subject_name = Guy Fawkes
image_size = 200px
image_caption = A modern illustration of Guy Fawkes with the
Houses of Parliamentin the background.
date_of_birth = birth date|1571|4|13
York, Yorkshire, England
date_of_death = death date and age|1606|1|31|1570|4|13
charge = Conspiracy to assassinate king James I & VI and members of the
Houses of Parliament
Hanged, drawn and quartered
status = Ensign
occupation = Soldier
parents = Edward Fawkes, Edith Blake
Guy Fawkes (
13 April 1570– 31 January 1606) sometimes known as Guido Fawkes, was a member of a group of English Roman Catholicrevolutionaries who planned to carry out the Gunpowder Plot.
Robert Catesbywas the lead figure in thinking up the actual plot, Fawkes was put in charge of executing the plan for his militaryand explosivesexperience. The plot was foiled shortly before its intended completion, as Fawkes was captured while guarding the gunpowder. Suspicion was aroused by his wearing a coat, boots and spurs, as if he intended to leave very quickly.
Fawkes has left a lasting mark on history and
popular culture. Held in the United Kingdom(and some parts of the Commonwealth) on November 5 is Bonfire Night, centred on the plot and Fawkes. He has been mentioned in popular film, literature and music by people such as Charles Dickensand John Lennon. There are geographical locations named after Fawkes, such as " Isla Guy Fawkes" in the Galápagos Islandsand Guy Fawkes Riverin Australia.
13 April 1570at High Petergate in York, Yorkshire, Fawkes was the only son of Edward Fawkes and Edith Blake. His mother had given birth to a daughter a couple of years earlier, named Anne, who died seven weeks later on 11 November 1568. Guy was baptised in the church of St. Michael le Belfreyon 16 April 1570as a three-day-old baby. In the five years following Fawkes's birth, his mother also bore two more daughters, Anne (named in honour of the earlier deceased child) and Elizabeth. [cite news|url=http://www.britannia.com/history/g-fawkes.html|publisher=Britannia.com|title=Guy Fawkes: A Biography|date= 11 november 2007]
He attended St. Peter's School in
York, where his schoolfellows may have included John and Christopher Wright, both of whom would be among the conspirators of the Gunpowder Plot, and Thomas Morton, who became Bishop of Durham. During Fawkes's time at St. Peter's he was under the tutelage of John Pulleyn, kinsman to the Pulleyns of Scotton and a suspected Catholic who, according to some sources, may have had an early effect on the impressionable Fawkes.cite news|url=http://www.st-peters.york.sch.uk/history/guyfawkes.htm|publisher=St-Peters.york.sch.uk|title=Guy Fawkes - Old Peterite|date= 24 October 2007]
Fawkes's father was a descendant of the Fawkes family in
Farnley; he was either a notary or proctorof the ecclesiastical courts and later an advocate of the consistory courtof the Archbishop of York. Edward's wife, Edith Blake, was descended from prominent merchants and aldermenof the city. Edward Fawkes died in 1579, and his widow remarried in 1582, to a Catholic, Denis Bainbridge of Scotton. The family were known to be recusants, resisters of the authority of the Church of England, and it is probable that his stepfather's influence contributed to Guy's affiliation to Catholicism; Fawkes finally converted to Catholicism around the age of 16. [cite news|url=http://www.northeasthistory.co.uk/the_north_east/history/features/205/051105.html|publisher=North East History|title=A man for all treason|date= 24 October 2007] In the same year that Fawkes converted to Catholicism (1586), he would be made brutally aware of the repression the English Parliamentenacted on local Catholics. Margaret Clitherow, later known as the "Pearl of York", was martyred in her hometown that year by being crushed to death. She had originally been arrested for harbouring Catholic priests in her home. [cite news|url=http://www.historyofyork.co.uk/tpl/uploads/1GuyFawkestrail.pdf|publisher=HistoryofYork.co.uk|title=On the trail of the Gunpowder Plotters|date= 11 november 2007]
Occupation as a soldier
After leaving school, Fawkes became a
footmanfor Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu. Browne was one of the leading statesmen during the time of Catholic monarch of Scotland Mary and was also allegedly implicated in the Ridolfi plot. Browne took a dislike to Fawkes and fired him after a short time. [cite book
last = Fraser
first = Antonia
authorlink = Antonia Fraser
title =Faith And Treason
publisher =Nan A. Talese
isbn = 978-0385471893] However, his grandson
Anthony-Maria Browne, 2nd Viscount Montagure-employed Fawkes as a table waiter. In 1591, Fawkes inherited his father's estates. After renting them out for a while as a way to earn money, he sold his stakes in them to Anne Skipsey.
Continental Europethere had been a series of Wars of Religion stemming from a Protestant- Catholicissue in relation to the presumption of the French throne. England was divided, the English Protestant crown supported Navarre, while the Catholics of England supported the Catholic League and Pope Sixtus V, through the Duke of Guise. Sir William Stanley had raised an army in Irelandto fight in the Spanish Netherlands. Fawkes, along with his Jesuitcousin Richard Collinge went over to Flandersto join him against the Dutch Revolt. Fawkes spent ten years fighting for the Spanish Catholic cause as a soldier. It was while fighting with the Spaniards that he adopted the name Guido, and he gained considerable expertise with explosives. [cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/northyorkshire/iloveny/people/guy_fawkes/index.shtml|publisher=BBC - North Yorkshire I love NY|title=Who was the real Guy Fawkes?|date= 24 October 2007]
The Netherlands were then possessions of King
Philip II of Spain, Duke of Burgundy, who was a foreigner to the Dutch. The Dutch associated Spain and Philip's rule with the Catholic Inquisition, which he had tried to impose on his territories in the Low Countries. Fawkes arrived at a time when the death of the Duke of Parma and mutinies by Spanish mercenaries had left the Catholic military force in the Netherlands paralysed, and Maurice of Nassau, the stadtholder in five provinces from 1584 till 1625, son of William of Orange, had led successful campaigns against Spanish positions. He was also present when Calaiswas taken by the Spanish in 1596. For his gallantry in the siege of Calais, Stanley even gave Fawkes command of a company.cite news|url=http://www.gunpowder-plot.org/york-flanders.asp|publisher=Gunpowder-Plot.org|title=Guy Fawkes: From York to the Battlefields of Flanders|date= 24 October 2007]
Fawkes is notorious for his involvement in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. He was probably placed in charge of executing the plot because of his military and explosives experience. The plot, masterminded by
Robert Catesby, was an attempt by a group of religious conspirators to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the aristocracy by blowing up the House of Lords in the Palace of Westminsterduring the State Opening of Parliament. Fawkes may have been introduced to Catesby by Hugh Owen, a man who was in the pay of the Spanish Netherlands. Sir William Stanley is also believed to have recommended him, and Fawkes named him under torture, leading to his arrest and imprisonment for a day after the discovery of the plot. It was Stanley who first presented Fawkes to Thomas Winter in 1603 when Winter was in Continental Europe. Stanley was the commander of the English in Flandersat the time. Stanley had handed Deventerand much of its garrison back to the Spanish in 1587, nearly wiping out the gains that the Earl of Leicester had made in the Low Countries. Leicester’s expedition was widely regarded as a disaster, for this reason among others.
The best primary source for the details of the plot itself is the account known as the "King's Book" or "James I The Kings Book - A True and Perfect Relation of the Whole Proceedings Against the Late Most Barbarous Traitors. Robt. Barker, Printer to the Kings Most Excellent Majesty, British Museum 1606". Although this is a government account, and details have been disputed, it is generally considered to be an accurate record of the history of the plot, and the imprisonment, torture and execution of the plotters. The plot itself may have been occasioned by the realisation by Protestant authorities and Catholic recusants that the Kingdom of Spain was in far too much debt and fighting too many wars to assist Catholics in Britain. Any possibility of toleration by Great Britain was removed at the
Hampton Court conferencein 1604 when King James I attacked both extreme Puritansand Catholics. The plotters realised that no outside help would be forthcoming unless they took action themselves. Fawkes and the other conspirators rented a cellar beneath the House of Lords having first tried to dig a tunnel under the building. This would have proved difficult, because they would have had to dispose of the dirt and debris. (No evidence of this tunnel has ever been found). By March 1605, they had hidden 1800 pounds (36 barrels, or 800 kg) of gunpowderin the cellar. The plotters also intended to abduct Princess Elizabeth (later Elizabeth of Bohemia, the "Winter Queen"). A few of the conspirators were concerned, however, about fellow Catholics who would have been present at Parliament during the opening. One of the conspirators wrote a warning letter to Lord Monteagle, who received it on 26 October. The conspirators became aware of the letter the following day, but they resolved to continue the plot after Fawkes had confirmed that nothing had been touched in the cellar.
Lord Monteagle had been made suspicious, however; the letter was sent to the Secretary of State, who initiated a search of the vaults beneath the House of Lords in the early morning of
5 November. However, nothing was moved, in order not to alert the conspirators that the plot had been uncovered. Fawkes, who was resolved to blow himself up along with Parliament if need be, was seized as he attempted to ignite the powder charge. Peter Heywood, a resident of Heywood, Lancashire, snatched the torch from his hand at the last instant. Fawkes was arrested and taken before the privy council where he remained defiant. When asked by one of the Scottish lords what he had intended to do with so much gunpowder, Fawkes answered him, "To blow you Scotch beggars back to your own native mountains!"
When they asked for his name Fawkes replied "John Johnson". He was tortured over the next few days. King James directed that the torture be light at first, but more severe if necessary. Sir William Waad, Lieutenant of the
Tower of Londonat this time, supervised the torture and obtained Fawkes's confession. For three or four days Fawkes said nothing, nor divulged the names of his co-conspirators. Only when he found out that they had proclaimed themselves by appearing in arms did he succumb. The torture only revealed the names of those conspirators who were already dead or whose names were known to the authorities. Some had fled to Dunchurch, Warwickshire, where they were killed or captured. On 31 January, Fawkes and a number of others implicated in the conspiracy were tried in Westminster Hall. After being found guilty, they were taken to Old Palace Yardin Westminsterand St Paul's Yard, where they were hanged, drawn and quartered. Fawkes, however, cheated the hangman by jumping from the scaffold, breaking his neck before he could be drawn and quartered ("The King's Book.",1606.)
Many popular contemporary verses were written in condemnation of Fawkes. The most well-known verse begins:
: “Remember, remember the fifth of November,: The gunpowder, treason and plot,: I know of no reason: Why the gunpowder treason: Should ever be forgot.”(For the full lyrics see "
bonfire Night")or go to the bottom of the page.
John Rhodes produced a popular narrative in verse describing the events of the plot and condemning Fawkes:
: "Fawkes at midnight, and by torchlight there was found: With long matches and devices, underground"
The full verse was published as "A brief Summary of the Treason intended against King & State, when they should have been assembled in Parliament, November 5. 1605. Fit for to instruct the simple and ignorant herein: that they not be seduced any longer by Papists". Other popular verses were of a more religious tone and celebrated the fact that England had been saved from the Guy Fawkes conspiracy. John Wilson published, in 1612, a short song on the "powder plot" with the words:
: "O England praise the name of God: That kept thee from this heavy rod!: But though this demon e'er be gone,: his evil now be ours upon!"
The Lord Mayor and aldermen of the City of London commemorated the conspiracy on
November 5for years after by a sermon in St Paul's Cathedral. Popular accounts of the plot supplemented these sermons, some of which were published and survive to this day. Many in the city left money in their wills to pay for a minister to preach a sermon annually in their own parish.
The Fawkes story continued to be celebrated in poetry. The Latin verse "In Quintum Novembris" was written c. 1626.
John Milton’s Satan in book six of " Paradise Lost" was inspired by Fawkes — the Devil invents gunpowder to try to match God's thunderbolts. Post-Reformation and anti–Catholic literature often personified Fawkes as the Devil in this way. From Puritan polemics to popular literature, all sought to associate Fawkes with the demonic. However, his reputation has since undergone a rehabilitation, and today he is often toasted as, "The last man to enter Parliament with honourable intentions."
In popular culture
In 18th-century England, the term "guy" was used to refer to an
effigyof Fawkes, which would be paraded around town by children on the anniversary of the conspiracy. [ [http://etymonline.com/?term=guy Online Etymology Dictionary] ] It is traditional for children to stand on street corners with their creation asking for a small donation using the term "Penny for the guy". [ [http://www.cnn.com/TRAVEL/DESTINATIONS/9710/london.frights/guy.html Penny for the Guy Cnn Travel guide] ] In recent years this has attracted controversy as some regard it as nothing more than begging. Whilst it was traditional for children to spend the money raised on fireworks, this is now illegal, as persons under 18 may not buy fireworks or even be in possession of them in a public place. [ [http://www.nsca.org.uk/pages/environment_facts/firework_laws.cfm Firework Laws] ]
A common phrase is that Fawkes was "the only man to ever enter parliament with honest intentions". [ [http://www.famouspeople.co.uk/g/guyfawkes.html Famous People website: Famous Criminals > Guy Fawkes] ] This phrase may have originated in a 19th-century
pantomime, and was commonly seen on anarchistposters during the early 20th century. The Scottish Socialist Partybecame embroiled in controversy when they resurrected the poster with humorous intent in 2003. [cite news|url=http://www.struggle.ws/anarchism/writers/anarcho/left/ssp/guyfawkes.html|publisher=Struggle.ws|title=Scottish Socialist Party and Guy Fawkes|date= 24 October 2007]
Fawkes was ranked 30th in the 2002 list of the "
100 Greatest Britons", sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public. [cite news|url=http://www.biographyonline.net/british/greatest-britons.html|publisher=BiographyOnline.net|title=Top 100 Greatest Britons|date= 24 October 2007] He was also included in a list of the 50 greatest people from Yorkshire. [cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,3604,1590701,00.html|publisher=" Guardian Unlimited"|title=The 50 greatest Yorkshire people?|date= 24 October 2007] The Guy Fawkes Riverand thus Guy Fawkes River National Parkin northern New South Wales, Australiawere named after Fawkes by explorer John Oxley, who, like Fawkes, was from North Yorkshire. In the Galápagos Islandsa collection of two crescent-shaped islands and two small rocks northwest of Santa Cruz Island, are called " Isla Guy Fawkes". [cite news|url=http://geology.er.usgs.gov/eespteam/terrainmodeling/images/large/ecuador_srtm_low.pdf|publisher=Geology.er.usgs.gov|title=Topography and Landforms of Ecuador|date= 24 October 2007]
In the European version of
Maplestory, there is an event which features Guy Fawkes as a boss monster.
Project Chanology, an ongoing protest against the practices of the Church of Scientologyby members of the group “Anonymous”, often wear Guy Fawkes masks to conceal their identity.
There are several references to Fawkes in popular literature, here are the most noted examples, listed in chronological order.
William Harrison Ainsworth- "Guy Fawkes: A Historical Romance", is a historical novel which portrayed Fawkes, and Catholic recusancyin general, in a sympathetic light and began to challenge the official depiction of the plot, one of the first to do so. [cite book
last = Harrison Ainsworth
first = William
authorlink = William Harrison Ainsworth
title =Guy Fawkes: A Historical Romance
publisher =Kessinger Publishing
isbn = 978-1428607347]
Charlotte Brontë- " Jane Eyre", Jane is compared to Guy Fawkes by Abbot with the line "a sort of infantine Guy Fawkes" because she looked as though she was constantly plotting schemes. Brontë herself, like Fawkes, was of Yorkshireorigins. [cite news|url=http://www.readprint.com/chapter-665/Charlotte-Bronte|publisher=ReadPrint.com|title=Jane Eyre - by Charlotte Bronte: Chapter III|date= 25 October 2007]
Charles Dickens- "David Copperfield", in order for Peggotty to find money for Saturday's expenses, she "had to prepare a long and elaborate scheme, a very Gunpowder Plot...", directly referencing the Plot Fawkes was involved with. [cite book
last = Dickens
first = Charles
authorlink = Charles Dickens
title =David Copperfield
publisher =Penguin Classics
isbn = 978-0140434941]
Herman Melville- " Billy Budd", the novellamentions Fawkes in the passage "The Phariseeis the Guy Fawkes prowling in the hid chambers underlying the Claggarts". [cite book
last = Melville
first = Herman
authorlink = Herman Melville
title =Billy Budd
publisher =Chelsea House Publications
isbn = 978-0791040546]
T. S. Eliot- " The Hollow Men", the epigraph of the Nobel Prizewinning poem directly alludes to Fawkes, "A penny for the Old Guy". [cite news|url=http://poetry.poetryx.com/poems/784/|publisher=Poetryx.com|title=T. S. Eliot - The Hollow Men|date= 25 October 2007]
Ray Bradbury- " Fahrenheit 451", the protagonist of the novel is named Guy Montag directly after Guy Fawkes. In the story, the character plans to start burning down the firemen's houses in order to overthrow the government. [cite news|url=http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/Fahrenheit-451.id-106,pageNum-16.html|publisher=CliffNotes.com|title=Fahrenheit 451: Summaries and Commentaries - Part One|date= 25 October 2007]
Alan Moore- " V for Vendetta", the dystopian graphic novelof a fascistBritain takes influence from the story of Fawkes. The story revolves around the main character, V, who wears a stylised Guy Fawkes mask.
Kurt Vonnegut- " Timequake", Vonnegut recalls a prank letter he sent to his uncle as an employee of General Electricin 1947. He signed the letter as Fawkes. There is a reprint of the original letter in the book.
J. K. Rowling- "Chamber of Secrets", the Harry Potterseries headmaster Dumbledore's phoenix is named Fawkesafter the man. [cite web|url=http://www.mugglenet.com/books/scholchat2.shtml|title=www.mugglenet.com/books/scholchat2.shtml|title=Scholastic Online Chat Transcript|accessdate=2007-07-15]
Film and music
There have been various
films and television shows which focused on Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot. Some noted examples are the historic portrayals such as the one screened on BBC2on November 5, 1990named "Traitors", which was a one-hour play in the "Screenplay" strand about the Plot, written by Jimmy McGovern. In 2004 BBC1screened a two-part serial also written by McGovern, " Gunpowder, Treason & Plot", the second part of which covered the Plot.
Other films and television shows have referenced Fawkes in a fictional context; the most noted example of this was when the "V for Vendetta" graphic novel was adapted into a film during 2005, the main character's mask was based on Fawkes. The film gathered large exposure worldwide and to date has amassed a
gross revenueof over 132 million dollars.cite web | work=boxofficemojo.com | title=V for Vendetta (2006) | url=http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?page=main&id=vforvendetta.htm | accessmonthday=2 October | accessyear=2006] Fawkes is referenced in the 1985 film " The Falcon and the Snowman", as the main character's pet falcon is named after Guy Fawkes. He has also been referenced in television shows such as an episode of " The Simpsons", " Daria" and the Doctor Whospecial " The Five Doctors".
musical acts and artists have mentioned Fawkes, especially ones from England. The most famous example of this is on John Lennon's 1970 solo album " John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band", on which Lennon sings "Remember, remember, the 5th of November" on the song "Remember". [cite web|url=http://www.songmeanings.net/lyric.php?lid=3530822107858491837|title=John Lennon - Remember|publisher=SongMeanings.net|accessdate=2007-07-15] The vinyl version of The Smiths' album " Strangeways, Here We Come", the words "Guy Fawkes was a genius" are carved near the centre of the record. [cite web|url=http://www.geocities.com/costelt/Lyrics/etching.htm|title=List of etchings|publisher=Etchings on Smiths and Morrissey vinyl|accessdate=2007-07-15] Also Jethro Tull's song "Commons Brawl" includes the lines "But there again I think for less poor Guy went to the wall, the wrong house but the right idea to end the Commons brawl". [cite web|url=http://www.actionext.com/names_j/jethro_tull_lyrics/commons_brawl.html|title=Commons Brawl Lyrics by Jethro Tull|publisher=ActionNext.com|accessdate=2007-07-15]
Bridgwater Guy Fawkes Carnival
Juan de Jáuregui, a Spanish merchant who unsuccessfully tried to assassinate William I of Orangein 1582.
* [http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/trails York Guy Fawkes Trail] , a pdf of a walking trail in York.
* [http://www.bcpl.net/~cbladey/guy/html/thekingsbook.html An edition of the "King's Book" from 1679]
* [http://www.guyfawkes.me.uk/ Guy Fawkes]
* [http://www.gunpowder-plot.org/fawkes.asp A biography on Guy Fawkes from the Gunpowder Plot Society]
* [http://www.bonfirenight.net/ Guy Fawkes and Bonfire Night]
* [http://www.bcpl.net/~cbladey/guy/html/verse.html Guy Fawkes Day Sayings and Chants] , an extensive set of rhymes, often known as Bonfire "prayers" or "chants" which vary by community and location.
* [http://www.bcpl.net/~hutmanpr/fawkestheater.html Guy Fawkes and the Theatre]
* [http://www.bcpl.net/~cbladey/guy/html/maina.html Site of the Center for Fawkesian Pursuits]
* [http://www.gunpowderplot.parliament.uk/ British parliament's Web site to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the plot]
* [http://www.parliament.uk/faq/gunpowder_plot.cfm#gun7 Parliament (Official Site) FAQ on Gunpowder Plot]
* [http://www.britannia.com/history/g-fawkes.html Britannia on Fawkes]
* [http://www.st-peters.york.sch.uk/history/guyfawkes.htm Guy Fawkes - Old Peterite] , a CV put together by Fawkes' school.
* [http://www.godspy.com/reviews/November-5-Guy-Fawkes-Day-Go-Out-with-a-Bang-by-John-Zmirak.cfm Ideas for Catholics to commemorate Guy Fawkes Day — with fireworks]
* [http://www.guyfawkesinn.co.uk/ Site of Guy Fawkes birth place]
* [http://www.theholidayspot.com/guy_fawkes_day/ History, Activities and Greeting Cards for the day]
* [http://www.allinfoaboutenglishculture.com/guy-fawkes1.html Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot]
: Remember, remember the Fifth of November: The Gunpowder Treason and plot: I see no reason why Gunpowder Treason: Should ever be forgot
: Guy Fawkes, Guy Fawkes 'twas his intent: To blow up the King and the Parliament: Three score barrels of powder below: Poor old England to overthrow
: By God's providence he was catch'd: With a dark lantern and burning match: Holler boys, holler boys, ring bells ring: Holler boys, holler boys, God Save the King!
: A penny loaf to feed the Pope: A farthing o'cheese to choke him: A pint of beer to rinse it down: A faggot of sticks to burn him
: Burn him in a tub of tar: Burn him like a blazing star: Burn his body from his head: Then we'll say old Pope is dead
: Hip Hip Hoorah!: Hip Hip Hoorah!: Hip Hip Hoorah!
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