- Kincaid Mounds State Historic Site
Infobox_nrhp | name =Kincaid Site
caption = "The Kincaid Site early on a summer morning", an original oil painting by the artist Herb Roe
locmapin = Illinois
July 19, 1964cite web|url=http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=215&ResourceType=Site
title=Kincaid Site |accessdate=2007-10-03|work=National Historic Landmark summary listing|publisher=National Park Service]
October 15, 1966cite web|url=http://www.nr.nps.gov/|title=National Register Information System|date=2007-01-23|work=National Register of Historic Places|publisher=National Park Service]
governing_body = State
Kincaid Mounds Historic Site is one of the largest
Mississippian culture chiefdomcenters, important for both its significant role in native North American prehistory and for the central role the site played in the development of modern archaeological techniques. The site was declared a National Historic Landmarkin 1964 for its significance as a major Native American moundcenter and prehistoric trading postalong the Ohio River.
The site straddles the modern-day counties of Massac County and Pope County in deep southern Illinois, an area colloquially known as Little Egypt. The site was the subject of major excavations by
the University of Chicagofrom 1934-1941, during which a number of famous anthropologists and archaeologists were trained under the direction of Fay-Cooper Cole. These included Richard MacNeish, discoverer of the origins of maize.cite book| last = Cole| first = Fay-Cooper| coauthors = Robert Bell, John Bennett, Joseph Caldwell, Norman Emerson, Richard MacNeish, Kenneth Orr, and Roger Willis| title = Kincaid: A Prehistoric Illinois Metropolis| publisher = University of Chicago Press| date = 1951| location = Chicago] Exploration with new technology and excavations by teams from Southern Illinois University since 2003 has yielded significant new data.
Illinois Historic Preservation Agencyowns and operates an area including nine mounds in Massac County. This includes the majority of the estimated 141-acre area contained within a wooden palisade, as well as an undefined area of additional occupation to the west.cite web|url=http://www.siu.edu/%7Ecai/About_Kincaid_Mounds.pdf|title=About Kincaid Mounds |accessdate=2008-01-10|work=|publisher=Southern Illinois University Carbondale]
History of Kincaid
The Chicago excavators in the 1930s documented a prehistory in the Kincaid area stretching back thousands of years, into what is now known as the Archaic Period. The Chicago crew recognized this period as the Faulkner Component, which was described as a pre-
potteryculture otherwise very like the cultures of the Early Woodland, such as the Adena culture.
More intensive occupation was documented in the ensuing Early Woodland and Middle Woodland periods. This involved a sedentary, semi-agricultural culture characterized by the use of
limestone- tempered ceramics and the presence of permanent wooden houses. The Baumer culture was similar to the Adena cultureand Hopewell culture, with which it was contemporary. The Baumer occupation at Kincaid was shown to be extensive.
Occupation continued into the Late Woodland. This period is known as the Lewis culture.
The recognizable occupation at Kincaid, however, is the Mississippian mound-building community that developed out of the local Lewis community about 1050 AD. Kincaid was a near neighbor of
Cahokia, only 90 miles away, and is thought to have been influenced by developments there. At least 19 mounds were built during this period, mostly the characteristic Mississippian platform mounds. Teams from Southern Illinois University have been conducting more intensive research since 2003.cite web|url=http://www.southernmostillinoishistory.net/kincaid2.htm|title="Kincaid:A Prehistoric Cultural and Religious Center In Southern Illinois" |accessdate=2008-01-10|work=|publisher=Dr. John E. Schwegman] A large central plazasurrounded by the major mounds occupies the center of the community. The central mounds are as much as 30-feet tall and one is almost 500-feet long; not rivaling Monk's Moundbut very large by Mississippian standards.
A major burial mound was excavated by the University of Chicago team, yielding further evidence for hierarchical social structures and showing that Kincaid was a
chiefdom. Large buildings atop the main mounds seemed to indicate temples or council houses. Carved figurines in coaland fluoriteseemed to characterize the local iconography, with images showing connections to the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Trade for chertresources appeared to extend into Missouri, Tennessee, and other parts of Illinois. Ceramics painted with a negative resist are also characteristic of the site.
Mississippian occupation at the site appears to have ended by 1400-1450 AD. No documented occupation by historic Native American tribes exists. The site was evidently abandoned until the arrival of European-American and African-American settlers centuries later.
6. Buchanan, M. E. (2007) "Patterns of Faunal Utilization at Kincaid Mounds, Massac County, Illinois." M.A. Thesis (Anthropology), Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
* [http://www.siu.edu/~cai/About_Kincaid_Mounds.pdf Kincaid Mounds and the 2007 SIUC Archaeological Field School]
* [http://www.illinoishistory.gov/hs/kincaid_mounds.htm Kincaid Mounds, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency]
* [http://www.kincaidmounds.com/ The Kincaid Mounds]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Constitution Square State Historic Site — Type Kentucky state park Location … Wikipedia
Mastodon State Historic Site — Kimmswick Bone Bed U.S. National Register of Historic Places … Wikipedia
Dr. Thomas Walker State Historic Site — Replica of Dr. Thomas Walker s cabin Dr. Thomas Walker State Historic Site is a park in Barbourville, Kentucky in Knox County. The land was donated by the American Legion and the city of Barbourville, and marks the area where Kentucky pioneer Dr … Wikipedia
Old Mulkey Meetinghouse State Historic Site — is a 20 acre (8.1 ha) park in Monroe County, Kentucky. It features the Old Mulkey Meetinghouse, a Baptist church built around the turn of the 19th century, and its adjacent cemetery. The site became part of the park system in 1931. The… … Wikipedia
Mounds State Park — U.S. National Register of Historic Places … Wikipedia
Kincaid — may refer to:People*April Kincaid (born 1972), U.S. professional wrestler and model *Aron Kincaid (born 1940), U.S. voice actor *Austin Kincaid (born 1980), U.S. porn actress *Bradley Kincaid (1895 1989), U.S. folk singer and radio entertainer… … Wikipedia
State Parks in Kentucky — Der US Bundesstaat Kentucky unterhält 52 State Parks (Stand: November 2010). Die State Parks in Kentucky werden vom Kentucky Department of Parks verwaltet. Geschichte Die Generalversammlung Kentuckys schuf 1924 die State Parks Commission, um… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Angel Mounds — Infobox nrhp | name =Angel Mounds nrhp type = nhl caption = Angel Mound Site, Evansville, Indiana. nearest city= Evansville, IN area = architect= architecture= designated= January 29, 1964cite web|url=http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceI… … Wikipedia
Illinois Historic Preservation Agency — The Illinois Historic Preservation Agency is a governmental agency of the U.S. state of Illinois. It is tasked with the duty of maintaining most State owned historic sites within Illinois, and maximizing their educational and recreational value… … Wikipedia
List of National Historic Landmarks in Illinois — There are 84 National Historic Landmarks in Illinois, including Eads Bridge which spans into Missouri and which the National Park Service credits to Missouri s National Historic Landmark list. This list include not only those on the National… … Wikipedia