have been proposed to explain the origin of Spring Heeled Jack, including that he was an extraterrestrial entity with a non-human appearance and features, (e.g., retro-reflective red eyes, or
phosphorusbreath) and a superhumanagility deriving from life on a high gravity world, jumping ability and strange behaviour [" Charles Berlitz's World of Strange Phenomena."] and that he was a demon, accidentally or purposefully summoned into this world by practitioners of the occultor who made himself manifest simply to create spiritual turmoil. [Supporters of this theory include John Keelauthor of the " The Mothman Prophecies") and Jacques Vallée.]
In popular culture
, as a means of scaring children into behaving by telling them that if they were not good, Spring Heeled Jack would leap up and peer in at them through their bedroom windows, by night.
However, it was in fictional entertainment where the legend of Spring Heeled Jack exerted the most extensive influence, owing to his allegedly extraordinary nature. Almost from the moment the first incidents gained public knowledge, he turned into a successful
fictional character, becoming the protagonist of many Penny Dreadfuls from 1840 to 1904. Several plays where he assumed the main role were staged as well.
The most notable fictional Spring Heeled Jacks of the 19th and early 20th centuries were:
*A play by John Thomas Haines, in 1840, "Spring-Heeled Jack, the Terror of London", which shows him as a brigand who attacks women because his own sweetheart betrayed him.
*Later that decade, Spring Heeled Jack's first Penny Dreadful appearance came in the anonymously written "Spring-Heeled Jack, The Terror of London", which appeared in weekly episodes.
*W. G. Willis's 1849 play, "The Curse of the Wraydons", where Spring Heeled Jack is a traitor who spies for Napoleon Bonaparte, and stages murderous stunts as a cover.
*An 1863 play, "Spring-Heel'd Jack: or, The Felon's Wrongs", written by Frederick Hazleton.
*"Spring-heel'd Jack: The Terror of London", a Penny Dreadful published by the Newsagents’ Publishing Company c. 1864–1867.
*"Spring-heel'd Jack: The Terror of London", a 48-part penny weekly serial published c. 1878–1879 in "The Boys' Standard", written either by veteran author of dreadfuls
George Augustus Henry Salaor by Alfred Burrage (as "Charlton Lea").
*"Spring-Heel Jack; or, The Masked Mystery of the Tower", appearing in "Beadle's New York Dime Library #332",
4 March 1885, and written by Col. Thomas Monstery.
*A 48-part serial published by Charles Fox and written by Alfred Burrage (as "Charlton Lea"), 1889–1890
*A 1904 versionvague|Title?|date=March 2008 by Alfred Burrage. [Jess Nevins, "The Encyclopaedia of Fantastic Victoriana" (2005), and Jacqueline Simpson, ibid.]
The later fictional portrayals of the character as a wronged nobleman who adopted the guise of Spring Heeled Jack in order to reclaim his stolen fortune and to right injustices, anticipated several distinguishing features of the
20th Century superherogenre.
*A remake of the Willis play "The Curse of the Wraydons", written in 1928 by surrealist Swiss author
Maurice Sandoz, and a 1946 film version. [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0038442/ Internet Movie Database entry] for "The Curse of the Wraydons". Accessed on March 23, 2005.]
* "Spring-Heeled Jack, the Terror of Epping Forest" was a 1950 stage production starring
Tod Slaughter, which opened at the Theatre Royal, Stratford. [cite book | last = Hartnoll | first = Phyllis | authorlink = | coauthors = Peter Found | title = The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre | publisher = Oxford University Press| year = 1992 | location = | pages = p. 505 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0198661363]
*The boots of "Spring Heeled Jak" appear in the video game The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion. Spring Heeled Jack is also the first boss in the video game, "
Monster in My Pocket". He is portrayed as villain leader Warlock's right-hand manin the "Monster in My Pocket" comic book series.
*Berlitz, Charles. "Charles Berlitz's World of Strange Phenomena." Fawcett, 1989. ISBN 0-449-21825-2.
*Clark, Jerome. "Unexplained!: Strange Sightings, Incredible Occurrences and Puzzling Physical Phenomena." Visible Ink, 1993. ISBN 1-57859-070-1.
*Clarke, David. "Strange South Yorkshire: Myth, Magic and Memory in the Don Valley." Sigma Press, 1994. ISBN 1-85058-404-4.
*Cohen, Daniel. "The Encyclopedia of Monsters." Dodd Mead, 1982. ISBN 0-396-09051-6.
*Dash, Mike. 'Spring-Heeled Jack', "Fortean Studies" 3 (1996), 7–125.
*Haining, Peter. "The Legend and Bizarre Crimes of Spring Heeled Jack." London: Muller, 1977. ISBN 0-584-10276-3.
*Moore, Steve. "Fortean Studies." John Brown, 1995. ISBN 1-870870-55-7.
*Nevins, Jess. "The Encyclopaedia of Fantastic Victoriana." MonkeyBrain, 2005. ISBN 1-932265-08-2.
*Randles, Jenny. "Strange and Unexplained Mysteries of the 20th Century." Sterling, 1994. ISBN 0-8069-0768-1.
*Robbins, Joyce. "Borderlands: The World's Greatest Mysteries." Bounty, 1991. ISBN 1-85051-698-7.
*Simpson, Jacqueline. "Spring-Heeled Jack" (leaflet, January 2001). International Society for Contemporary Legend Research.
Pérák, the Spring Man of Prague
The Mad Gasser of Mattoon
* Dash, Mike. "Spring-heeled Jack: To Victorian Bugaboo from Suburban Ghost." [http://www.mikedash.com/investigations_jack_paper.htm Here] "et seq." (four web pages), or as [http://www.mikedash.com/pdf/Spring-heeled%20Jack.pdf a single PDF file] . Accessed
26 June 2007.
* McGovern, Sharon. " [http://www.thecobrasnose.com/xxghost/shj.html The Legend of Spring Heeled Jack] ". "The Cobra's Ghost: Terrifying (or not, Depending) True Ghost Stories!". Accessed on
March 22, 2005.
* " [http://www.geocities.com/justingilb/texts/SpringHeeledJack.html Spring-Heeled Jack: The Terror of London.] " From "The Boy's Standard", six installments from No. 219, Saturday, July 18, 1885 to No. 224, August 22, 1885. Justin Gilbert, "Penny Dreadfuls." Accessed
26 June 2007.
* " [http://www.highlanderweb.co.uk/haunted/haunt1.htm Spring Heeled Jack] ". "Haunted Scotland." "Taken from Issue 1 / E-Published 11th January 1997".
* Upton, Chris. " [http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/myths_legends/england/black_country/index.shtml Spring Heeled Jack] ". Local Legends. BBC.co.uk.
* " [http://paranormal.about.com/library/weekly/aa010101d.htm The Top 10 Most Mysterious Creatures of Modern Times] ." About.com. Accessed
26 June 2007.
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