Industrial wastewater treatment
Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by
anthropogenicindustrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use.
Most industries produce some wet waste although recent trends in the developed world have been to minimise such production or recycle such waste within the production process. However, many industries remain dependent on processes that produce
ources of industrial wastewater
Agricultural wastewater treatment
Iron and steel industry
The production of
ironfrom its ores involves powerful reduction reactions in blast furnaces. Cooling waters are inevitably contaminated with products especially ammoniaand cyanide. Production of coke from coal in coking plants also requires water coolingand the use of water in by-products separation. Contamination of waste streams includes gasification products such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, cyanide, ammonia, phenols , cresols together with a range of more complex organic compounds known collectively as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).
The conversion of iron or steel into sheet, wire or rods requires hot and cold mechanical transformation stages frequently employing water as a lubricant and coolant. Contaminants include
hydraulic oils, tallowand particulate solids.Final treatment of iron and steel products before onward sale into manufacturing includes "pickling" in strong mineral acid to remove rust and prepare the surface for tinor chromiumplating or for other surface treatments such as galvanisationor painting. The two acids commonly used are hydrochloric acidand sulfuric acid. Wastewaters include acidic rinse waters together with waste acid. Although many plants operate acid recovery plants, (particularly those using Hydrochloric acid), where the mineral acid is boiled away from the iron salts, there remains a large volume of highly acid ferrous sulfate or ferrous chlorideto be disposed of. Many steel industry wastewaters are contaminated by hydraulic oil also known as "soluble oil"
Mines and quarries
The principal waste-waters associated with mines and quarries are slurries of rock particles in water. These arise from rainfall washing exposed surfaces and haul roads and also from rock washing and grading processes. Volumes of water can be very high, especially rainfall related arisings on large sites. Some specialist separation operations such as
coal washingto separate coal from native rock using density gradients can produce wastewater contaminated by fine particulate haematite and surfactants. Oils and hydraulic oils are also common contaminants.Wastewater from metal mines and ore recovery plants are inevitably contaminated by the minerals present in the native rock formations. Following crushing and extraction of the desirable materials, undesirable materials may become contaminated in the wastewater. For metal mines, this can include unwanted metals such as zincand other materials such as arsenic. Extraction of high value metals such as goldand silvermay generate slimes containing very fine particles in where physical removal of contaminants becomes particularly difficult.
Wastewater generated from agricultural and food operations has distinctive characteristics that set it apart from common municipal wastewater managed by public or private wastewater treatment plants throughout the world: it is biodegradable and nontoxic, but that has high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand [http://themes.eea.europa.eu/Specific_media/water/indicators/bod/index_html] (BOD) and suspended solids (SS). The constituents of food and agriculture wastewater are often complex to predict due to the differences in BOD and pH in effluents from vegetable, fruit, and meat products and due to the seasonal nature of food processing and postharvesting.
Processing of food from raw materials requires large volumes of high grade water.Vegetable washing generates waters with high loads of
particulate matterand some dissolved organics. It may also contain surfactants.
Animal slaughter and processing produces very strong organic waste from body fluids, such as
blood, and gutcontents. This wastewater is frequently contaminated by significant levels of antibiotics and growth hormones from the animals and by a variety of pesticides used to control external parasites. Insecticide residues in fleeces is a particular problem in treating waters generated in woolprocessing.
Processing food for sale produces wastes generated from cooking which are often rich in plant
organic materialand may also contain salt, flavourings, colouringmaterial and acids or alkali. Very significant quantities of oil or fats may also be present.
Complex organic chemicals industry
A range of industries manufacture or use complex organic chemicals. These include
pesticides, Pharmaceuticals, paints and dyes, petro-chemicals, detergents, plastics etc. Waste waters can be contaminated by feed-stock materials, by-products, product material in soluble or particulate form , washing and cleaning agents, solvents and added value products such as plasticisers.
The waste production from the nuclear and radio-chemicals industry is dealt with at
Radioactive waste treatment
Water treatment for the production of drinking water is dealt with elsewhere.Many industries have a need to treat water to obtain very high quality water for demanding purposes. Water treatment produces organic and mineral sludges from filtration and sedimentation.
Ion exchangeusing natural or synthetic resins removes calcium, magnesiumand carbonateions from water, replacing them with hydrogenand hydroxylions. Regeneration of ion exchange columns with strong acids and alkalis produces a wastewater rich in hardness ions which are readily precipitated out, especially when in admixture with other wastewaters.
Treatment of industrial wastewater
The different types of contamination of wastewater require a variety of strategies to remove the contamination.cite book|author=Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., and Stensel, H.D.|title=Wastewater Engineering (Treatment Disposal Reuse) / Metcalf & Eddy, Inc.|edition=4th Edition|publisher=McGraw-Hill Book Company|year=2003|id=ISBN 0-07-041878-0] cite book | author=Beychok, Milton R. | title=
Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants| edition=1st Edition | publisher=John Wiley & Sons | year=1967 | id= LCCN67019834]
Most solids can be removed using simple sedimentation techniques with the solids recovered as slurry or sludge. Very fine solids and solids with densities close to the density of water pose special problems. In such case filtration or ultra-filtration may be required. Alternatively, flocculation may be used using alum salts or the addition of poly-electrolytes
Oils and grease removal
Many oils can be recovered from open water surfaces by skimming devices. However, hydraulic oils and the majority of oils that have degraded to any extent will also have a soluble or emulsified component that will require further treatment to eliminate. Dissolving or emulsifying oil using surfactants or
solvents usually exacerbates the problem rather than solving it, producing wastewater that is more difficult to treat.
The wastewaters from large-scale industries such as oil refineries, petrochemical plants,
chemical plants, and natural gas processing plants commonly contain gross amounts of oil and suspended solids. Those industries use a device known as an API oil-water separatorwhich is designed to separate the oil and suspended solids from their wastewater effluents. The name is derived from the fact that such separators are designed according to standards published by the American Petroleum Institute(API). cite book|author=American Petroleum Institute (API)|title=Management of Water Discharges: Design and Operations of Oil-Water Separators|edition=1st Edition|publisher=American Petroleum Institute|month=February | year=1990|id=]
The API separator is a gravity separation device designed by using
Stokes Lawto define the rise velocity of oil droplets based on their densityand size. The design is based on the specific gravitydifference between the oil and the wastewater because that difference is much smaller than the specific gravity difference between the suspended solids and water. The suspended solids settles to the bottom of the separator as a sediment layer, the oil rises to top of the separator and the cleansed wastewater is the middle layer between the oil layer and the solids.
Typically, the oil layer is skimmed off and subsequently re-processed or disposed of, and the bottom sediment layer is removed by a chain and flight scraper (or similar device) and a sludge pump. The water layer is sent to further treatment consisting usually of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit for additional removal of any residual oil and then to some type of biological treatment unit for removal of undesirable dissolved chemical compounds.
Parallel plate separators are similar to API separators but they include tilted parallel plate assemblies (also known as parallel packs). The parallel plates provide more surface for suspended oil droplets to coalesce into larger globules. Such separators still depend upon the specific gravity between the suspended oil and the water. However, the parallel plates enhance the degree of oil-water separation. The result is that a parallel plate separator requires significantly less space than a conventional API separator to achieve the same degree of separation.
Removal of biodegradable organics
Biodegradable organic material of plant or animal origin is usually possible to treat using extended conventional
wastewater treatmentprocesses such as activated sludgeor trickling filter. Problems can arise if the wastewater is excessively diluted with washing water or is highly concentrated such as neat blood or milk. The presence of cleaning agents, disinfectants, pesticides, or antibiotics can have detrimental impacts on treatment processes.
Activated sludge process
Activated sludge is a
biochemicalprocess for treating sewage and industrial wastewater that uses air (or oxygen) and microorganisms to biologically oxidize organic pollutants, producing a waste sludge (or floc) containing the oxidized material. In general, an activated sludge process includes:
* An aeration tank where air (or oxygen) is injected and thoroughly mixed into the wastewater.
* A settling tank (usually referred to as a "clarifier" or "settler") to allow the waste sludge to settle. Part of the waste sludge is recycled to the aeration tank and the remaining waste sludge is removed for further treatment and ultimate disposal.
Trickling filter process
A trickling filter consists of a bed of rocks,
gravel, slag, peat moss, or plastic media over which wastewater flows downward and contacts a layer (or film) of microbialslime covering the bed media. Aerobicconditions are maintained by forced air flowing through the bed or by natural convection of air. The process involves adsorptionof organic compoundsin the wastewater by the microbial slime layer, diffusion of air into the slime layer to provide the oxygenrequired for the biochemical oxidation of the organic compounds. The end products include carbon dioxidegas, water and other products of the oxidation. As the slime layer thickens, it becomes difficult for the air to penetrate the layer and an inner anaerobic layer is formed.
The components of a complete trickling filter system are: fundamental
* A bed of filter medium upon which a layer of microbial slime is promoted and developed.
* An enclosure or a container which houses the bed of filter medium.
* A system for distributing the flow of wastewater over the filter medium.
* A system for removing and disposing of any sludge from the treated effluent.
The treatment of sewage or other wastewater with trickling filters is among the oldest and most well characterized treatment technologies.
A trickling filter is also often called a "trickle filter", "trickling biofilter", "biofilter", "biological filter" or "biological trickling filter".
Treatment of other organics
Synthetic organic materials including solvents, paints, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, coking products and so forth can be very difficult to treat. Treatment methods are often specific to the material being treated. Methods include
Advanced Oxidation Processing, distillation, adsorption, vitrification, incineration, chemical immobilisation or landfill disposal. Some materials such as some detergents may be capable of biological degradation and in such cases, a modified form of wastewater treatment can be used.
Treatment of acids and alkalis
Acids and alkalis can usually be neutralised under controlled conditions. Neutralisation frequently produces a precipitate that will require treatment as a solid residue that may also be toxic. In some cases, gasses may be evolved requiring treatment for the gas stream. Some other forms of treatment are usually required following neutralisation.
Waste streams rich in hardness ions as from de-ionisation processes can readily loose the hardness ions in a buildup of precipitated calcium and magnesium salts. This precipitation process can cause severe "furring" of pipes and can, in extreme cases, cause the blockage of disposal pipes. A 1 metre diameter industrial marine discharge pipe serving a major chemicals complex was blocked by such salts in the 1970s. Treatment is by concentration of de-ionisation waste waters and disposal to landfill or by careful pH management of the released wastewater.
Treatment of toxic materials
Toxic materials including many organic materials, metals (such as zinc, silver, cadmium, thallium etc.) acids, alkalis, non-metallic elements (such as arsenic or selenium) are generally resistant to biological processes unless very dilute. Metals can often be precipitated out by changing the pH or by treatment with other chemicals. Many, however, are resistant to treatment or mitigation and may require concentration followed by landfilling or recycling. Disolved organics can be "incinerated" within the wastewater by
Advanced Oxidation Processes.
Best management practice for water pollution(BMP)
List of waste water treatment technologies
Rotating biological contactor
Sedimentation (water treatment)
* [http://www.ecospheretech.com/index.php/technology/ozonix-process Animated demonstration of an ozone and ultrasonic water treatment process]
* [http://www.water.siemens.com/en/Industries/Hydrocarbon_Processing/Solutions_Newsletter/ Photographs, drawings and design discussion of gravimetric API Separators]
* [http://www.brentw.com/water/pdfs/owda.pdf Oil/Water Separators] Diagrams and description of separators using plastic parallel plate packing.
* [http://www.etna-usa.com/zertech.pdf Oil-in-water Separation] Good discussion and explanation of wastewater treatment processes
* [http://www.wef.org/Home Water Environment Federation]
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