Ignatius of Loyola
] St. Ignatius did not intend to change his name but rather adopted for France and Italy a name which he believed was a simple variant of his own, and which was more acceptable among foreigners.cite journal | last = Verd | first =Gabriel María | title =De Iñigo a Ignacio. El cambio de nombre en San Ignacio de Loyola | journal = Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu| volume =60 | pages =113-160 | publisher =Institutum Historicum Societatis Iesu | location =Roma| date =1991 | url = | issn = 0037-8887 | quote="That St. Ignatius of Loyola's name was changed is a known fact, but it cannot be said that it is widely known in the historiography of the saint - neither the characteristics of the names Iñigo and Ignacio nor the reasons for the change. It is first necessary to make clear the meaning of the names; they are distinct, despite the persistently held opinion in onomastic dictionaries and popular thought. In Spain Ignacio and Iñigo are at times used interchangeably just as if they were Jacobo and Jaime. With reference to the name Iñigo, it is fitting to give some essential notions to eliminate ambiguities and help understand what follows. This name first appears on the Ascoli brome (dated 18 November 90 B.C.), in a list of Spanish knights belonging to a Turma salluitana or Saragossan. It speaks of Elandus Enneces f [ilius] , and according to Menéndez Pidal the final «s» is the «z» of Spanish patronymics, and could be nothing other than Elando Iñiguez. It is an ancestral Hispanic name. Ignacio, on the other hand, is a Latin name. In classical Latin there is Egnatius with an initial E. It appears only twice with an initial I (Ignatius) in the sixty volumes of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. This late Latin and Greek form prevailed. In the classical period Egnatius was used as a nomen (gentilitial name) and not as a praenomen (first name) or cognomen (surname), except in very rare cases. (...) The most important conclusion, perhaps unexpected, but not unknown, is that St. Ignatius did not change his name. That is to say, he did not intend to change it. What he did was to adopt for France and Italy a name which he believed was a simple variant of his own, and which was more acceptable among foreigners. That Ignacio ended up replacing Iñigo does not change his intention. If he had remained in Spain, he would have, without doubt, remained Iñigo."|language=Spanish]
The youngest of 13 children, Íñigo was only seven years old when his mother died. In 1506, Íñigo adopted the last name "de Loyola" in reference of the city where he was born and later became a page in the service of a relative, Juan Velázquez de Cuéllar, treasurer ("contador mayor") of the kingdom of Castile.
In 1509, Íñigo took up arms for
Antonio Manrique de Lara, Duke of Nájeraand Viceroy of Navarre. According to Thomas Rochford, S.J., his diplomacy and leadership qualities made him a '"Gentilhombre" should be understood as servant of the court. By contrast, the English term "Gentleman" denotes a man of good family. In this sense the word equates with the French ' (nobleman), which latter term was in Great Britainlong confined to the peerage.(see Spanish Wikipedia article "".) ] very useful to the Duke.cite web |url=http://www.sjweb.info/jesuits/ignatius.cfm |title=St. Ignatius Loyola: the pilgrim and man of prayer who founded the Society of Jesus |accessmonthday= 11-15 |accessyear= 2007 |last=Rochford |first=Thomas |date= |work= |publisher= Society of Jesus ] Under the Duke's leadership, he participated in many battles without injury to himself. But when the French army, supporting the Navarrese monarchy expelled in 1512, stormed the Pamplona's fortress on May 20, 1521, a cannonball shot wounded one of his legs and broke the other. Heavily injured, Íñigo was returned to his castle. He was very concerned about the injuries on his leg, and he was exposed (by his own decision) to several surgical operations, which were, at that time, very painful processes.
During this time he read the De Vita Christi by
Ludolph of Saxony( aka Ludoph the Carthusian ) in a Catalan edition. This work arguably influenced the whole life of Saint Ignatius. The De Vita Christi is the result of forty years of work by Ludolph. It is a commentary on the life of Jesus-Christ, a commentary on the Gospels borrowing extracts from the works of over sixty of the Fathers of the Church. Ludolph particularly quotes St Gregory the Great, St Basil, St Augustine and the Venerable Bede. Ludolph proposes to the reader that he places himself at the scene of the Gospel story; that he visualises the crib at the Nativity etc etc. This is known as a method of prayer called Simple Contemplation and arguably is the basis of the method that St Ignatius sets out in his Spiritual Exercises. [Sr Mary Immaculate Bodenstedt, The Vita Christi of Ludolphus the Carthusian, a Dissertation, Washington: Catholic University of America Press 1944 British Library Catalogue No. Ac2692.y/29.(16).] See Ludolph of Saxony
Religious aspiration places
During the time he was recovering, Ignatius read a number of religious texts on the life of
Jesuscalled the Vita Christi by Ludolph of Saxony[The Vita Christi by Charles Abbot Conway Analecta Cartusiana 34] [Ludolph's Life of Christ by Father Henry James Coleridge in "The Month" Vol 17 (New Series VI) July - Dec 1872 pages 337-370] and the saints and became fired with an ambition to lead a life of self-denying labor and emulate the heroic deeds of Francis of Assisiand other great monastic leaders. He resolved to devote himself to the conversion of non-Christians in the Holy Land. Upon recovery, he visited the Benedictine monastery of Montserrat( March 25, 1522), where he hung his military vestments before an image of the Virgin. He then went and spent several months in a cave near the town of Manresa, Cataloniawhere he practiced the most rigorous asceticism. He begged his journey to the Holy Land, as a way of self denial and sacrifice. After that, he studied at the ascetic Collège de Montaiguof the University of Paris, where he remained over seven years. In later life, he was often called "Master Ignatius" in recognition of his final academic credential. While in Paris, his spiritual preaching granted him some attention from the French Inquisition.
By 1534 he had six key companions, all of whom he met as students at the University—
Francis Xavier, Alfonso Salmerons, Diego Laynez, and Nicholas Bobadilla, all Spanish; Peter Faber, a Frenchman; and Simão Rodriguesof Portugal. Later on he would be joined by nobles like Francisco de Borja, a member of the Borgiafamily, who was the main aide of Emperor Charles V.
Ignatius Loyola was the main creator and initial Superior General of the
Society of Jesus, a religious organization of the Catholic Church which agreed straight service to the Pope in conditions of mission. The Members of the organization are called Jesuits. He is famous as the gatherer of the Spiritual Exercises, and he is kept in mind as a talented spiritual director. He was very vigorous in fighting the Protestant Reformation and promoting the following Counter-Reformation. He was beatified and then canonized and received the title of Saint on March 12, 1622. He is the patron saint of the state of Guipúzcoa as along with the Society of Jesus.
Ignatius Loyola wrote Spiritual Exercises from 1522-1524, the publication is a simple set of meditations, prayers, and various other mental exercises. The exercises of the book were designed to be carried out over a period of 28-30 days. The book was 200 pages and was designed to enhance and strengthen a person's faith experience in Roman Catholic Church manners.
Foundation of the Society of Jesus
August 15, 1534, he and the other six met in the crypt of the Chapel of St. Denis on, Montmartrein Parisand founded the Society of Jesus - "to enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct". In 1537 they traveled to Italyto seek papal approval for their order. While in Venice, they attended those affected by the plague. Pope Paul IIIconfirmed the order through the bull " Regimini militantis" ( September 27, 1540), but limited the number of its members to sixty. This limitation was removed through the bull "Injunctum nobis" on March 14, 1543.
Position on anti-Semitism
Ignatius was opposed to the anti-Semitic attitudes that were common in Spain in his day. He refused to allow the Society of Jesus to discriminate against
conversos who wished to join. He disparaged the Spanish insistence on "limpieza de sangre," (purity of blood, meaning, the idea of discriminating against Catholics of Jewish ancestry,) referring to it as "el humor español" (the Spanish whim). [ Henry Kamen, The Disinherited; Exile and the Making of Spanish Culture, Harper, 2007 p. 105]
Father General of the Jesuits
Ignatius was chosen as the first Superior General of his religious order, invested with the title of
Father Generalby the Jesuits. He sent his companions as missionaries around Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries. Juan de Vega, the ambassador of Charles V at Rome had met Ignatius there. Esteeming him and the Jesuits, when Vega was appointed Viceroy of Sicily he brought Jesuits with him. A Jesuit college was opened at Messina; success was marked, and its rules and methods were afterwards copied in other colleges. [CathEncy|wstitle =History_of_the_Jesuits_Before_the_1773_Suppression|title=History of the Jesuits Before the 1773 Suppression|author=J.H. POLLEN| accessdate =2008-06-28] In 1548 Spiritual Exerciseswas finally printed, and he was briefly brought before the Roman Inquisition, but was released.
Ignatius wrote the Jesuit Constitutions, adopted in 1554, which created a monarchical organization and stressed absolute self-abnegation and obedience to Pope and superiors ("perinde ac cadaver", "well-disciplined like a corpse" as Ignatius put it). His main principle became the Jesuit motto: "
Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam" ("for the greater glory of God"). The Jesuits were a major factor in the Counter-Reformation.
During 1553-1555 Ignatius dictated his life's story to his secretary, Father Gonçalves da Câmara. This autobiography is a valuable key for the understanding of his "Spiritual Exercises". It was kept in the archives for about 150 years, until the
Bollandists published the text in Acta Sanctorum. A critical edition exists in Vol. I (1943) of the "Fontes Narrativi" of the series "Monumenta Historica Societatis Iesu". He died in Rome on July 31, 1556after a long struggle with chronic stomach ailments.
Canonization and legacy
Ignatius was beatified by
Paul Von July 27, 1609, and canonizedby Gregory XVon March 12, 1622. His feast day is celebrated annually on July 31, the day he died. Saint Ignatius is venerated as the patron saint of Catholic soldiers, the ordinariate of the Philippine military, the Basque country and various towns and cities in his native region.
April 22, 2006, Feast of Our Lady, Mother of the Society of Jesus, Pope Benedict XVIsaid that "St Ignatius of Loyola institutions, are dedicated to St Ignatius." Perhaps the most famous of them is Basilicaof St Ignatius Loyola built next to the house where he was born in Azpeitia, the Basque Country. The house itself, now a museum, is incorporated into the basilica complex.
As probably one of the most important parts of the material part of his legacy, we can find many Jesuit schools and general educational institutions worldwide: see [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Jesuit_schools] , one the most popular of them being the
hield of Oñaz-Loyola
The Shield of Oñaz-Loyola is a recognizable symbol of St. Ignatius's family lineage, and is used by many
Jesuitinstitutions around the world. The Loyola family name comes from the Spanish phrase lobos y olla ("wolves and a pot"), as they were known to be of extreme wealth as to be able to feed wild wolves. [ [http://www.ateneo.edu/index.php?p=486 Ateneo de Manila University Seal] ]
Ateneo de Manila University
Saint Ignatius' College, Riverview
Loyola University New Orleans
Villoslada established the following detailed genealogy of St. Ignatius: [cite book |title=San Ignacio de Loyola: Nueva biografía |last= García Villoslada |first=Ricardo |year=1986 |publisher=La Editorial Católica |location= |isbn=8422012677|language=Spanish ]
Lope de Oñaz (~1180) ├ García López de Oñaz (~1221) ├ López García de Oñaz
wife: Inés, dame of Loyola – unit of families (~1261) ├ daughter: Inés de Oñaz y Loyola (~end of XIII c.) husband: Juan Pérez (related) ├ Jaun (Basque - Lord) Juan Pérez ├ Gil López de Oñaz ├ other 5 brothers (see – battle of
Beotibar) Beltrán Yáñez (vel Ibáñez) de Loyola, son of Jaun Juan (+1405) wife: Ochanda Martínez de Leete from Azpeitia ├ Sancha Ibáñez de Loyola
husband: Lope García de Lazcano
married: 4 III 1413 ├ heir: Juan Pérez de Loyola (d. childless, heirdom for Sancha) ├ Maria Beltranche ├ Elvira ├ Emilia ├ Juanecha Juan Pérez de Loyola, son of Sancha Ibáñez (+ in Tolosa) wife: Sancha Pérez de Iraeta (+1473) ├ Don Beltrán Yáñez (vel Ibáñez) de Oñaz y Loyola (+ 23 X 1507) wife: Doña Marina Sáenz (vel Sánchez) de Licona (+ < 6 V 1508) married: 13 VII 1467 r. 13 children: 1. Juan Pérez de Loyola (+1503 in Naples) 2. heir – Don Martín García de Oñaz y Loyola (1477 – 29 XI 1538) wife: Magdalena de Araoz married: 11 IX 1498 * – order uncertain *. Ochoa Pérez de Loyola *. Juan Beltrán de Loyola *. Beltrán de Loyola (+ < 14 XI 1527) *. Hernando de Loyola (+ in Panama, New World) *. Pero López de Oñaz y Loyola (priest, + < VII 1529 in Barcelona) *. Juaniza (vel Joaneiza) de Loyola, wife of Juan Marínez de Alzaga, notary from Azpeitia *. Magdalena de Loyola, wife of Juan López de Gallaiztegui, notary from Anzuola *. Sancha Ibáñez de Loyola *. Petronila de Loyola, wife of Pedro Ochoa de Arriola *. Maria Beltrán de Loyola, wife of Domingo de Arruado 13. Iñigo López de Loyola (< 23 X 1491 – 31 VII 1556)
*"The Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius (Translated by Anthony Mottola, Ph.D)", Doubleday, 1964. ISBN 978-0-385-02436-5
* Loyola, (St.) Ignatius (1900). [http://www.archive.org/details/stignatiusautobi00ignauoft "The Autobiography of St. Ignatius Loyola"] , translated by Joseph O'Conner. Illustrated. From
Internet Archive. [For information on the O'Conner and other translations, see notes in "A Pilgrim's Journey: The Autobiography of Ignatius of Loyola" [http://books.google.com/books?id=Mi3EXeX5bgsdKFjdsfaklsadlfkjldsafartsfarstfartsfartsfartsnYC&pg=PA12&lpg=PA12&dq=%22the+autobiography+of+st+ignatius+loyola%22&source=web&ots=atcXnLuAlp&sig=h6Bc-gwCXLH8WvXRrC4Bi4W2aWs#PPA11,M1 Page 11-12] .]
* Loyola, (St.) Ignatius (1992). "The Autobiography of St. Ignatius Loyola, with Related Documents" (J. F. O'Callaghan, Trans). New York: Fordham University Press. ISBN 0-8232-1480-X.
* Foss, Michael (1969). "The Founding of the Jesuits 1540" Turning Points in History Series Hamilton, London
* Caraman, Philip (1990). "Ignatius Loyola: A Biography of the Founder of the Jesuits". San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-250130-5.
* O'Malley, John W (1993). "The First Jesuits." Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-30312-1.
* Meissner, William W (1992). "Ignatius of Loyola: The Psychology of a Saint". New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06079-3.
* [http://www.luc.edu/jesuit/ignatius.bio.html Biography of Ignatius of Loyola]
* [http://www.ignatiushistory.info The world of Ignatius of Loyola]
* [http://woodstock.georgetown.edu/ignatius/letters.htm Letters of St. Ignatius of Loyola]
* [http://lukeraid.tripod.com/opusdei/id21.html St. Ignatius Loyola and Opus Dei]
* [http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/jsuebersax/contempl1.htm "Contemplation to Attain Love", by Ignatius of Loyola]
* [http://www.goajesuits.in The Goa Jesuit Province of the Society of Jesus]
* [http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org/Statues/Founders/IgnatiusLoyola/Ignatius%20Loyola.htm Founder Statue in St Peter's Basilica]
* [http://familiaignaciana.com FamiliaIgnaciana.com - Comunidad de Ignacianos en los Estados Unidos]
* [http://ignatius.sa.edu.au Saint Ignatius' College]
Martín Ignacio de Loyola
List of Christian mystics
Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola
Madeleine d'Houetfoundress of the Sisters, Faithful Companions of Jesus
NAME= Loyola, Saint Ignatius of
SHORT DESCRIPTION= Saint Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Ignacio (Íñigo) López de Loyola (December 24, 1491 – July 31, 1556), was the principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church.
DATE OF BIRTH=birth date|1491|12|24|df=y
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=death date and age|1556|7|31|1491|12|24|df=y
PLACE OF DEATH=
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Ignatius von Loyola — (auch: Íñigo López de Loyola; * 31. Mai 1491 auf Schloss Loyola bei Azpeitia, Baskenland, Spanien; † 31. Juli 1556 in Rom) war der wichtigste Mitbegründer und Gestalter der später auch als Jesuitenorden bezeichneten … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ignatius von Loyola — [lo joːla], eigentlich Íñigo López Oñaz y Loyola [ lopɛθ o ɲaθ i ], katholischer Ordensgründer baskischer Herkunft, * Schloss Loyola (bei Azpeitia, Provinz Guipúzcoa) 1491, ✝ Rom 31. 7. 1556; zunächst in höfischen und militärischen Dienst,… … Universal-Lexikon
Ignatius (of) Loyola — Saint (born Iñigo López de Recalde) (1491 1556); Sp. priest: founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit order): his day is July 31 * * * … Universalium
Ignatius (of) Loyola — Saint (born Iñigo López de Recalde) (1491 1556); Sp. priest: founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit order): his day is July 31 … English World dictionary
Ignatius de Loyola, S. (6) — 6S. Ignatius de Loyola, Conf. Soc. Jes. Fund. (31. Juli). Das Leben ihres heil. Ordensstifters (Fundatoris Ordinis Clericorum Regularium Societatis Jesu) wird von den Bollandisten sehr ausführlich behandelt. Zuerst findet sich (Jul. VII. 409–634) … Vollständiges Heiligen-Lexikon
IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA — (1491 1556) Ignatius of Loyola founded the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits), the religious order responsible for returning large portions of Europe to the Catholic church after the Reformation. The Society of Jesus, trained by Ignatius s Spiritual… … Renaissance and Reformation 1500-1620: A Biographical Dictionary
Ignatius of Loyola — noun Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus; a leading opponent of the Reformation (1491 1556) • Syn: ↑Saint Ignatius of Loyola, ↑St. Ignatius of Loyola, ↑Loyola • Topics: ↑Roman Catholic, ↑Western Church, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Ignatius of Loyola — Ig|nat|i|us of Loy|o|la, St also St Ignatius Loyola (1491 1556) a Spanish priest who started the ↑Jesuit ↑order (=a Roman Catholic group of ↑missionary priests, which is also called the Society of Jesus) … Dictionary of contemporary English
Ignatius of Loyola — biographical name Saint 1491 1556 originally Iñigo de Oñaz y Loyola Spanish religious & founder of Society of Jesus • Ignatian adjective … New Collegiate Dictionary
Ignatius of Loyola — /ɪgˌneɪʃəs əv lɔɪˈoʊlə/ (say ig.nayshuhs uhv loy ohluh) noun Saint (Iñigo López de Recalde), 1491–1556, Spanish soldier and priest; founder of the Jesuit order … Australian English dictionary