Rydberg matter

Rydberg matter is a metastable state of highly excited atoms (see Rydberg atom) which are condensed in a solid- or liquid-like very low density matter [L. Holmlid. Direct observation of circular Rydberg electrons in a Rydberg Matter surface layer by electronic circular dichroism "J. Phys.: Condens. Matter.", 19 (2007) 276206.] [S. Badiei, L. Holmlid. Experimental studies of fast fragments of H Rydberg Matter. "J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys." 39 (2006) 4191-4212.] [E.A. Manykin, M.I. Ojovan, P.P. Poluektov. Rydberg matter: properties and decay. "Proc. SPIE", 6181 (2006) 618105] . For example "Cs" atoms with main quantum-mechanical level of excitation ~ 10-15 form a Rydberg matter with the density 1017-18 cm-3 which is used in thermionic converters (see thermionic emission). Rydberg matter is formed because energetically the condensed state is more favourable compared with the initial system of non-interacting excited atoms. Bonding of excited atoms in the Rydberg matter is caused by delocalisation of valence electrons and its nature in many respects is similar to that of metallic bonding in metals.

The collective valence electrons are in the Rydberg matter at many orders of magnitude lower average densities compared with ordinary metals. E.g. the Rydberg matter made of Cs atoms with main quantum-mechanical level of excitation 12 has the average equilibrium density of electrons 1.1 1018 cm-3.

Additionally the valence electrons are distributed extremely non-uniformly in the Rydberg matter causing a significant delay in the decay of excitations compared non-interacting excited atoms. The attached figures show schematically the density of valence electrons and the effective one-particle potential which see a valence electron in an unit cell of Rydberg matter. There are effective barriers which confine electrons far from inner core of excited atoms.

Consequently both life-time and stability of Rydberg matter against impurity recombination increases with the increase of quantum-mechanical level of excitation. E.g. the half-life of Rydberg matter made of Cs atoms with main quantum-mechanical level of excitation 12 is as high as 17 s.

ee also

*Rydberg atom
*state of matter
*dark matter


External links

* [http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0953-8984/14/49/305 Condensation to Rydberg matter]
* [http://www.springerlink.com/content/w7867j4156573062/ Rydberg matter in plasma]
* [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05911.x Magnetic field from Rydberg matter in space]
* [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05399.x?cookieSet=1 Dark baryonic matter in space]
* [http://www.inspi.ufl.edu/icapp08/program/abstracts/8193.pdf Direct energy conversion]
* [http://prola.aps.org/pdf/PRA/v63/i1/e013817 Simulated Raman processes]
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TFM-452FC6X-2&_user=128590&_origUdi=B6VND-460MBMM-3&_fmt=high&_coverDate=03%2F15%2F2002&_rdoc=1&_orig=article&_acct=C000010619&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=128590&md5=7ac4239cd486701c45f4ee5118e5c9f8 Hydrogen Rydberg matter]
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VND-460MBMM-3&_user=128590&_origUdi=B6TFN-40RTKD3-1C&_fmt=high&_coverDate=10%2F01%2F2002&_rdoc=1&_orig=article&_acct=C000010619&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=128590&md5=85dd5651a6d9593ea8986f9b6ac56c2e K and N2 Rydberg matter ]
* [http://www.springerlink.com/content/c215084278640392/ Be, Mg, Ca Rydberg matter]
* [http://www.laserfocusworld.com/display_article/202285/12/ARCHI/none/News/Tunable-thermal-laser-exploits-Rydberg-matter Tunable lasers]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Rydberg state — The Rydberg states of an atom are electronically excited states with energies that follow the Rydberg formula as they converge on an ionic state with an ionization energy. Although the Rydberg formula was developed to describe atomic energy… …   Wikipedia

  • Rydberg atom — A Rydberg atom is an excited atom with one or more electrons that have a very high principal quantum number] .The time period of the oscillation in angular momentum (the time to complete the trajectory in figure 4), almost exactly matches the… …   Wikipedia

  • Matter — This article is about the concept in the physical sciences. For other uses, see Matter (disambiguation). Matter is a general term for the substance of which all physical objects consist.[1][2] Typically, matter includes atoms and other particles… …   Wikipedia

  • Rydberg, Viktor — (1828 1895)    A Swedish novelist and poet, Rydberg wrote historical novels in which he expressed his own ideas about contemporary issues. Writing about the past satisfied the romantic in him, and as a journalist working in a liberal newspaper,… …   Historical Dictionary of Scandinavian Literature and Theater

  • State of matter — A state of matter (or physical state, or form of matter) has physical properties which are qualitatively different from other states of matter.Traditionally, three states of matter were recognized: solid, which maintains a fixed volume and shape; …   Wikipedia

  • Johannes Rydberg — Infobox Scientist name = PAGENAME box width = image size =150px caption = PAGENAME birth date = November 8, 1854 birth place = death date = December 28, 1919 death place = residence = |citizenship = nationality = Swedish ethnicity = field =… …   Wikipedia

  • Degenerate matter — is matter that has such extraordinarily high density that the dominant contribution to its pressure is attributable to the Pauli exclusion principle.[1] The pressure maintained by a body of degenerate matter is called the degeneracy pressure, and …   Wikipedia

  • Plasma (physics) — For other uses, see Plasma. Plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. The colors are a result of relaxation of electrons in excited states to lower energy states after they have recombined… …   Wikipedia

  • Thermionic emission — Closeup of the filament on a low pressure mercury gas discharge lamp showing white thermionic emission mix coating on the central portion of the coil. Typically made of a mixture of barium, strontium and calcium oxides, the coating is sputtered… …   Wikipedia

  • Quark–gluon plasma — A QGP is formed at the collision point of two relativistically accelerated gold ions in the center of the STAR detector at the relativistic heavy ion collider at the Brookhaven national laboratory. A quark–gluon plasma …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.