Generalization is a foundational element of
logicand human reasoning. Generalization posits the existence of a domain or set of elements, as well as one or more common characteristics shared by those elements. As such, it is the essential basis of all valid deductive inference. The process of verification is necessary to determine whether a generalization holds true for any given situation.
The concept of generalization has broad application in many related disciplines, sometimes having a specialized context-specific meaning.
For any two related concepts, "A" and "B"; A is considered a generalization of concept B if and only if:
* every instance of concept B is also an instance of concept A; and
* there are instances of concept A which are not instances of concept B.
For instance, "
animal" is a generalization of " bird" because every bird is an animal, and there are animals which are not birds ( dogs, forinstance). (See also: specialization).
Hypernym and hyponym
This kind of "generalization" versus "specialization" (or "particularization") is reflected in either of the contrasting words of the word pair
hypernymand hyponym. A hypernym as a generic stands for a class or group of equally-ranked items, such as "tree" does for "beech" and "oak"; or "ship" for "cruiser" and "steamer". Whereas a hyponym is one of the items included in the generic, such as "lily" and "daisy" are included in "flower", and "bird" and "fish" in "animal". A hypernym is superordinate to a hyponym, and a hyponym is subordinate to hypernym.
Cartographic generalization of geo-spatial data
Generalization has a long history in
cartographyas an art of creating maps for different scale and purpose. Cartographic generalizationis the process of selecting and representing information of a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the display medium of the map. In this way, every map has, to some extent, been generalized to match the criteria of display. This includes small-scale maps, which cannot convey every detail of the real world. Cartographers must decide and then adjust the content within their maps to create a suitable and useful map that conveys geospatialinformation within their representation of the world.
Generalization is meant to be context-specific. This is to say that correctly generalized maps are those that emphasize the most important map elements while still representing the world in the most faithful and recognizable way. The level of detail and importance in what is remaining on the map must outweigh the insignificance of items that were generalized, as to preserve the distinguishing characteristics of what makes the map useful and important.
inheritance (object-oriented programming),
Homotopy lifting property
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Generalization — Gen er*al*i*za tion, n. [Cf. F. g[ e]n[ e]ralisation.] [1913 Webster] 1. The act or process of generalizing; the act of bringing individuals or particulars under a genus or class; deduction of a general principle from particulars. [1913 Webster]… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
generalization — I noun appraisal, assumption, attitude, broad statement, conclusion, estimate, estimation, general statement, generality, guide, hypothesis, illation, imprecise statement, inexact statement, inference, observation, postulate, postulation, premise … Law dictionary
generalization — 1761, вЂњact of generalizing,вЂќ from GENERALIZE (Cf. generalize) + ATION (Cf. ation). Meaning вЂњa general inferenceвЂќ is from 1794 … Etymology dictionary
generalization — (Amer.) genÂ·erÂ·alÂ·iÂ·zaÂ·tion || â€šdÊ’enÉ™rÉ™lÉ™ zeÉªÊƒn / laÉª z n. act of generalizing; general statement or conclusion; (Psychology) act of reacting to a new stimulus as to a similar stimulus (also generalisation) … English contemporary dictionary
generalization — [jen΄ər ə li zā′shən, jen΄rəl izā′shən] n. 1. the act or process of generalizing 2. a general idea, statement, etc. resulting from this; inference applied generally … English World dictionary
generalization — n. 1) to make a generalization 2) a broad, sweeping; valid generalization 3) a generalization about 4) a generalization that + clause (it is a valid generalization that exercise promotes good health) * * * [ˌdʒen(ə)rəlaɪ zeɪʃ(ə)n] sweeping valid… … Combinatory dictionary
generalization — /jen euhr euh leuh zay sheuhn/, n. 1. the act or process of generalizing. 2. a result of this process; a general statement, idea, or principle. 3. Logic. a. a proposition asserting something to be true either of all members of a certain class or… … Universalium
generalization — (BrE also isation) noun ADJECTIVE ▪ broad, gross (esp. AmE), hasty, sweeping ▪ abstract, vague ▪ useful … Collocations dictionary
generalization — gen|e|ral|i|za|tion also generalisation BrE [ˌdʒenərəlaıˈzeıʃən US lə ] n 1.) a statement about all the members of a group that may be true in some or many situations but is not true in every case ▪ You can t make generalizations about what men… … Dictionary of contemporary English
generalization — [[t]ʤe̱nrəlaɪze͟ɪʃ(ə)n[/t]] generalizations N VAR A generalization is a statement that seems to be true in most situations or for most people, but that may not be completely true in all cases. He is making sweeping generalisations to get his… … English dictionary