List of sunken battleships

The battleship was the key strategic weapon of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Large numbers of battleships were built by the major military powers, in particular Britain, France, Germany, Russia, Italy, Spain, Japan, and the United States. Due to the high cost of building and maintenance, most were eventually scrapped to for the metal. Only a handful of true battleships have been retained as historical objects today. However, many battleships still exist as sunken wrecks in various stages of preservation in the oceans. While most these ships have long been considered "lost," modern technology and historical interest has drawn more attention to them while they remain relatively intact. By tradition and maritime law, sunken warships remain the property of the government of the nation that owned them.

Location of sunken battleships

List of Sunken Battleships

The battleships listed are grouped according to how they came to be sunk in their final resting place. In each category, they are listed in chronological order by date sunk.

unk in Combat

The following battleships were destroyed in full combat. These ships are considered war graves.


= "Navarin" =

Sunk after striking a mine during the Battle of Tsushima on May 28 1905.
* Navy: navy|Russia
* Casualties: 619 officers and men lost. Only three sailors were rescued after 4 days in the water.
* Location: Tsushima Strait, Sea of Japan


= "Sissoi Veliky" =

Scuttled by her crew after sustaining heavy damage at the Battle of Tsushima on May 28 1905.
* Navy: navy|Russia
* Location: Tsushima Strait, Sea of Japan


= "Oslyabya" =

Sunk at the Battle of Tsushima on May 28 1905.
* Navy: navy|Russia
* Casualties: 515 men lost, with 250 survivors rescued
* Location: Tsushima Strait, Sea of Japan


= "Borodino" =

Sunk at the Battle of Tsushima on May 28 1905.
* Navy: navy|Russia
* Casualties: 782 officers and men lost
* Location: Tsushima Strait, Sea of Japan


= "Imperator Aleksander III" =

Sunk at the Battle of Tsushima on May 28 1905.
* Navy: navy|Russia
* Casualties: 782 officers and men lost; no survivors
* Location: Tsushima Strait, Sea of Japan


= "Knyaz Suvorov" =

Sunk at the Battle of Tsushima on May 28 1905.

* Navy: navy|Russia
* Casualties: 782 officers and men lost
* Location: Tsushima Strait, Sea of Japan


= HMS "Irresistible" =

Struck a mine on March 18 1915, while participating in the final attempt to force the Dardanelles straits.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: Very few
* Location: In the Dardanelles straits, Turkey
* Condition: Reported to have been heavily salvaged and scavenged, with ship remains scattered.


= HMS "Ocean" =

Struck a mine and also hit by shore batteries March 18 1915, while participating in the final attempt to force the Dardanelles straits.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Location: In the Dardanelles straits, Turkey
* Condition: Reported to have been heavily salvaged and scavenged, with ship remains scattered.


= "Bouvet" =

Struck a mine and also hit by shore batteries March 18 1915, while participating in the final attempt to force the Dardanelles straits.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale
* Casualties: Over 600 men
* Location: In the Dardanelles straits, Turkey
* Condition: Reported to have been heavily salvaged and scavenged, with ship remains scattered.


= HMS "Goliath" =

Torpedoed by Turkish torpedo boat "Muavenet-i Milliye" on May 13 1915, while supporting the Battle of Gallipoli.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 570 men out of a crew of 700
* Location: Near Cape Helles, Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey
* Condition: Reported to have been heavily salvaged and scavenged, with ship remains scattered.


= SMS "Pommern" =

Torpedoed by destroyer HMS Faulknor during Battle of Jutland on June 1 1916. The torpedo hit was followed by a massive explosion in one of her magazines, and the ship broke apart and sank quickly.
* Navy: navy|German Empire
* Casualties: All hands, 839 men.
* Location: North Sea
* Condition: Reported to have been heavily salvaged.
* Relics: The bow ornament is now in the Laboe Naval Memorial.


= "Bismarck" =

Sunk on May 27 1941 following an extensive naval battle against British battleships, aircraft, cruisers, destroyers, and aircraft carriers. Heavily shelled by battleships and cruisers, and also torpedoed by aircraft and destroyers. The German survivors reported that the heavily damaged ship was finally scuttled to prevent capture.
* Navy: navy|Nazi Germany
* Casualties: Almost 2100 men lost, with 115 survivors
* Location: North Atlantic
* Condition: Upright in convert|15500|ft|m of water and in surprisingly good condition.


= USS "Arizona" =

Destroyed by Japanese aerial bombing on December 7 1941 during the Attack on Pearl Harbor.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii
* Casualties: 1,177 dead out of 1,400 crew members
* Status: Official war grave site with the premier Pearl Harbor memorial built over the sunken hull. Still an active grave site, eligible Pearl Harbor veterans continue to be interred within the hull.
* Condition: The "Arizona" was partially salvaged, with removal of almost all the superstructure, turrets, and guns. Following salvage and removal, the remaining hull is completely submerged, with the exception of one barbette, part of a mast, and the cutaway sides of one turret. Since the hull contains thousands of gallons of fuel oil, the hull corrosion rate is being actively studied.
* Relics: A section of the boat deck has been placed at Waipio Point, Oahu, Hawaii. This amidships section had served as a ceremonial platform on the wreck but was cut away to make room for the overlying memorial. One of the ship's bells is at the University of Arizona.


= USS "Utah" =

Destroyed by Japanese aerial torpedoes on December 7 1941 during the Attack on Pearl Harbor. The "Utah" had been downgraded from a battleship and converted to a combined gunnery training ship and radio-controlled target ship. It has been speculated that Japanese planners had assigned the "Utah" a low priority as a target, but that the extensive wooden planking covering the "Utah’s" decks had misled Japanese pilots into believing that the ship was a high-priority aircraft carrier.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Casualties: 58 dead and 461 survivors
* Location: Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii
* Status: Official war grave site with small memorial nearby on Ford Island.
* Condition: The "Utah" was capsized during the attack, and was partially salvaged but not recovered. The wreck was later partially righted and pulled closer to shore and away from the channel. The wreck is almost completely submerged, with a small amount of highly-corroded superstructure visible above the surface.


= HMS "Prince of Wales" =

The HMS "Prince of Wales", was attacked and sunk by aerial torpedoes from Japanese aircraft off the coast of Malaya on December 10 1941, while deployed in defense of Singapore.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 327 dead out of 1,612 men
* Location: Near Kuantan in Malaysia
* Status: Official war grave site.
* Condition: Upside down in convert|150|ft|m of water.
* Relics: The ship's bell was recovered, restored, and is now displayed in the Merseyside Maritime Museum in Liverpool.


= "Roma" =

The first capital ship to be sunk by guided missiles. Destroyed by German bomber-launched 'Fritz-X' missiles on September 9 1942, while en route to surrender to the Allies.
* Navy: navy|Italy
* Loss: 1350 killed and 596 survivors
* Location: Near Sardinia in Mediterranean Sea


= "Musashi" =

Destroyed by US naval aircraft on October 24 1944, at the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Casualties: 1,376 survivors out of 2,399 men
* Location: Sibuyan Sea, Pacific Ocean


= "Fusō" =

Destroyed along with her sister ship "Yamashiro" on October 25 1944, at the Battle of Surigao Strait. Split in half after being torpedoed by US destroyers. The bow section was sunk by gunfire from the USS "Louisville".
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Casualties: No known survivors out a crew of approximately 1,400 officers and men. After the sinking, survivors refused rescue by US warships. Any survivors who successfully swam to the nearby island were likely killed by Philippine inhabitants resisting Japanese occupation.
* Location: Near Kanihaan Island, Surigao Strait, Pacific Ocean


= "Yamashiro" =

Destroyed along with her sister ship "Fusō" on October 25 1944, at the Battle of Surigao Strait. Wrecked first by gunfire from US battleships, her hulk was sunk after being torpedoed by US destroyers.

There is some discussion among historians about the small possibility that the positions and roles of the sister ships "Fusō" and "Yamashiro" were reversed during their last battle. The Battle of Surigao Strait was fought at night and at some distance between the battleship combatants. There were very few Japanese survivors. To date, there has been no scientific survey of the wrecks that would resolve the debate.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Loss: 10 survivors out of approximately 1,400 men.
* Location: Surigao Strait, Pacific Ocean


= "Tirpitz" =

Sunk on November 12 1944 by the Royal Air Force using special 5-ton bombs. Near the wreck-site there are artificial lakes along the shore formed from bomb craters from the giant Tallboy bombs that missed their target.
* Navy: navy|Nazi Germany
* Casualties: Approximately 1000 men lost, with approximately 700 survivors
* Location: Håkøybotn Bay, Norway
* Condition: Only the bow remains after most of the ship was raised and scrapped after the war.
* Relics: Sections of armor plates are still used by the Norwegian Road Authority as temporary road surface material during roadwork. Additionally, a large chunk of the armor plating is held at the Royal Naval museum in Gosport, Hampshire.


= "Yamato" =

Destroyed while on a one-way mission to interdict American landings on Okinawa. Torpedoed and bombed by US naval aircraft on April 7 1945.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Casualties: 280 survivors out of approximately 2,778 men
* Location: East China Sea
* Condition: Broken in two and resting in convert|1400|ft|m of water. The bow section is upright and the main section upside down.
* Relics: 18-inch ammunition is displayed at the Yasukuni Shrine. Some small relics have been collected from the wreck by remote-control submarines.

unk by Torpedoes or Mines

The following battleships were destroyed in wartime, but struck below the waterline with torpedoes or mines. These ships are considered war graves.


= "Petropavlovsk" =

Sunk after striking a mine on April 13 1904, early in the Russo-Japanese war.

* Navy: navy|Russia
* Complement: 662/few survivors; Ship sank quickly.
* Location: Off Port Arthur (modern Lüshunkou), Yellow Sea


= "Yashima" =

Struck a Russian mine on May 15 1904 during the Russo-Japanese War.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Location: Off Port Arthur, China
* Relics: A highly detailed builder's model still survives and is currently on display at the Royal Hospital School Holbrook in Suffolk, England.


= "Hatsuse" =

Struck two Russian mines on May 15 1904 during the Russo-Japanese War.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Casualties: 38 officers and 458 men lost, with 23 officers and 313 men surviving
* Location: Off Port Arthur, China


= HMS "Audacious" =

Struck a mine on October 27 1914, becoming the first British battleship sunk in World War I.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: None from the HMS "Audacious", though a crewman of the HMS "Liverpool" was struck and killed by debris from an explosion on "Audacious".
* Location: Off Donegal, Ireland
* Condition: Upside down in convert|210|ft|m of water. Large openings blown in the hull from magazine explosions and the mine.


= HMS "Formidable" =

Torpedoed by U-boat on January 1 1915, while participating in gunnery exercises in the English Channel.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 547 dead out of 780 men
* Location: Near Portland in the English Channel
* Status: Official war grave site.


= HMS "Triumph" =

Torpedoed by U-21 on May 25 1915, while supporting the Battle of Gallipoli.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 73 dead out of 700 men
* Location: Near Gaba Tepe, Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey
* Condition: Reported to have been heavily salvaged and scavenged, with ship remains scattered.


= HMS "Majestic" =

Torpedoed by U-21 on May 27 1915, while supporting the Battle of Gallipoli.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 49 men
* Location: Near Cape Helles, Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey
* Condition: Reported to have been heavily salvaged and scavenged, with ship remains scattered.


= "Heireddin Barbarossa" - Previously SMS "Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm" =

Torpedoed by British submarine HMS E11 on August 8 1915.
* Navy: navy|Ottoman Empire
* Casualties: 253 men
* Location: Dardanelles, Turkey


= HMS "King Edward VII" =

Struck a mine on January 6 1916.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Location: In Pentland Firth on the northern coast of Scotland
* Condition: Upside down in convert|350|ft|m of water. In generally good condition.


= HMS "Russell" =

Struck a mine on April 27 1916.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 120 men
* Location: Off Grand Harbour of Valletta, Malta in Mediterranean Sea.
* Condition: Upside down in convert|350|ft|m of water. In generally good condition.


= "Suffren" =

Destroyed by U-52 with a dramatic torpedo hit in a magazine on November 26 1916.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale
* Loss: All hands, 648 men
* Location: Off Lisbon in the Atlantic Ocean.

"Gaulois"

Torpedoed by U-47 on December 27 1916.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale
* Location: Between the islands of Milos and Kythira in the Aegean Sea.


= "Peresviet" - Later "Sagami" =

Sunk twice by two different enemies. First sunk at her moorings by Japanese Army artillery during the Siege of Port Arthur. Raised and repaired by the Japanese and incorporated into the Imperial Japanese Navy as the "Sagami". Returned by the Japanese to Russia in April 1916 and renamed "Peresviet". She was due to be the flagship of the Russian Arctic flotilla but was sunk a second time while en route by mines laid by the U-73 outside Port Said, Egypt on 4 January 1917.
* Navy: navy|Russia
* Location: Off Port Said, Egypt, in Mediterranean Sea.


= HMS "Cornwallis" =

Torpedoed by U-32 on January 9 1917.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 15 men
* Location: Off Malta in Mediterranean Sea.

"Danton"

Torpedoed by U-64 on March 19 1917.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale
* Loss: Some reports indicate 396 crew lost and with 806 survivors. Other reports reverse the figures.
* Location: convert|30|mi|km south of Sardinia in Mediterranean Sea.


= SMS "Viribus Unitis" =

Sunk by mines attached by Italian frogmen riding manned torpedoes on November 1 1918.
* Navy: navy|Austria-Hungary
* Casualties: Approximately 300 men
* Location: Pula, Adriatic Sea
* Condition: Partially salvaged, some parts remain on the bottom.


= SMS "Szent István" =

Sunk by two torpedoes launched from the Italian MAS-15 Motor Torpedo Boat on June 10 1918 while on sortie in the Adriatic Sea.
* Navy: navy|Austria-Hungary
* Casualties: 89 men
* Location: Near the island of Premuda, Adriatic Sea
* Condition: Upside down in convert|200|ft|m of water
* Relics: Brass name plate and other relics on display in a museum in Pula.


= HMS "Britannia" =

Torpedoed by U-50 on November 9 1918. The last Royal Navy vessel to be sunk during World War I.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 51 men
* Location: Off Cape Trafalgar

"Alfonso XIII"

Causing confusion among historians, "Alfonso XIII" was renamed "España" after her sistership "España" ran aground and sank off Morocco."Alfonso XIII" struck a mine and sank near Santander in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War.
* Navy: navy|Spain


= HMS "Royal Oak" =

Torpedoed by a U-47 on October 14 1939, with loss of 833 men.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: Over 800 men
* Location: Scapa Flow
* Status: Official war grave site.
* Condition: Upside down in convert|100|ft|m of water. In relatively good condition. The presence of hundreds of thousands of gallons of fuel oil led to a special recovery effort to remove the leaking oil to prevent a major environmental problem. The presence of a large amount of deteriorated high explosive has been of concern.
* Relics: The ship's bell is the centerpiece to a memorial at St Magnus' Cathedral in Kirkwall.


= HMS "Barham" =

Torpedoed by U-331 on November 25 1941, while steaming to cover an attack on Italian convoys.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 862 dead and 296 survivors
* Location: Off Egyptian coast in Mediterranean Sea


= "Asahi" =

Torpedoed by USS "Salmon" on May 25 1942. This early British-built pre-Dreadnaught had been repeatedly converted into other ship types, and was serving as a transport.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Casualties: 16 men lost and 583 survivors
* Location: Off Cape Paderan, Vietnam


= "Kongō" =

Torpedoed by USS "Sealion" on November 21 1944. The first super-dreadnought type battlecruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, and upgraded to a battleship rating in the 1930s. Kongō was the only battleship sunk by a submarine in the Pacific War, and the last battleship ever sunk by a submarine.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Casualties: About 1250 men lost and 237 survivors
* Location: Taiwan Strait

Other Ships

The Chilean battleship "Almirante Cochrane", under construction, was purchased by the British, completed as an aircraft carrier, and christened HMS "Eagle". Ending an illustrious combat career, she was torpedoed by U-73 and sunk near Majorca.

The Japanese Yamato-class battleship "Shinano" was converted to and completed as a super-carrier. While en-route from her builder's yard at Yokosuka to Kure for outfitting, she was torpedoed and sunk by USS "Archer-Fish".

Lost At Sea

The following battleships were lost at sea for reasons other than combat.


= HMS "Victoria" =

Rammed and sunk by HMS "Camperdown" in one of the most famous warship collisions in history on June 22 1893.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 358 dead and 357 survivors
* Location: Mediterranean Sea off Tripoli, Lebanon
* Condition: Most unusually, HMS "Victoria" stands vertically with her bow and three quarters of her length buried in the mud and her stern pointing directly upwards towards the surface. The unusual attitude of this wreck is thought to have been due to the heavy ram in the bow, the heavy single turret forward, and the still-turning propellers driving the wreck downwards in the mud.


= "Gangut" =

Sank on June 12 1897 after hitting an uncharted pinnacle rock.
* Navy: navy|Russia
* Casualties: None
* Location: Near Viborg in the Gulf of Finland.


= HMS "Montagu" =

Ran aground and amongst rocks in fog due to poor navigation on May 30 1906. The ship could not be pulled off the rocks, so was stripped and abandoned in place.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Location: Off the island of Lundy, England
* Condition: Time and tide have broken up the ship. The waters offshore are reported to be full of armor plate sections and convert|12|in|mm|sing=on ammunition.


= HMS "Bulwark" =

Destroyed by an ammunition and magazine explosion on November 26 1914.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 14 survivors out of 750 crewmen
* Location: Estuary of River Medway in Kent, England
* Status: Official war grave site.
* Condition: Ship was heavily destroyed at the time of the explosion.


= HMS "Vanguard" =

Destroyed by a magazine explosion on July 9 1917.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Casualties: 2 survivors and 843 dead
* Location: Scapa Flow
* Status: Official war grave site.
* Relics: A porthole is displayed in the Scapa Flow Visitor Centre and Museum at Lyness.


= HMS "Prince George" =

Ran aground while in tow on the way to be broken up on December 28 1921. Stripped and left in place as a breakwater.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Location: Just off the beach at Camperdown, Netherlands
* Condition: Awash in the surf and clearly visible from shore.


= "France" =

Capsized and sank on August 26 1922, after being sliced open by an uncharted rock in a well-travelled bay. Heavily salvaged and then abandoned.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale
* Location: In Quiberon Bay
* Condition: Heavily salvaged, only some leftover materials remain.

"España"

Ran aground in fog off the coast of Morocco in August 28 1923. Stripped and abandoned in place.
* Navy: navy|Spain
* Location: Cape Tres Forcas, Morocco


= "Mutsu" =

Destroyed by an unexplained magazine explosion on June 8 1943.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Casualties: Approximately 1,100 men lost and 350 survivors
* Location: Off Oshima, Japan
* Condition: Upside down in convert|135|ft|m of water. Wreck was extensively salvaged in the 1970s.
* Relics: Many artifacts are displayed at the Mutsu Memorial Museum in Tôwa Chô on Oshima Island. A main gun, anchor, propellor, and rudder are displayed in a Brick Park at Kure. The complete number 4 turret is on display at the former naval academy at Etajima, while one of the 140 mm secondary guns is displayed at the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo. One convert|16|in|mm|sing=on gun is on display at the Museum of Maritime Science, Shinigawa, Tokyo.


= USS "Oklahoma" =

Destroyed by Japanese aerial torpedoes on December 7 1941 during the infamous surprise air raid on Pearl Harbor. The "Oklahoma" remained as a capsized wreck in Pearl Harbor for over a year. Following a herculean engineering effort, the hull of the "Oklahoma" was righted and refloated to help clear the harbor. The decision was made to scrap the ship, and the hulk was being towed to San Francisco in 1947 when it sank at sea.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Pacific Ocean, approximately convert|500|mi|km from San Francisco Bay. Exact location unknown.
* Relics: An anchor is displayed in downtown Oklahoma City, only a few blocks from the memorial park at the site of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal building.


= "São Paulo" =

While being towed across the Atlantic to be scrapped in Britain in 1951, the tow lines snapped in a gale, and the ship was never seen again.
* Navy: navy|Brazil
* Location: Atlantic Ocean, approximately convert|150|mi|km from the Azores. Exact location unknown.


= "Novorossiysk" - Previously "Giulio Cesare" =

After World War II, the Italian battleship "Giulio Cesare" was ceded to the Soviet Union as compensation for war damages. Destroyed in a mysterious explosion on October 29 1955, while moored in Sevastopol Bay. Due to the politics of the Cold War and the history of the ship, there were many theories about the cause of the explosion. The most accepted explanation was that the ship was destroyed by a magnetic naval mine, laid by the Germans several years earlier during World War II. During the next two years after the disaster, divers found 19 German mines on the bottom of Sevastopol Bay. Eleven of the mines were as powerful as the estimated blast under Novorossiysk.
* Navy: navy|Soviet Union
* Loss: 608 men
* Location: Sevastopol Bay in Black Sea

Scuttled in Deep Water

The following battleships were intentionally sunk while not engaged in battle.

"Sevastopol"

Scuttled in 1904 during the Siege of Port Arthur, to prevent the ship falling into Japanese hands.
* Navy: navy|Russia
* Location: Lüshun, China


= USS "Maine" =

The first US battleship, the "Maine" was destroyed in Havana harbor on February 15 1898 by a mysterious explosion. At the time, this was believed to have been caused by a Spanish attack using a mobile mine, which precipitated the Spanish-American war. After years as a wreck and navigational hazard, the wreck was refloated, investigated, towed out to sea, and sunk with ceremony in 1912.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Gulf of Mexico
* Relics: The foremast serves as a memorial as the US Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. The mainmast and an anchor serve as a memorial in Arlington National Cemetery. The bow shield and scroll decorations serve as part of a memorial in Bangor, Maine. One gun overlooks the harbor in Portland, Maine. One anchor was moved to City Park in Reading, Pennsylvania. A memorial cast from remnants of the Maine, together with a mortar shell, commemorates a former University of Notre Dame student, John Henry Shillington, who died in the explosion. The midship convert|6|in|mm|sing=on guns are on outdoor display at the Washington Navy Yard and Naval Station Anacostia.


= HMS "Hood" =

Scuttled in Portland harbor on November 4 1914 to block the Southern Ship Channel from penetration by U-boats or torpedoes.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Location: Portland Harbour
* Condition: Upside down in convert|60|ft|m, forming part of a breakwater.


= Masséna =

Scuttled off the Gallipoli Peninsula on November 10 1915 to form a breakwater.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale
* Location: Off Sedd-al Bahr, near Cape Helles at the end of the Gallipoli Peninsular


= SMS "König" =

Scuttled by her crew at Scapa Flow on June 21 1919 while interned at the end of World War I.
* Navy: navy|German Empire
* Location: Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands, North Sea
* Condition: Upside down in convert|120|ft|m of water. The hull has been blasted open to enable past salvage operations.


= SMS "Kronprinz Wilhelm" =

Scuttled by her crew at Scapa Flow on June 21 1919 while interned at the end of World War I.
* Navy: navy|German Empire
* Location: Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands, North Sea
* Condition: Upside down in convert|120|ft|m of water. The hull has been blasted open to enable past salvage operations.


= SMS "Markgraf" =

Scuttled by her crew at Scapa Flow on June 21 1919 while interned at the end of World War I.
* Navy: navy|German Empire
* Location: Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands, North Sea
* Condition: Upside down in convert|130|ft|m of water. The hull has been blasted open to enable past salvage operations.


= "Rostislav" =

Scuttled on November 16 1920 by the White Forces during the Russian Civil War to prevent capture by the Red Forces.
* Navy: navy|Russia
* Location: Black Sea


= HMS "Centurion" =

Scuttled of the coast of Normandy on June 7 1944 as a blockship to protect one of the artificial harbors installed as part of the D-Day invasion.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Location: Off Avranches, Normandy, France

"Courbet"

Scuttled of the coast of Normandy on June 9 1944 as a blockship to protect one of the artificial harbors installed as part of the D-Day invasion.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale
* Location: Off Ouistreham, Normandy, France


= SMS "Schlesien" =

Scuttled at Swinemünde on May 4 1945, to prevent capture by the Soviets. Used as a stationary target by the Soviet military. Later partialled salvaged.
* Navy: navy|Nazi Germany
* Location: Baltic Sea at Świnoujście, Poland
* Condition: Portions of the wreck were reported to still be visible as late as the 1980s.


= SMS "Schleswig-Holstein" =

Sunk twice near the end of World War II. Bombed and sunk in shallow water in Gdynia on December 19 1944. Raised and moved by the Soviets, she was eventually scuttled again and served as a stationary target for the Soviet military.
* Navy: navy|Nazi Germany
* Location: Near Osmussaar Island in the Baltic Sea
* Condition: Portions of the wreck are reported to still exist.
* Relics: Ship's bell reported to be displayed at the German Army Museum in Dresden.

Expended as Targets

The following battleships were intentionally sunk as targets. While cheaper disposable targets were conventionally used to maintain crew proficiencies, destructive testing was commonly used to validate theories about armor, ammunition, or tactics in real circumstances.


= USS "Texas" =

* The second US battleship, the "Texas" was a victorious veteran of the Spanish-American war. Converted to a bombardment target and renamed the "San Marcos", she was sunk in 1911 by other US battleships, including the USS "Kansas".
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Tangier Sound, Chesapeake Bay


= HMS "Empress of India" =

Sunk as a gunnery target in 1913.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Location: Lyme Bay near Portland Bill
* Condition: Upside down in convert|150|ft|m. Generally in good condition, though a large opening in the hull was made to salvage engine room equipment.

"Hoche"

Sunk as a target on November 25 1913.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale


= "Iki" - Previously "Imperator Nikolai I" =

Built as the Russian "Imperator Nikolai I", but captured by the Japanese. Expended as a gunnery target and sunk by the battleships "Kongō" and "Hiei" on October 3 1915.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Location: ?


= USS "Massachusetts" =

* Converted to a static target, she was scuttled in 1921 off Fort Pickens, from which she was bombarded for years. Designated an artificial reef in 1993.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Fort Pickens State Aquatic Preserve, Pensacola Bay, Florida
* Condition: Right side up on bottom in shallow water. Surprisingly intact considering location and history. Tops of gun turrets awash in swells.


= SMS "Ostfriesland" =

* Sunk by aerial bombing on July 21 1921 as part of Billy Mitchell's demonstration of airpower against seapower.
* Navy: navy|German Empire
* Location: Atlantic Ocean about convert|60|mi|km off the Virginia Capes


= SMS "Baden " =

Her crew attempted to scuttle her at Scapa Flow on June 21 1919, but she was beached and saved by the British. Converted by the British into a target, she was subjected to a carefully studied series of bombardment tests, and finally sunk by British battleships.
* Navy: navy|German Empire
* Location: Off Portsmouth in convert|600|ft|m of water


= SMS "Prinz Eugen" =

Transferred to France at the end of WWI as a war prize. Used by the French as an aircraft target and for destructive underwater testing. Finally sunk as a gunnery target on June 28 1922 by the French battleships "France", "Jean Bart", and "Paris".
* Navy: navy|Austria-Hungary
* Location: Near Toulon


= USS "Iowa" =

Converted to the first radio-controlled target ship, she was sunk by the USS "Mississippi" in 1923.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Panama Bay, Panama


= USS "Virginia" =

Converted to a target for aerial bombing tests, she was sunk as part of Army Air Corps bombing exercises in 1923.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina


= USS "New Jersey" =

Converted to a target for aerial bombing tests, she was sunk as part of Army Air Corps bombing exercises in 1923.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina


= "Hizen" - Previously "Retvizan" =

Sunk at least twice while serving in two different navies. Originally built by the Russian Imperial Navy (in the US using American-made parts) as the "Retvizan". She was present at the Battle of Port Arthur where she was torpedoed by Japanese destroyers and grounded. After suffering heavy damage during the Battle of the Yellow Sea, she became trapped in Port Arthur and sunk at her moorings by Japanese army artillery on 6 December 1904, during the Siege of Port Arthur.

"Retvizan" was raised by the Japanese, repaired, and renamed "Hizen". She served in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I, was retired in 1923 and sunk as a target in 1924.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Location: ?


= "Iwami" - Previously "Orel" =

Originally built by the Russian Imperial Navy as the "Orel". She was present at the Battle of Tsushima where she was lightly damaged by gunfire. "Orel" was captured by the Japanese, repaired, improved, and renamed "Iwami". She served in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I, was retired in 1923 and sunk as a target on July 10 1924. "Orel" was the last battleship to surrender on the high seas.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Location: ?


= "Aki" =

Expended in compliance with the Washington Naval Treaty on September 7 1924. Sunk by gunfire from the "Nagato" and "Mutsu" in the presence of Crown Prince and all the Japanese military heads.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Location: Off Nojimasaki, southern Boso Peninsula, Chiba


= "Satsuma" =

Expended in compliance with the Washington Naval Treaty on September 7 1924. Sunk by gunfire from the "Kongō" and "Hyūga".
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Location: Northeast of Miyakejima


= HMS "Monarch" =

Converted to a target ship and sunk as a gunnery target by HMS "Revenge" on January 20 1925.
* Navy: navy|UK
* Location: ?


= USS "Arkansas" =

Converted to a target for atomic bombing tests in Bikini Atoll, she survived an aerial atomic bomb test but was sunk following a submerged atomic bomb test on July 25 1946.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Bikini Atoll


= "Nagato" =

Converted to a target for atomic bombing tests in Bikini Atoll, she survived an aerial atomic bomb test but was sunk following a submerged atomic bomb test on July 25 1946.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Location: Bikini Atoll


= USS "Pennsylvania" =

Converted to a target for atomic bombing tests in Bikini Atoll, she survived both the aerial atomic bomb test and the submerged atomic bomb test in 1946. She was towed to Kwajalein Lagoon for studies, and sunk off Kwajalein Atoll in 1948.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Off Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands


= USS "New York" =

Converted to a target for atomic bombing tests in Bikini Atoll, she survived both the aerial atomic bomb test and the submerged atomic bomb test in 1946. She was towed back to Pearl Harbor, and sunk following a massive assault by ships and planes in 1948.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Off Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii
* Relics: One of the propellors is on display beside the museum ship USS "Texas", which is preserved in a memorial park near Houston, Texas.


= USS "Nevada" =

Heavily bombed during the Attack on Pearl Harbor, she was beached by her crew. Had long war-time service history after being repaired.Converted to a target for atomic bombing tests in Bikini Atoll, she survived both the aerial atomic bomb test and the submerged atomic bomb test in 1946. She was towed back to Pearl Harbor, and sunk by gunfire and aerial torpedoes in 1948.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Location: Off Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii

cuttled And Later Salvaged

The following battleships were sunk, but were later salvaged and scrapped.


= "Poltava" - Later "Tango" and "Chesma" =

Built as the Russian pre-dreadnought "Poltava", she fought in the Battle of the Yellow Sea, but failed to escape and was scuttled during the Siege of Port Arthur. Salvaged after the war in October 1905, she was refloated, repaired, and taken into service in the Imperial Japanese Navy as the "Tango". Returned to the Russians during World War I and renamed "Chesma". She was later captured by the British during the Allied invasion of northern Russia during the Russian Civil War. Scrapped in 1923.
* Navy: navy|Russia


= "Pobeda" - Later "Suwo" =

Built as the Russian pre-dreadnought "Pobeda", she fought in the Battle of the Yellow Sea. While moored at Port Arthur, she was sunk on December 7 1904 by Japanese army artillery during the Siege of Port Arthur. Salvaged after the war in October 1905, she was refloated, repaired, and taken into service in the Imperial Japanese Navy as the "Suwo". Scrapped in 1946.
* Navy: navy|Russia

"Liberté"

Caught fire and exploded in Toulon harbor on September 25 1911. The explosion severely damaged nearby warships, including the battleship "République".
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale


= "Leonardo da Vinci" =

Destroyed in Taranto harbor by Austrian saboteurs on August 2 1916. Later raised and partially repaired, then scrapped.
* Navy: navy|Italy
* Loss: 249 men

"Imperatritsa Mariya"

Destroyed in Sevastopol harbor on October 20 1916 by an internal explosion. Raised in 1918 and scrapped in 1927. Her turrets and guns were salvaged and used in coastal defense batteries near Sevastopol.
* Navy: navy|Russia

"Slava"

Scuttled by her crew on October 17 1917 after sustaining heavy damage during the Battle of Moon Sound in the Baltic. The "Slava" had taken too many hits below the waterline and was drawing too much water to navigate the dredged channel in the strait at Moon Sound. The "Slava" was scuttled in the strait in an attempt to block passage by German warships pursuing the Russian fleet.
* Navy: navy|Russia

"Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya" - Later "Svobodnaya Rossiya"

Scuttled on June 18 1918 in Novorossiysk to prevent capture by the Germans. Later raised and scrapped. Her turrets and guns were salvaged and used in coastal defense batteries near Sevastopol.
* Navy: navy|Russia


= "Kawachi" =

Destroyed by an internal explosion from unstable cordite on September 12 1918 in Tokuyama Bay. Later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan
* Casualties: 621 men out of a crew of 1059

"Potemkin" - Later "Panteleimon"

Legend of the silver screen, the "Potemkin" and her crew had one of the most curious and famous histories of any battleship. Destroyed at Sevastopol in April 1919 by Interventionists in the Russian Civil War. The wreckage was later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|Russia


= SMS "Kaiser" =

Scuttled by her crew at Scapa Flow on June 21 1919 while interned at the end of World War I. Later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|German Empire

SMS "Friedrich der Große"

Scuttled by her crew at Scapa Flow on June 21 1919 while interned at the end of World War I. Later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|German Empire


= SMS "Kaiserin" =

Scuttled by her crew at Scapa Flow on June 21 1919 while interned at the end of World War I. Later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|German Empire

SMS "Prinzregent Luitpold "

Scuttled by her crew at Scapa Flow on June 21 1919 while interned at the end of World War I. Later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|German Empire

SMS "König Albert "

Scuttled by her crew at Scapa Flow on June 21 1919 while interned at the end of World War I. Later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|German Empire

SMS "Großer Kurfürst "

Scuttled by her crew at Scapa Flow on June 21 1919 while interned at the end of World War I. Later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|German Empire
* Relics: The ship's mast remains on the bottom of Scapa Flow.

SMS "Bayern "

Scuttled by her crew at Scapa Flow on June 21 1919 while interned at the end of World War I. Later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|German Empire
* Relics: The ship's four main turrets detached during salvage operations, and remain at the bottom of Scapa Flow.

USS "Indiana"

Converted to a target for ordnance and aerial bombing tests, she was sunk in 1920. The hulk was later scrapped.
* Navy: navy|USA
* Relics: The mainmast is displayed at the football stadium of Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana.

USS "Alabama"

Converted to a target for early aerial bombing tests, she was sunk as part of the Army Air Corps bombing exercises arranged by Billy Mitchell in 1921. The hulk was later scrapped.
* Navy: navy|USA

HMS "Emperor of India"

Converted to a target ship, and sunk as a gunnery target in 1931. Later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|UK

"Bretagne"

Destroyed by gunfire from the British batlleships HMS Hood, HMS Barham, and HMS Resolution at Mers-el-Kebir on July 3 1940, with the loss of 977 French sailors. Later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale

"Conte di Cavour"

Torpedoed by British aircraft on November 12 1940 during the Battle of Taranto. Raised, partially repaired, then scrapped after the war.
* Navy: navy|Italy

"Kilkis" - Previously USS "Mississippi"

Destroyed by German aerial bombing on April 23 1941, during the German invasion of Greece.
* Navy: navy|Greece

"Limnos" - Previously USS "Idaho"

Destroyed by German aerial bombing on April 23 1941, during the German invasion of Greece.
* Navy: navy|Greece

"Petropavlovsk" - Later "Marat"

Sunk twice by two different enemies, and by two of the most highly decorated officers of the era. First sunk at her moorings by a British torpedo boat commanded by Augustus Agar on August 18 1919, during the Russian Civil War. Raised, repaired, and eventually renamed "Marat" after the French revolutionary leader Jean-Paul Marat, the ship served in the Soviet Baltic during the World War II Siege of Leningrad. She was again sunk at her moorings by German Stuka pilot Hans-Ulrich Rudel on September 23 1941. The wreck continued in action as a floating battery for the remainder of the siege. She was raised in 1950 and served as the training ship "Volkhov" until being scrapped in 1952.
* Navy: navy|Soviet Union

HMS "Queen Elizabeth"

Mined and sunk by Italian frogmen in Alexandria, Egypt in on December 18 1941 with the loss of nine men. Since she was sunk in very shallow water, she was sunk without submerging, and was able to maintain the illusion of being afloat and battle-ready. Raised and repaired, she served in the Pacific war. Was scrapped after the war.
* Navy: navy|UK

HMS "Valiant"

Mined and sunk by Italian frogmen in Alexandria, Egypt in on December 18 1941. Since she was sunk in very shallow water, she was sunk without submerging, and was able to maintain the illusion of being afloat and battle-ready. Raised and repaired, she served in the Mediterranean and in the Pacific war. Was scrapped after the war.
* Navy: navy|UK

"Dunkerque"

Sunk twice, then scrapped after World War II. First sunk (in shallow water) by the British at the port of Mers-el-Kébir in French Algeria on July 3 1940. Refloated, she was sunk again on November 27 1942 during the Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale

"Strasbourg"

Sunk twice, then scrapped after World War II. First sunk on November 27 1942 during the Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon. Refloated by the Italians, she was sunk again by US aerial attack on August 27 1944. Raised again in 1944, she was scrapped in 1955.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale

"Jean Bart"

Captured by the Germans and sunk in explosives tests on March 15 1944. Was scrapped after the war.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale

"Provence"

Scuttled twice, then scrapped in 1949. First sunk on November 27 1942 during the Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon. Raised by the Germans and recaptured by the Allies, she was sunk again as a blockship after D-Day.
* Navy: navy|France|name=Marine Nationale

SMS "Zähringen"

Scuttled twice, then scrapped in 1949. Originally a battleship in the Kaiserliche Marine , she had been converted to serve as a target ship in the Reichsmarine and Kriegsmarine. First sunk in an air raid on Gotenhafen (today Gdynia)on December 18 1944 and sank in shallow water. Sunk a second time after being refloated and towed to the harbor entrance, where she was scuttled as a blockade ship on March 26 1945. The wreck was raised and scrapped in 1949-1950.
* Navy: navy|Nazi Germany


= "Impero" =

Launched but never completed. Sunk by Allied bombers on February 20 1945. Raised in 1947 and scrapped by 1950.
* Navy: navy|Italy


= "Settsu" =

Destroyed by US aircraft on July 24 1945. This early semi-Dreadnaught had been converted to a radio-controlled target ship.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan


= "Ise" =

Destroyed by US aircraft on July 28 1945. Sunk at her moorings in Kure harbor. Later scrapped in place.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan


= "Hyūga" =

Destroyed by US aircraft on July 28 1945. Sunk at her moorings in Kure harbor. Later raised and scrapped.
* Navy: navy|Empire of Japan

ee also

List of sunken battlecruisers

External links

* [http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-m/maine.htm USS "Maine" (Navy Historical Center)]
* [http://www.arlingtoncemetery.com/ussmaine.htm USS "Maine" Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery]
* http://www.naval-history.net/WW1NavyFrench.htm
* http://www.naval-history.net/index.htm

Notes

References

*"Jane's Fighting Ships of World War I" (Jane's Publishing, London, 1919)
*Robert Gardiner, ed., "Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860-1905" (Conway Maritime Press, London, 1979)
*Hanson W. Baldwin, "World War I: An Outline History" (Harper and Row, New York, 1962)
*Robert K. Massie, "Castles Of Steel" (Ballantine Books, 2003)
*Pleshakov, Constantine, "The Tsar's Last Armada: The Epic Voyage to the Battle of Tsushima". (2002). ISBN 0-46505-792-6.
*Corbett, Julian, Sir, "Maritime Operations in the Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905". (1994). ISBN 1557501297.
*Semenov, Vladimir, Capt., "The Battle of Tsushima". (1912). E. P. Dutton & Co.


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