Glossary of Stoic terms


Glossary of Stoic terms

This is a glossary of terms which are commonly found in Stoic philosophy.

A

;adiaphora: ἀδιάφορα: indifferent things, neither good nor bad.;agathos: ἀγαθὸς: good, proper object of desire.;anthrôpos: ἄνθρωπος: human being, used by Epictetus to express an ethical ideal.;apatheia: ἀπάθεια: serenity, peace of mind, such as that achieved by the Stoic sage.;aphormê: ἀφορμή: aversion, impulse not to act (as a result of ekklisis). Opposite of hormê.;aproêgmena: ἀποπροηγμένα: dispreferred things. Morally indifferent but naturally undesirable things, such as illness. Opposite of proêgmena.;aretê: ἀρετή: Virtue. Goodness and human excellence.;askêsis: ἄσκησις: disciplined training designed to achieve virtue.;ataraxia: ἀταραξία: tranquillity, untroubled by external things.;autarkeia: αὐτάρκεια: self-sufficiency, mental independence of all things.

D

;daimôn: δαίμων: divine spirit within humans.;diairesis: διαίρεσις: analysis, division into parts. Used when distinguishing what is subject to our power of choice from what is not.;dogma: δόγμα: principle established by reason and experience.;doxa: δόξα: belief, opinion.

E

;ekklisis: ἔκκλισις: aversion, inclination away from a thing. Opposite of orexis.;ekpyrôsis: ἐκπύρωσις: cyclical conflagration of the Universe.;eph' hêmin: ἐφ' ἡμῖν: up to us, what is in our power, i.e. the correct use of impressions.;epistêmê: επιστήμη: certain and true knowledge, over and above that of katalêpsis.;eudaimonia: εὺδαιμονια: happiness, well-being.;eupatheia: ευπάθεια: good feeling, (as contrasted with pathos), occurring in the Stoic sage who performs correct (virtuous) judgements and actions.

H

;hêgemonikon: ἡγεμονικόν: ruling faculty of the mind.;heimarmenê: εἱμαρμένη: fate, destiny.;hormê: ὁρμή: positive impulse or appetite towards an object (as a result of orexis). Opposite of aphormê.;hylê: ὕλη: matter, material.

K

;kalos: καλός: beautiful. Sometimes used in a moral sense: honourable, virtuous.;katalêpsis: κατάληψις: clear comprehension and conviction.;kathêkon: καθῆκον: duty, appropriate action on the path to Virtue.;kosmos: κόσμος: order, world, universe.

L

;logikos: λογικός: rational.;logos: λόγος: reason, explanation, word. Also, the ordering principle in the kosmos.;logos spermatikos: λόγος σπερματικὸς: the generative principle of the Universe which creates and takes back all things.

N

;nomos: νόμος: law, custom.

O

;oîêsis: οἴησις: opinion, usually arrogant or self-conceited.;oikeiôsis: οἰκείωσις: self-ownership and extension. The process of self-awareness in all animals, which in humans leads to a sense of community.;orexis: ὄρεξις: desire, inclination towards a thing, Opposite of ekklisis.;ousia: οὐσία: substance, being.

P

;paideia: παιδεία: training, education.;palingenesia: παλιγγενεσία: periodic renewal of the world associated with ekpyrôsis.;pathos: πάθος: passion or emotion, often excessive and based on false judgements.;phantasia: φαντασία: impression, appearance, the way in which something is perceived.;physis: φύσις: nature.;pneuma: πνεῦμα: air, breath, spirit, often as a principle in Stoic physics.;proêgmena: προηγμένα: preferred things. Morally indifferent but naturally desirable things, such as health. Opposite of aproêgmena.;pro(h)airesis: προαίρεσις: free will, reasoned choice, giving or withholding assent to impressions.;prokopê: προκοπή: progress, on the path towards wisdom.;prolêpsis: πρόληψις: preconception possessed by all rational beings.;psychê: ψυχή: mind, soul, life, living principle.

;sophos: σοφός: wise person, virtuous sage, and the ethical ideal.;synkatathesis (or sunkatathesis): συγκατάθεσις: assent, approval to impressions, enabling action to take place.;sympatheia: συμπάθεια: sympathy, affinity of parts to the organic whole, mutual interdependence.

T

;technê: τέχνη: craft, art. The practical application of knowledge, especially epistêmê.;telos: τέλος: goal or objective of life.;theôrêma: θεώρημα: general principle or perception.;theos: θεός: god; associated with the order in the Universe.;tonos: τόνος: tension, a principle in Stoic physics causing attraction and repulsion, and also the cause of virtue and vice in the soul.

References

* Devettere, R., "Glossary", in "Introduction to Virtue Ethics: Insights of the Ancient Greeks", pages 139-154. Georgetown University Press. (2002).
* Haines, C., "Glossary of Greek terms", in "Marcus Aurelius", pages 411-416. Loeb Classical Library. (1916).
* Inwood, B., Gerson L., "Glossary", in "Hellenistic Philosophy: Introductory Readings", pages 399-409. Hackett Publishing. (1997).
* Long, A. A., "Glossary", in "A Stoic and Socratic Guide to Life", pages 275-276. Oxford University Press. (2002)
* Schofield, M., "Index and Glossary of Greek terms", in "The Stoic Idea of the City", pages 171-172. Cambridge University Press. (1991).


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