Operation Halyard

Operation Halyard
Part of World War II
A C-47 with its engines running in August 1944
Date May 1944 - February 1945
Location Axis-occupied Yugoslavia (within an Axis puppet state, the Nedić regime)
Result Decisive Allied and Chetnik victory, successful rescue of US airmen
Belligerents
 United States

Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland

 Germany

Operation Halyard, also known as the Halyard Mission, was the largest Allied airlift operation behind enemy lines during World War II.[1] A total of 512 allied airmen who had been downed over Nazi-occupied Serbia were rescued by Serbian Chetniks, led by General Draža Mihailović.[2] Most of the rescued airmen, who had been shot down during bombing runs on oil-fields in Romania, evaded capture and made contact with the Chetniks.

Contents

Background

Targets in southern and eastern Europe

After the successful Allied invasion of Sicily, Italy capitulated in the autumn of 1943, the Allies occupied the whole of southern Italy. In late 1943, the 15th Air Force of the United States Army Air Forces, under the command of General Nathan Twining, was transferred from Tunisia to an airfield near Foggia. This airfield became the largest American air base in southern Italy, and was used for attacking targets in southern and Eastern Europe. The 15th Army Air Force also used the nearby airfields of Bari, Brindisi, Lecce and Manduria. The 15th Air Force bombed targets in Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, German occupied Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania. The most important targets were a ball-bearing factory in Austria, and sources of petroleum and the petroleum refineries in Romania. All flights targeting the oil-fields and refineries in Romania, near the town of Ploiești north of Bucharest, passed over Serbia. These installations were the driving force of Hitler's war machine and the main targets in the Oil Campaign of World War II. The Ostro Romano refinery in Ploiești, provided one quarter of the Third Reich's fuel needs and was one of the priority targets.

The route

From October 1943 to October 1944, the 15th Air Force conducted about 20,000 sorties with fighters and bombers. During this time it lost almost fifty percent of its aircraft but only about ten percent of its personnel. To carry out combat missions, the Fifteenth Air Force had at its disposal 500 heavy bombers (B-17 Flying Fortresses and B-24 Liberators) and about 100 fighter escorts.

The route aircraft took from southern Italy to the targets in Romania was repeated every day from the spring of 1944, (over the Adriatic Sea, Montenegro, Serbia and Bulgaria to Romania). Two-thirds of these flights were carried out against objectives in Bulgaria, Romania and the German-occupied zone of Serbia. The Germans had at their disposal a limited number of fighter aircraft whose most frequent targets were Allied planes that had already been damaged by Axis anti-aircraft defenses in Bulgaria and Romania, planes that because of such damage had to fly slowly at low altitude.

Rescue of American airmen

The Democratic Yugoslavia news bulletin reports on March 9, 1944
A copy of the report by a military judicial commission into the death of Sergeant Timing Gage USAAF, dated July 29, 1944

At the beginning of 1944, the USAAF intensified the bombing of targets in Bulgaria and Romania, causing American aviators to bail out of damaged aircraft over Serbia in increasing numbers. Over other countries, such as Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Croatia, they left their planes only as a last resort. A small number of crews fell into the hands of Romanian, Bulgarian, Croat or German troops and were either killed instantly or sent to prison camps in Germany. The first American airmen bailed out over the German-occupied zone of Serbia on 24 January. That day two Liberators were shot down, one of them over Zlatibor, the other over Toplica. One bomber, damaged by German fighter planes, made an emergency landing between Pločnik and Beloljin.[3] A crew of nine were rescued by the Chetnik Toplica Corps under the command of Major Milan Stojanović[3] Airmen were placed in the home of local Chetnik leaders in the village of Velika Draguša. Another bomber was shot down that same day, the crew bailed out over Mount Zlatibor. They were found by members of the Zlatibor Corps. A radiogram message on the rescue of one of the crews was sent by Major Milan Stojanović to General Draža Mihailović on January 25. Major Stojanović wrote that the previous day about 100 bombers flew from the direction of Niš towards Kosovska Mitrovica, and that they were followed by nine German fighter aircraft. After a half-hour battle, one plane caught fire and was forced to land between the villages of Pločnik and Beloljin, in the Toplica river valley.

Major Stojanović reported:

The plane landed between two groups of Bulgarians from two hundred Bulgarian troops. I ordered immediately to be with 500 of our soldiers who are blocking the Bulgarians. The crew was rescued alive and well. Them are nine... The Bulgarians tried to approach the plane, but when they saw our great strength they gave up. We captured four Bulgarian soldiers. The plane was from the 15th Corps US Air Force. It took off with a group from the airport in Cerignola near Foggia - Italy. The pilot was called A. D. Romano, no. 07954482. He has the rank of lieutenant. Wounded pilots are bandaged and immediately transferred to a safe place. All are much more happy and satisfied because we rescued them. Today a lot of Bulgarian and German troops arrived at the railway station in the village of Pločnik, but we keep our allies in a safe place.[3]

The rescue of American and other Allied airmen lasted from January 1944 to February 1945. The German and Bulgarian occupation forces in Serbia, that had spotted the damaged aircraft and open parachutes pursued the airmen. However, members of the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland led by General Draža Mihailović had already reached them. The Germans offered cash to the local Serbian population for the capture of Allied airmen but none of them were betrayed. The peasants accepted the airmen into their homes and fed them for months without Allied help. At the beginning of 1944, General Draža Mihailović ordered all his units to cooperate with the people organizing the acceptance and accommodation of American airmen. Based on these orders, several regional collection centers for the airmen were created in eastern, central and western Serbia. Hospitals for sick and wounded airmen were established in Pranjani village.

Airstrip construction

In early March 1944, 25 rescued pilots were brought to Pranjani. Captain Zvonimir Vučković of the First Ravna Gora Corps was responsible for their security. In a mission directed by American Colonel Albert Seitz, OSS, Captain George Musulin parachuted into the Čačak area on October 18, 1943 to coordinate activities for the rescued aircrew. General Draža Mihailović ordered Captain Vučković to build an improvised airstrip from which the aviators could be evacuated. Captain Vučković selecting a field near Pranjani. Construction of the airstrip was managed by Captain Nikola Verkić. Captain Vučković has stated:

More than a hundred diggers and as many ox-drawn carts were used to build. Because of the greater secrecy we worked mostly at night. The digging, leveling and cutting-down of trees created blisters on hands. In late March I sent a report to General Mihailović that the jobs around the airport were completed.[4]

The British authorities felt the airstrip was too short. Eleven airmen, including John P. Devlin, wanted to go on foot to the Adriatic Sea. General Mihailovic provided supporting units and they started out on April 19, after a ceremonial send-off in Pranjani. The remaining aviators were unable to walk due to injuries and illness. A few dozen more airmen reached Pranjani in late April. Captain Vučković divided them into two groups. The first, from the Takovo district, was guided by Sergeant Bora Komračević. He had completed the parachute course in Africa and returned to his homeland in 1943. The second group from the Dragačevo district was guided by Mihailo Paunović. He did not speak English, but had attended an air force school before the war.[4]

Ground combat

Due to the collection of rescued aviators near Pranjani, fighting occurred between the Chetniks and German, Bulgarian and Croatian occupation forces. On March 14, 1944 the Germans moved into the village of Oplanić, near Gružа, looking for the crew of a downed Liberator. Captain Nikola Petković's 4th battalion of the Gruža brigade opened fire on the German armored vehicles to lure them away from the portion of the village where the aviators were hiding. Three Chetniks were killed and two more captured during the firefight. After the war the communists destroyed their gravestones.[5]

The 1st Dragačevo Brigade of the First Ravna Gora Corps engaged German forces attempting to capture an American aircrew bailing out over the Čačak - Užice road. Captain Vučković reported the deaths of a few Chetnik soldiers in the fight. The fallen Chetniks were buried in a cemetery in Dljin village.[4]

American pilot William Hill was captured in April 1944 by units from the Croatian Legionnaires "Blue" Division. Chetnik scouts observed Hill in the ruins of the village of Gračac. He was rescued by Chetniks of the 2nd Battalion, 1st Brigade, of the Lika Corps of the Dinara division. The Chetniks approached the Croatian post in darkness and released the pilot during the confusion caused by throwing a grenade into the Croatian camp kitchen. A German patrol failed to find the pilot in Cvetković. Hill dressed in the Serbian national costume and stayed with elements of the Chetnik Dinaric Division until he was transferred to an American base in Italy via "secret channels" in December 1944.[6]

Lieutenant Colonel Todor Gogić, commander of the Morava group Corps sent a radiogram to General Mihailović on April 17:

On 15 April at about 11 hours, due to engine failure, a B-24 Liberator with a crew of 10 made an emergency landing near the village of Drenovac south of Paraćin. We managed to rescue nine crew members from the Germans and Bulgarians, but one airmen was captured. The crew is from the 861st Squadron, 460th bomber group.[7]

The first air evacuation

The twenty-member British SOE military mission, led by Brigadier Charles D. Armstrong, was ready for evacuation by late May 1944. Following agreement with their Bari headquarters, three Douglas Dakota cargo aircraft (C-47s) landed at Pranjani on May 29. Forty Allied airmen were evacuated to Bari with members of the British and American military missions. With the evacuation, General Mihailović decided to send a political mission to London led by the President of the Socialist Party of Yugoslavia, Živko Topalović. Topalović had been a member of the Labour and Socialist International party before the war. He intended to meet with leaders of the British Labour Party, Clement Attlee and Ernest Bevin. He then flew to Italy with Captain George Musulin. After the mission was accomplished, Brigadier Armstrong was a guest of Prime Minister Winston Churchill at his Chartwell family estate. Topalović hoped to convince Churchill to revoke consent for the Red Army to take over Yugoslavia. His mission was a failure, the British did not allow him to leave southern Italy. General Mihailović continued to receive no allied support.

Radio link

The Democratic Yugoslavia news agency bulletin reports

The news bulletin reports on June 14, 1944.

Reports about the rescued airmen were sent to the 'Democratic Yugoslavia' news agency, which belonged to the High Command of the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland of General Draža Mihailović. This agency had an office and radio station in New York City. A report was received by the Yugoslav embassy in Washington, D.C.. Staff headed by the ambassador Konstantin Fotić, forwarded the report to the US Army, so that the families of airmen, especially their mothers, who were in some cases previously notified that their offspring were "missing in action". The reports almost always contained the names and addresses of the airmen.

Mirjana Vujnovich, was an embassy employee; her husband, Lieutenant George Vujnovich, worked for the OSS in Brindisi, in southern Italy. He received a letter from his wife which mentioned the American airmen's plight: "there are hundreds...can you do something for them? It would be great if [they] are evacuated".[8] It was the turning point which led to the planning and execution of Operation Halyard.[8]

Establishment of radio links

Of the late of May 1944, the first time since 1941, in the Chetniks, there were no Allied liaison officers. Headquarters of the General Mihailovich was trying to establish direct radio contact with Allied command of the Mediterranean. These attempts failed, but in late July 1944, Radio midfielder one of the rescued pilots, Major Brooks, establishes a connection with its base in Italy. The plane of Major Brooks made an emergency landing near Ljig. A one detachment of Rudnik Corps, led by Commander Captain Dragomir Topalaović, received a combat with the Germans in order to slow down to approach the plane, while the Americans and the Chetniks took off equipment from the aircraft, among other things and the radio station. With this radio station, Major Brooks contacted his own and so the confirmation arrived from the field that the information is accurate OSS Lieutenant George Vujnovich.

Operation Halyard

Airlift from Pranjani to Bari

At exactly midnight on August 2, 1944, an American plane flew over Pranjani, near Mihailovic's headquarters in central Serbia, where a fire burned as a previous agreed signal. Three parachutes opened just behind and below the aircraft, they supported OSS intelligence agents Captain George Musulin, Lieutenant Michael Rayachich and Sergeant Arthur Jiblian and their radio equipment; they were there to set the operation up. Captain Musulin's first task was to request from General Mihailović that all the rescued airmen be gathered in the area for the forthcoming evacuation. Musulin was assured that the Chetniks had done everything possible for the airmen, including medical care. They were to have armed escorts to the evacuation point. In the meantime, to allow for a possible German attack on Pranjani, General Mihailović was instructed to build a reserve airstrip in the Dragačevo district.[9]

General Mihailović decided to send a military-political mission to the western allies during the upcoming evacuation. Heading the mission was the president of the Independent Democratic Party Adam Pribićević, a second member was Captain Zvonimir Vučković, the third member was Dr. Vladimir Belajčić; pre-war, he was head of the "Falcon" sports organization and president of the Court of Appeal; he also a Grand master and Commander of the Grand Lodge and Supreme Council of jurisdiction of Scottish Rite "Yugoslavia" 33rd degree. The fourth member was Ivan Kovač, a Slovene; he was before the war, a teacher of King Peter II.

Meanwhile on Sunday, 6 August 1944, the New York Times published an interview with General Draže Mihailović by journalist Cyrus Leo Sulzberger.

Near Pranjina, Chetnik sentries detained a civilian identified as Ivan Popov; one sentinel had his supicions aroused because he thought he had seen Popov leave a Gestapo building in Belgrade in German officers' uniform. Captain Vučković ordered the man to be executed. However, the civilian was reprieved at the last minute when he showed Vučković a letter signed by General Mihailović. The incident was reported to the General, who ordered that he be sent to his Headquarters. Popov was a double agent for the Yugoslavs and British in the Gestapo during the war. He was also Dušan Popov's brother.[10] Popov (British codenamed Dreadnought, Yugoslav (Chetnik) codenamed Eskulap), was evacuated along with American airmen to Italy. The young aviators had no idea that one of the passengers was a former Gestapo officer.

The largest evacuation based on Pranjani began at 3 am on August 10. Four C-47s flew in; they were followed by a further six. These aircraft were protected by 50 (P-51 Mustang and P-38 Lightning) fighters. Ground security was provided by the Morava group under Captain Aleksandar Milošević. A total of 237 men were evacuated.

The operation was repeated on August 12, 15 and 18; a further 210 airmen were evacuated. A new OSS unit, under Operation Ranger, was led by Colonel Robert H. McDowell. Musulin flew out of Pranjani on August 29, in the same aircraft that McDowell had arrived in.[11][12] Musulin's replacement was Captain Nick Lalich, who flew to Pranjani on August 10.

Evacuation from Koceljeva

On the eve of the invasion by the Red Army in September 1944, the supreme command of the Yugoslav Army, along with the Halyard and Ranger missions, left Pranjani and transferred to Mačva. Another improvised airstrip at Koceljeva had been built. The runway was 400 meters long, it was constructed between September 15 and 17. 20 airmen, a Frenchman, a few Italians and two US medical officers were evacuated on September 17.[9]

Evacuation from Boljanić

A third improvised airstrip was built between October 22 and November 1 at Boljanić near Doboj in eastern Bosnia. It was used to evacuate the Supreme Command of the Yugoslav Army and 15 U.S. airmen on September 27. Two C-47s, covered by seven fighters, landed. The evacuees, including Captain John Milodragovich and Lieutenant Michael Rajachich (both OSS), were taken to Bari. McDowell tried to persuade General Mihailović to accompany him to Italy, but he refused, saying:

I prefer to lose my life in this country, than to live as an outcast in a strange [one]. I'll stay with my soldiers and the people to the end, in order to fulfill the duty to the King that he left me. For King and Fatherland - Freedom or Death!

These aviators had jumped from two damaged aircraft in June 1944 into Milino Selo, in eastern Bosnia. They were accommodated in the houses of Luke Panić and several prominent farmers in the village Boljanić, and rescued by the Chetniks Ozren Corps Major Cvijetin Todić.

Two C-47s, one piloted by Colonel George Kraigher, (a pioneer in the development of Pan American World Airways ),[13] the other by First Lieutenant John L. Dunn, left Italy at 1100 hours on December 27, 1944. Escorted by 16 P-38s, they reached the emergency landing field at Boljanić at 1255. Spotting a hole in the overcast, Kraigher led the way in, to land on a 1,700-foot strip that was frozen just enough to support the weight of a C-47. The transports were met by Captain Lalich. The aircraft were quickly loaded with 20 American airmen, one U.S. citizen, two Yugoslavian (Chetnik) officers, four French and four Italian army personnel and two remaining Halyard team members, Lalich and his radio operator Arthur Jibilian. Lalich tried once more to persuade General Mihailović to accompany them to Italy. Mihailović remained consistent in his intention to stay with his soldiers. The aircraft took off at 1315 hrs

Two C-47s lifted 25 airmen from Boljanić in late February 1945 in very cold weather. This was the last evacuation.[9]

The number of rescued airmen

  • 11 men who travelled on foot from Pranjani to the Adriatic Sea on April 19
  • 40 men who were evacuated by British planes from Pranjani to Bari on May 29
  • 237 men who were evacuated from Pranjani on August 9 and 10
  • 210 men who were evacuated from Pranjani on August 12, 15 and 18
  • 20 men who were evacuated from Koceljeva on September 17
  • 15 men who were evacuated by boat from the Bay of Kotor to Bari in September and October 1944
  • 15 men who were evacuated from the village of Boljanić on November 1
  • 20 men who were evacuated from Boljanić on December 27
  • 25 airmen who were evacuated from Boljanić in late February 1945

A total of 593 allied airman were evacuated from Chetnik territory.
It is likely that a group of airmen were evacuated with Captain George Musulin on August 29.
Between August 9 and 18, 447 airmen were evacuated from Pranjani.

Members of the Halyard Mission

  • Lieutenant Michael "Mike" Rayachich (member of mission from August 2 to 29, then a member of the Renger mission to November 1, 1944) - Legion of Merit with oak leaf cluster.[15]
  • Radio operator Sergeant Arthur Jibilian (member of mission from August 2 to December 27, 1944) - Silver Star[16]
  • Captain Nick Lalich (member of mission from August 10 to 28, Head of Mission from August 29 to December 27, 1944) - Legion of Merit.[17]
  • Captain and Doctor Jack Mitrani with two medical assistants (Captain Mitrani headed the medical team mission of Halyard from August 10 to September 17, 1944).

Mission

This operation took place between August and December 1944 from a crudely constructed forest airfield created by Serbian peasants in Pranjani. It is little known today, and largely unknown to most Americans. It is the subject of the 2007 book The Forgotten 500: The Untold Story of the Men Who Risked All For the Greatest Rescue Mission of World War II, by author Gregory A. Freeman. In his book, he describes it as one of the greatest rescue stories ever told. It tells the story of how the airmen were downed in a country they knew nothing about, and how the Serbian villagers were willing to sacrifice their own lives to save the lives of the air crews.

The OSS planned an elaborate rescue involving C-47 cargo planes landing in enemy territory. It was an extremely risky operation, involving the planes not only entering enemy territory without being shot down themselves, but also landing, retrieving the downed airmen, then taking off and flying out of that same territory, again without being shot down themselves. The rescue was a complete success, but received little to no publicity. This was partly due to the timing, the world's attention being focused on the D-Day operations in France.

Because of this operation, and due to the efforts of Major Richard Felman, United States President Harry S. Truman posthumously awarded General Mihailović the Legion of Merit for his contribution to the Allied victory during World War II.[18] The award was presented to Mihailović's daughter Gordana Mihajlovic by the US State Department on May 9, 2005.

Initially, this high award and the story of the rescue was classified secret by the U.S. State Department so as not to offend the-then Communist government of Yugoslavia. Such a display of appreciation for the Chetniks would not have been welcome as the Western Allies, who had supported the Chetniks early in World War II, switched sides to Josip Broz Tito's Partisans for the latter part of the war.

Commemoration

A commemorative plaque in Pranjani, Serbia.

Authority to erect a monument to General Draza Mihailovich was given in 1989 by the National Committee of American Airmen in Washington, District of Columbia, in recognition of the role he played in saving the lives of more than five hundred United States airmen in Yugoslavia during World War II.[19]

On September 12, 2004, five years after the NATO armed conflict against Yugoslavia, four American veterans, Clare Musgrove, Arthur Jibilian, George Vujnovich and Robert Wilson, visited Pranjani for the unveiling of a commemorative plaque.[20] A bill introduced in the US House of Representatives by Bob Latta on July 31, 2009, requested that Jibilian be awarded the Medal of Honor for his part in Operation Halyard.[21]

On Veterans' Day, 2007, the U.S. Ambassador to Serbia, Cameron Munter, visited Pranjani and presented the citizens of the area with a proclamation signed by the Governor of the State of Ohio expressing gratitude to the Serbian families that rescued hundreds of U.S. airmen whose aircraft had been shot down by Nazi forces in World War II.

On October 17, 2010, George Vujnovich was awarded the Bronze Star in a ceremony in New York City for his role in the operation.[22][23] Vujnovich trained the volunteers who carried out the rescue, teaching them how to blend in with other Serbians, by mastering mundane tasks conforming to local custom, such as tying and tucking their shoelaces and pushing food onto their forks with their knives during meals.

The U.S. Embassy in Belgrade, in cooperation with the Euro-Atlantic Initiative and the citizens of Pranjani, initiated a project to construct a library and youth center in Pranjani which will help the education of local children and enhance commemoration of the Halyard Mission. The project will mark a historical bond between the Serbian and American people and the state partnership between Serbia and the State of Ohio, which was established in 2006. The project will include an effort to educate both the Serbian and American public about the Halyard Mission, through photographic exhibitions, an internet presentation and the production of a documentary movie. The library-youth center project consists of the construction of a multipurpose facility. It will serve as a library and the center for multimedia education of young people and farmers from the Pranjani area. It will be equipped with Internet access and as a memorial center for the Halyard Mission which will include a permanent exhibition of photographs, objects and documents related to the evacuation mission of Allied airmen and the wartime alliance between the people of Serbia and the U.S. Part of the Center's exhibits will be given to the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Base in Ohio where a special exhibition area will be opened about Serbia's role in the rescue of the airmen in World War II. Similar to the Vietnam Memorial in Washington, D.C., one wall of the Pranjani center will include the names of all the Allied airmen that were rescued during the Halyard Mission and the Serbian families that hid and cared for them. The Library will be built immediately adjacent to the primary school and Pranjani church, which was the place used for ceremonies of friendship and cooperation by citizens of the area, the Ravna Gora movement (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland), and the U.S. mission. Another segment will be built on Galovića field in Pranjani where the U.S. Air Force evacuated the airmen. This part of the project envisions the construction of a hangar and the placement of one C-47 aircraft inside it. In addition, multi-language plaques and maps will be erected that will allow history lovers and interested tourists to become acquainted with the Halyard Mission and the historic heritage of the area.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ NYC man, 95, gets medal for WWII rescue
  2. ^ 66 Years Later, a Bronze Star
  3. ^ a b c [1] Military Archive, Chetnik archives, K-278, registration number 18/1
  4. ^ a b c Zvonimir Vučković, A Balkan Tragedy, Yugoslavia 1941-1946: Memoirs of a Guerrilla Fighter, New York.
  5. ^ Ćirović, Slobodan: On the trail of crime, Nova Svetlost, Kragujevac, 2002.
  6. ^ Commemorative of the Dinar Chetnik Division 1941–1945, the first book, The Movement of Serbian Chetniks of the Ravna Gora in the world, Toronto, 1993.
  7. ^ [2] Military Archive, Chetnik archives, K-277, registration number 4/1
  8. ^ a b [3] Agent of the OSS in Brindisi, Newspaper "Politika", November 7, 2010
  9. ^ a b c [4] Pešić, Miodrag: Mission Halyard, Novi Pogledi, Kragujevac, 2004.
  10. ^ http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/may2002.pdf
  11. ^ Special Forces Roll Of Honour
  12. ^ Special Forces Roll Of Honour
  13. ^ GEORGE KRAIGHER, PILOT IN TWO WARS, by Thomas W. Ennis (The New York Times); Obituary, September 25, 1984
  14. ^ George "Guv" Musulin
  15. ^ Michael "Mike" Rayachich
  16. ^ Arthur Jibilian
  17. ^ Nick A. Lalich
  18. ^ Congressional Record on Draza Mihajlovic
  19. ^ Bill Text 101st Congress (1989-1990) S.J.RES.18.IS
  20. ^ WWII Veterans Delegation Visit Serbia
  21. ^ "Fremont resident may receive Medal of Honor". http://www.thenews-messenger.com/article/20090805/UPDATES01/308050001/-1/newsfront2. [dead link]
  22. ^ 66 Years Later, a Bronze Star, New York Times, City Room, October 14, 2010
  23. ^ 95-year-old NYC man gets medal for WWII rescue

External links

References

  • Freeman, Gregory A. The Forgotten 500: The Untold Story of the Men Who Risked All For the Greatest Rescue Mission of World War II NAL Hardcover 2007, ISBN 0-451-22212-1
  • Karchmar, Lucien. Draža Mihailović and the Rise of the Četnik Movement, 1941-1942. New York: Garland Pub., 1987.
  • Lees, Michael. The Rape of Serbia: The British Role in Tito's Grab for Power, 1943-1944. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991.
  • Martin, David. Ally Betrayed: The Uncensored Story of Tito and Mihailović. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1946.
  • Martin, David. Patriot or Traitor: The Case of General Mihailović: Proceedings and Report of the Commission of Inquiry of the Committee for a Fair Trial for Draja Mihailović. Hoover Archival Documentaries. Hoover Institution Publication, volume 191. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1978.
  • Martin, David. The Web of Disinformation: Churchill's Yugoslav Blunder. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1990.
  • Roberts, Walter R. Tito, Mihailović, and the Allies, 1941–1945. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1973.
  • Trew, Simon. Britain, Mihailović, and the Chetniks, 1941–42. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's Press in association with King's College, London, 1998.


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