Johann Ernst Hanxleden
Johann Ernst Hanxleden (1681 at
Ostercappeln, near Osnabrück, in Lower Saxony, Germany- 20 March 1732, at Palayur, in Trichurdistrict, Kerala, India), known as Arnos Paathiri (or "Arnos Padri") was a German Jesuitpriest, missionary in India and a Malayalam/ Sanskrit poet, grammarian, lexicographer, and philologist.
Journey to India
After doing philosophical studies in his home town, Osnabruck, Hanxleden volunteered for service in India. Together with the Jesuits Wilhelm Weber and Wilhelm Meyr, and a doctor, Franz Kaspar Schillinger (who left us an account of the perilous voyage), he set forth (
30 October, 1699) on a long arduous overland journey to India, traveling through Italy, Turkey, Syria, Armenia, and Persia, and set foot in Indiaat Surat(in contemporary Gujarat) on 13 December 1700. During the journey Hanxleden was formally accepted as a member of the Society of Jesus. Weber and Meyr had died at sea, before reaching Surat. Left alone Hanxleden proceeded to Goawhere there was a large community of Jesuits.
In Goa and Kerala
After completing his spiritual formation (
novitiate) in Goa, Hanxleden was sent to the Jesuitseminary at Ampazhakkadin Kerala, where he did Theological studies in immediate preparation to his becoming a priest. He took time also to initiate himself to the local language, Malayalam, and more importantly even, to the liturgicallanguage of the Thomas Christiansof Kerala, the Syriac. He was ordained priest in 1706.
Linguist and pastor
Kerala became and will remain the field of his activities: Hanxleden learnt and appreciated its culture, along with identifying with its people. In addition to his mother tongue German, and his mastery of Malayalam, Hanxleden also had a good command over
Latin, Syriac, Portuguese, and Tamil. He moved to Palayur and, after surmounting several formidable barriers, learnt Sanskrit too and improved his Malayalam from two NamboothiriBrahmins, Kunjan and Sankaran from Angamaly, who were students in the TrichurSanskrit school.
From 1707 to 1711 Hanxleden served as secretary to John Ribeiro (who was Archbishop of
Cranganore). During this time he travelled the length and breath of Kerala on various tasks such as preaching and catechesis. It is recorded that he served as the vicar of the main church in Malabar(the present Mother of God Cathedral Church of the Diocese of Calicut).
Hanxleden moved to
Velur, a small village near Trichur, in 1712 and built a church there. This will be his abode for most of his remaining life.
Poetic and religious writings
*The "Puththenpaana", a Malayalam epic on the life of
Christ, is his most celebrated poem. This is one of the earliest poems written in simple Malayalam. It has been an inalienable part of Christian(not restricted to Catholic) life in Kerala since the time of its composition; its "paadham"s [cantos] are sung in a characteristic manner in Christian households on various solemn occasions, the most notable ones being Holy Thursday, Good Friday, and other days of Holy Weekand Lent, and evenings preceding funerals. The poem consists of fourteen "paadhams"; the couplets are written in the "sarppini" "vruththam" [metre] , except for those in the twelfth "paadham", which are in the "nathonnatha" metre.
The twelfth "paadham" on the lament of the Virgin Mary at the
crucifixionand death of Jesus is the heart of the poem. Other important "paadham"s are concerned with the Fall of Man (second), the Annunciation(fourth), the Nativity (fifth), the Sermon on the Mount(seventh), the Last Supper (tenth), the trial and Crucifixion(eleventh), the Resurrection (thirteenth), and the Ascension (fourteenth). The first "paadham" has the poet telling us that he is writing the poem at the request of Antonio Pimental, Archbishop of Cranganore; since Pimental held the ecclesiastical office from 1721 to 1752, the poem was composed some time during the period 1721-1732.
*The "Chathuranthyam" is a mystic poem on the four ends of man: "maranam" [death] , "vidhi" [judgement] , "moksham" [paradise] , and "narakam" [perdition] ; parts of the poem are sung on occasions similar to the "Puththenpaana" recitals.
While his poems are written works, they also have a strong
oral tradition; many pious Christians retain his poetical works in their minds and are able to recite it by heart.
The linguist and grammarian
*Hanxleden was the first to compile a Malayalam
dictionary. His lexicondescribes Malayalam words in both Sanskrit and Portuguese (the then predominant European language in India). He also wrote a short and succinct grammar(the earliest) for the Malayalam language.
*Hanxleden and his predecessor,
Heinrich Roth, were the pioneering European Sanskrit scholars: he was the first European to write a Sanskrit grammar, and also the first European to compose Sanskrit verse.
From 1729 onwards, he lived at Ampazhakkad,
Pazhuvil, and Palayur. He died at Palayur of a snake-bite, and is buried there in the ancient church founded by St. Thomas.
Fame and remembrance
* Hanxleden came to be known in Europe thanks to
Paulinus of St. Bartholomew[Johann Philipp Wesdin, known as "Paulinus Paathiri" (1748-1806)] of the Carmeliteorder, who had lived in Kerala from 1776 to 1789. The friar brought some of Hanxleden's works, such as his Sanskrit grammar, to Europe; he also wrote about Hanxleden and quote him extensively in his memoirs.
*His Velur home, and the church he built (St.
Francis Xavierforane church), are preserved as historical monuments (John Kalliath, a teacher, was instrumental in organising the people of Velur towards preserving them). Among various exhibits at the museum are the bed used by Hanxleden, and the "chathurangam" (the Indian ancestor of chess, which Hanxleden used to play) columns marked on the floor of his home.
Mar Francis Vazhapilly, Bishop of Trichur from 1921 to 1942, used to stay at the Velur church for a few days during Lentso that he could sleep on the bed used by Arnos Paathiri and drink from the well dug during his times.
# "Puththenpaana" ["Mishihaadaey paana" / New song-poem] (Malayalam poem; published by St. Joseph's press, Mannanam)
# "Chathuranthyam" ["Naaluparvvam" / The four ends] (Malayalam poem)
# "Genevieva punyacharithram" [The epic of St. Genevieve] (Malayalam poem)
# "Ummaadaey dhukhkham" ["Mater dolorosa" / The sorrow of Mother] (Malayalam poem; thought to have later become the twelfth "paadham" of the "Puththenpaana")
# Malayalam-Portuguese "nighandu" ["Dictionarium Malabarico-Lusitanum"] (published in 1988 by Kerala sahithya academy)
# "Malayalavyaakaranam" ["Grammatica Malabarico Lusitana" / Arte Malabar] (Malayalam grammar; published in 1993 by Ranjima publications, with original in Portuguese and English translation by Miss Pinto; Editor:
P. V. Ulahannan Mappila)
Samskrutham-Portuguese "nighandu" [Dictionarium Samscredamico-Lusitanum] (completed by [http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/b/bischopinck_b.shtml Bernhard Bischopinck] and Archbishop Antonio Pimental)
# "Samskruthavyaakaranam" [Sanskrit grammar]
# "Ave Maris Stella" [Hymn; not extant]
Franz Kaspar Schillinger: "Persianische und Ost-Indianische Reis, welche Franz Kaspar Schillinger mit P. Wilhelm Weber und P. Wilhelm Mayr durch das Türckische Gebiet im Jahr 1699 angefangen und 1702 vollendet", Nürnberg, 1707.
Paulinus of St. Bartholomew: "Examen historico-criticum codicum indicorum bibliothecae sacrae congregationis de propaganda fide", Propaganda press, Rome, 1792.
* Paulinus of St. Bartholomew: "India orientalis Christiana", Propaganda press, Rome, 1794.
* Paulinus of St. Bartholomew: "De manuscriptis codicibus indicis R. P. Joan Ernesti Hanxleden epistola ad. R. P. Alexium Mariam A. S. Joseph Carmelitam excalceatum", Vienna, 1799.
D. Ferroli: "The Jesuits in Malabar", Bangalore, 1939.
C. K. Mattam: "Arnos Paathiri".
P. J. Thomas: "Malayalasaahithyavum kristhyaanikalum" [Malayalam literature and Christians] , D. C. Books, Kottayam, 1989.
Mathew Ulakamthara: "Arnos Pathiri", Kerala history association, Cochin, 1982.
J. J. Pallath, Ed.: "Arnos Padiri: the first Malayalam poet scholar orientalist", Arnos Padiri publications, Calicut, 1994.
Joseph J. Palackal: [http://www.thecmsindia.org/research.html "Puthen pana: a musical study"] , Master's thesis, Hunter college of the City university of New York, 1995.
* [http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/db/Puththenpaana.pdf The twelfth "paadham"]
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07131a.htm Catholic encyclopaedia]
* [http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/h/hanxleden_j_e.shtml Kirchenlexikon]
* [http://www.thecmsindia.org/research.html Christian Musicological Society of India]
* [http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2004111402780300.htm&date=2004/11/14/&prd=th& John Kalliath, Arnos nagar, Velur]
* [http://www.kerala.gov.in/dept_culture/dept_sahithya_akademi.htm Kerala sahithya academy]
* [http://www.namboothiri.com/articles/chathurangam.htm Chathurangam]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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