Encirclement Campaign against Hunan–Jiangxi Soviet

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Encirclement Campaign against Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet
partof=the Chinese Civil War
place=border region of Huan-Jiangxi provinces, China
date=January 29, 1930 - March 24, 1930
result=Communist victory
combatant1=

combatant2=

commander1= Wang Jingyu 王金钰
commander2= ?
strength1= 35,000
strength2= 2,000
casualties1= 3,500
casualties2= ?|

The Encirclement Campaign against Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet was a series of battles launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government that was intended to destroy communist Hunan-Hubei-Sichuan-Guizhou Soviet and its Chinese Red Army in the local region. It was responded by the Communists’ Counter-Encirclement Campaign at Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet (zh-c|c=湘赣苏区反围剿), also called by the communists as the Counter-Encirclement Campaign at Hunan-Jiangxi Revolutionary Base (zh-c|c=湘赣革命根据地反围剿), in which the local Chinese Red Army successfully defended their soviet republic in the border region of Hunan-Jiangxi provinces against the Nationalist attacks from January 29, 1930 to March 24, 1930.

First Stage

In January, 1931, to support other communist forces in their struggles against the Encirclement Campaign against Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi Soviet, the communist Eastern Hunan Chinese Red Army Independent Division of the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet struck western Hunan, and also launched massive guerrilla warfare in southeastern Hunan. From January 29, 1931 thru February 9, 1931, communist Eastern Hunan Chinese Red Army Independent Division succeeded in taking regions including Ling (酃) County, the town of Zixing and the town of Yongxing (永兴), and three nationalist local security regiments guarding these towns and completely destroyed along with a regiment of the nationalist 57th Brigade sent to reinforce these regions.

In early February, 1931, the Chinese Red Army 7th Army was forced to abandon their bases in Guangxi and traveled northward to join other communist, and the communist forces of Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet was tasked to link up with the Chinese Red Army 7th Army so the communist Eastern Hunan Chinese Red Army Independent Division returned to Lotus Flower (Lianhua, 莲花) county. Capitalizing on their victory, the communists expanded their force and the (communist) Eastern Hunan Chinese Red Army Independent Division was renamed as the (communist) Southeastern Hunan Independent Division, with a new regiment, the 2nd Regiment established, and the division was consisted of a total of three regiments, totaling more than 1,500 troops.

Order of battle

Nationalist order of battle: (35,000 total):

First Stage:
*Ling (酃) County Security Regiment
*Zixing Security Regiment
*Yongxing (永兴) Security Regiment
*A regiment of the nationalist 57th BrigadeSecond Stage:
*5th Route Army commanded by Wang Jingyu (王金钰)
**28th Division commanded by Gong Bingpan (公秉藩)
**43rd Division commanded by Guo Huazong (郭华宗)
**47th Division commanded by Shangguan Yunxiang (上官云相)
**54th Division commanded by Hao Mengling
**77th Division commanded by Luo Lin (罗霖)
Communist order of battle (1,500 total):

First Stage:
*Eastern Hunan Chinese Red Army Independent Division
**1st Regiment
**2nd RegimentSecond Stage:
*Southeastern Hunan Independent Division
**1st Regiment
**2nd Regiment
**3rd Regiment

econd Stage

In March, 1931, nationalists were already in their mobilization for the planned Second Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet. The nationalist 5th Route Army deployed was en route to Jiangxi Soviet, and was tasked to first destroy the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet on its way when the situation permitted. The nationalist 5th Route Army consequently begun their push toward Ji'an, Jishui (吉水), and Eternal Abundance (永丰) from Pingxiang, Jiangxi and Yichun, Jiangxi. The communist high command of the 1st Front Army of the Chinese Red Army of Jiangxi Soviet ordered the local communist force of the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet to launch a preemptive strike against the nationalist 5th Route Army in order to delay its deployment against the Jiangxi Soviet.

The communist Southeastern Huan Independent Division guarding the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet deployed its 1st Regiment and the 2nd Regiment to strike Pingxiang, Jiangxi and Yichun, Jiangxi, and its 3rd Regiment was ordered to southeastern Hunan to join up with the Chinese Red Army 7th Army from Guangxi, which by then had reached the border region of Guangdong and Hunan provinces. The communist preemptive surprise attack had successfully disrupted and halted the nationalist encirclement campaign against the Hunan-Jiangxi, and also slowed the nationalist 5th Route Army in its deployment against the Jiangxi Soviet.

On March 14, 1931, the 3rd Regiment of the communist Southeastern Huan Independent Division successfully linked up with the vanguard of the Chinese Red Army 7th Army in the region of Shiduwei (十都圩) in Bi (鄙) County and begun their return journey. On March 24, 1931, the communists ambushed and destroyed an entire regiment of the nationalist 19th Division, and this last battle of the encirclement campaign forced the nationalists to stop their offensives completely to withdraw and regroup. Meantime, the communists did the same by returning to Lotus Flower (Lianhua, 莲花) county. The communist Southeastern Hunan Independent Division and the 58th Regiment of the Chinese Red Army 7th Army subsequently moved eastward to the region to the east of Eternal Sun (Yongyang, 永阳), and joined the 175th Regiment of the Chinese Red Army 20th Army in the local region.

Aftermath

Although the nationalist 5th Route Army was ready later for another round of offensives after resting and regrouping, the nationalist high command had a different idea. After careful analysis, the nationalist high command deducted that its 5th Route Army was better deployed for the Second Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet instead of for further encirclement campaign against Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet, because if the main communist base, Jiangxi Soviet was destroyed, the smaller Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet would not last for long either. It was really not worth wasting the valuable troops to be tied down on smaller local communist bases so the nationalist 5th Route Army was ordered away to complete its deployment for its original purpose against their main target, Jiangxi Soviet, and the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet was left alone for the time being.

ee also

*List of battles of the Chinese Civil War
*National Revolutionary Army
*History of the People's Liberation Army
*Chinese Civil War


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