Lowell, Massachusetts

Infobox Settlement
official_name = City of Lowell
nickname = Mill City, Spindle City
motto = Art is the Handmaid of Human Good


imagesize = 250px
image_caption = Lowell on the Merrimack river with Cox Bridge
image_






mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts


mapsize1 =
map_caption1 =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = United States
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_name1 = Massachusetts
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Middlesex
established_title = Settled
established_date = 1653
established_title2 = Incorporated
established_date2 = 1826
established_title3 = A city
established_date3 = 1836
government_type = Manager-City council
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Edward C. Caulfield
leader_title1 = City Manager
leader_name1 = Bernard F. Lynch
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 = 37.7
area_total_sq_mi = 14.5
area_land_km2 = 35.7
area_land_sq_mi = 13.8
area_water_km2 = 2.0
area_water_sq_mi = 0.8
population_as_of = 2007
settlement_type = City
population_total = 103,512
population_density_km2 = 2,899.5
population_density_sq_mi = 7,500.9
elevation_m = 31
elevation_ft = 102
timezone = Eastern
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = Eastern
utc_offset_DST = -4
latd = 42 |latm = 38 |lats = 22 |latNS = N
longd = 71 |longm = 18 |longs = 53 |longEW = W
website = http://www.lowellma.gov/
postal_code_type = ZIP code
postal_code = 01850, 01851, 01852, 01853, 01854
area_code = 978 / 351
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 25-37000
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0611832
footnotes =

Lowell is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 105,167. It is the fourth largest city in the state. It and Cambridge are the county seats of Middlesex County.GR|6

History

Founded as a planned manufacturing center for textiles along the Merrimack River northwest of Boston on land sectioned from neighboring Chelmsford, it was a thriving industrial center during the 19th century, attracting many immigrants and migrant workers to its mills. With the decline of its manufacturing in the 20th century, the city fell into deep hard times but has begun to rebound in recent decades. The former mill district along the river is partially restored and is a part of the Lowell National Historical Park.

Geography

Lowell is located at coor dms|42|38|22|N|71|18|53|W|city (42.639444, -71.314722).GR|1 According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.5 square miles (37.7 km²).13.8 square miles (35.7 km²) of it is land and 0.8 square miles (2.0 km²) of it (5.23%) is water.

Lowell has 5 zip codes, 4 are geographically distinct general zip codes and 1 is for PO-boxes only (01853).

The zip code 01850 is the northeastern section of the city, north of the Merrimack River and east of Beaver Brook. This area is known as Centralville. Christian Hill is located here in the area east of Bridge Street. Lower Centralville refers to the section closest to the Merrimack River.

The zip code 01851 is the southwestern section of the city, bordered to the east by the Lowell Connector and to the north by the railroad. This area is commonly referred to as the Lowell Highlands. The Lower Highlands refers to the portion of this area closest to downtown. Middlesex Village, Tyler Park and Drum Hill are in this zip code.

The zip code 01852 is the southeastern section of the city. It is south of the Merrimack River and bordered to the west by the Lowell Connector, towards the south. This zip code includes Lowell's city offices, downtown, Belvidere, Back Central and South Lowell. Belvidere is the mostly residential area south of the Merrimack River, east of the Concord River and north of the Lowell and Lawrence railroad. Belvidere Hill is an Historic District along Fairmount St. Lower Belvidere refers to the section west of Nesmith Street. Back Central is an urban area south of downtown towards the mouth of River Meadow Brook. South Lowell is the area south of the railroad and east of the Concord River. Other neighborhoods in this zip code are Ayers City, Bleachery, Chapel Hill, the Grove, Oaklands, Riverside Park, Swede Village and Wigginsville, but their use is mostly antiquated.

The zip code 01854 is the northwestern portion of the city and includes Pawtucketville, the University of Massachusetts, Lowell and the Acre.

The bordering towns (clockwise from north) are Dracut, Tewksbury, Billerica, Chelmsford, and Tyngsboro. The border with Billerica is a point in the middle of the Concord River where Lowell and Billerica meet Tewksbury and Chelmsford.

The ten communities designated part of the Lowell Metropolitan area by the 2000 US Census are Billerica, Chelmsford, Dracut, Dunstable, Groton, Lowell, Pepperell, Tewksbury, Tyngsboro, and Westford, and Pelham, NH. See Greater Lowell.

Lowell received an "All-America City" award in 1999, and was a finalist in 1997 and 1998. [http://www.ncl.org/aac/past_winners/past_winners.html]

Demographics

USCensusPop
title= Historical populations
1830= 6474
1840= 20796
1850= 33383
1860= 36827
1870= 40928
1880= 59475
1890= 77696
1900= 94969
1910= 106294
1920= 112759
1930= 100234
1940= 101389
1950= 97249
1960= 92107
1970= 94239
1980= 92418
1990= 103439
2000= 105167
estyear=2007
estimate=103512
As of the censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 105,167 people, 37,887 households, and 23,982 families residing in the city. The population density was 7,635.6 people per square mile (2,948.8/km²). There were 39,468 housing units at an average density of 2,865.5/sq mi (1,106.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 68.60% European American, 16.52% Asian American, 4.21% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 6.48% from other races, and 3.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.01% of the population. Lowell is home to the second largest Cambodian population in the United States after Long Beach, California. There are an estimated 25,000 Cambodians living in the city of Lowell, but local community leaders estimate the number to be around 35,000 [http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2005-05/2005-05-04-voa72.cfm] . Lowell had the highest percentage of Cambodians of any place in the United States however, with 10.37% of its population being Cambodian. [ [http://www.epodunk.com/ancestry/Cambodian.html Cambodian ancestry by city - ePodunk ] ]

There were 37,887 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.1% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.7% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.35.

In the city the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 97.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $39,192, and the median income for a family was $45,901. Males had a median income of $33,554 versus $27,399 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,557. About 13.6% of families and 16.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.2% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over.

Government

Lowell has a "Plan E form" Council-manager government. There are nine city councilors and six school committee members, all elected at large in a non-partisan election. The City Council chooses one of its number as mayor, and another as vice-mayor; the mayor serves as chair of the council, serves as the seventh member of the school committee, and performs certain ceremonial duties. The administrative head of the city government is the City Manager, who is responsible for all day-to-day operations, functioning within the guidelines of City Council policy, and is hired by and serves at the pleasure of the City Council as whole. As of January 2008, the City Manager is Bernard F. Lynch and Edward "Bud" Caulfield is the Mayor.As of August 2005, Lowell is part of one Massachusetts Senate district (First Middlesex, represented by Steven C. Panagiotakos (D)) and three Massachusetts Representative Districts (Sixteenth Middlesex, represented by Thomas A. Golden, Jr. (D), Seventeenth Middlesex, represented by David M. Nangle (D), and Eighteenth Middlesex, represented by Kevin J. Murphy (D)). It is part of the Fifth Massachusetts Congressional District, represented by Niki Tsongas (D).

Transportation

Lowell can be reached by automobile from Interstate 495, US Route 3, the Lowell Connector, and Massachusetts Routes 3A, 38, 110, 113, and 133.Cite web|url=http://www.Lowellma.gov/depts/dpd/services/econdev/Location|title=City of Lowell - Location|accessdate=2007-10-02]

For public transit, Lowell is served by the Lowell Regional Transit Authority, which provides fixed route bus services and paratransit services to the city and surrounding area. These connect at the Gallagher Transit Terminal to the Lowell Line of the MBTA commuter rail system, which connects Lowell to Boston. The terminal is also served by several intercity bus lines.Cite web|url=http://www.Lowellma.gov/depts/dpd/services/econdev/Location|title=City of Lowell - Location|accessdate=2007-10-02]

The Lowell National Historical Park provides a free streetcar shuttle between its various sites in the city centre, using track formerly used to provide freight access to the city's mills.

Media

Newspapers

*The Sun (Lowell) - "Daily Newspaper"

TV

Points of interest

*Canal Walk (Lowell) - Walking trails along the 5.6 miles of canals of Lowell
*Lowell-Dracut-Tyngsboro State Forest - Hiking, biking, and cross-country skiing trails in an urban state forest
*Lowell Memorial Auditorium - performance venue
*Lowell National Historical Park
*New England Golden Gloves - Boxing
*Tsongas Arena - concert venue
*University of Massachusetts Lowell
*Vandenberg Esplanade - Walking, biking, swimming, and picnicking park along the banks of the Merrimack River
* [http://www.marstonlofts.com The Marston Building] - Built in 1889, this historic building is located at 155 Middlesex Street. It is a good example of the mixed styles of Lowell architecture from that time. Renovated in 2008, it is now has been converted to artist live/work lofts.

Culture

* [http://www.ayerlofts.com Ayer Lofts] Artist Live-work Lofts
* [http://www.angkordance.org/ Angkor Dance Troupe] - Cambodian classical and folk dance company and youth program [Tuttle, Nancye, [http://www.lowellsun.com/ci_9267121 "Cambodian art, a New England tradition"] , The Lowell Sun, May 15, 2008.]
*Brush With History Artist Gallery
* [http://library.uml.edu/clh/ Center for Lowell History, University of Massachusetts Lowell] - local history library and archive
* [http://www.Lowellrocks.com Lowell Rocks] - Lowell nightlife and entertainment web site
* [http://ltc.org Lowell Telecommunication Corporation] (LTC) - a community media and technology center
* [http://www.merrimackrep.org Merrimack Repertory Theater] - Professional equity theater
*Play by Player's Theatre Company - critically acclaimed community theater
* [http://www.lowellphilharmonic.org Lowell Philharmonic Orchestra] - Community orchestra presenting free concerts and offering youth programs
*Standing Room Only Players - musical review troupe
* [http://www.gentlemensongsters.org/ The Gentlemen Songsters] The Lowell Chapter of The Barbershop Harmony Society -Causing Harmony In The Merrimack Valley.
*Western Avenue Studios - a converted mill on Western Avenue which houses over 100 working artists and musicians. These studios are open to the public on the 1st Saturday of each month from 12-5 PM.
*Whistler House Museum of Art - art museum in birthplace of James MacNeil Whistler
*WUML - Noncommercial free-format college radio station (A student organization has operated the station since 1952; currently this organization controls the entire broadcast day except the hours from 5:00 to 10:00 am M-F, which are controlled by the University itself).
* [http://www.lowellpoetrynetwork.org Lowell Poetry Network] - A network of area poets and appreciators of poetry who host readings, receptions, and open mics.
* [http://www.nequiltmuseum.org/ The New England Quilt Museum] The New England Quilt Museum
* [http://www.revolvingmuseum.org/ The Revolving Museum] "Making Space for Art and Community."

ports

On April 1, 2006, Lowell held the 2006 World Curling Championships for the men's teams at the Tsongas Arena.
*Lowell Devils - AHL hockey team (formerly Lowell Lock Monsters). Affiliate of the New Jersey Devils
*Lowell Spinners - Class A short-season professional baseball affiliate of the Boston Red Sox
*Lowell All-Americans - NECBL (College Baseball)
*New England Riptide - National Pro Fastpitch League (Major League Softball)
*University of Massachusetts Lowell River Hawks, NCAA Division I Hockey, and Division II Soccer, Basketball, Baseball, Softball, Track & Field, Cross Country, Volleyball
*Lowell NorEaster - Semi-Professional football team (New England Football League)

Venues

*Edward A. LeLacheur Park Baseball Stadium, shared by Lowell Spinners and the University of Massachusetts Lowell
*Lowell Memorial Auditorium - performance and boxing venue
*Tsongas Arena - multi-use sports and concert venue (6500 seats hockey, 7800 concerts)- Lowell Devils, the University of Massachusetts Lowell River Hawks, and various arena shows
*Cawley Memorial Stadium- Stadium for Lowell High School and other sporting events around the Merrimack Valley. Uses FieldTurf
*Sampas Pavilion - Outdoor amphitheater on the banks of the Merrimack River

Annual events

*Bay State Marathon - October marathon and half marathon
*Lowell Folk Festival - three day free folk festival attended by on average 250,000 people on the last weekend in July
* [http://www.Lowellwaterfestival.org/ Lowell Southeast Asian Water Festival] - annual summer event that celebrates Southeast Asian culture
*Winterfest - celebration of winter in February
* [http://www.masspoetryfestival.org The Massachusetts Poetry Festival] - an annual event that celebrates poets and poetry in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

Businesses started and/or products invented in Lowell

*CVS/pharmacy
*Moxie - the first mass-produced soft drink in the U.S.
*Wang Laboratories - Massachusetts Miracle computer company
*Telephone numbers
*Francis Turbine - A highly efficient water-powered turbine
*Market Basket - Chain of approximately 60 grocery stores in Massachusetts and New Hampshire
*cash carriers

References to Lowell

Music

The city is the subject of Death Cab for Cutie's song, "Lowell, MA," from their album We Have the Facts and We're Voting Yes

The city was also featured in the song "Lowell Man" by Tom Doyle. Doyle, of WROR-FM 105.7 in Boston, does many songs like this spoofing classic rock by rewording them to make fun of various things about New England (Lowell Man is a spoof of "Soul Man" by the Blues Brothers).

Novels

Lowell has also been the subject of a number of novels. Some of the better known ones are:
* Jack Kerouac, who was born in Lowell, set several biographical novels there, including Visions of Gerard and Doctor Sax.
* Katherine Paterson's novel "Lyddie" tells the fictional story of a Lowell Mill Girl in the nineteenth century who fights for better working conditions in the hot, crowded and dangerous mills. She also discovers true friendship, love, and how to handle the hardballs of life. Lyddie is a brave and intelligent young girl searching for a way to make money in order to save her farm. She and her brother eventually get separated and work for their dream. While they work, their mother and their small family fight to survive.
* In Avi's "Beyond The Western Sea Book 2: Lord Kirkle's Money" Lowell is the destination of immigrants hoping to reach America and begin new lives.
* Nancy Zaroulis' "Call The Darkness Light," a novel about a young woman left alone in the world following the death of her father, tells the story of the mid-19th century Lowell Mill Girls and the realities of the textile industry.
* Ronald E. Diberto's poem "My Home Town", from his inspirational poetry book, "A Journey: Of Life, Love and Laughter", deals with his life—being born in Lowell, leaving for a new home, and coming back to his real home in Lowell.

Films

*Monkey Dance - 2004 documentary film by Julie Mallozzi on the lives of three Cambodian-American teenage adolescents in Lowell and how they were affected positively by traditional Cambodian dance, especially with Lowell's Angkor Dance Troupe.
*This Side of the Truth, a new film by director/writer/star Ricky Gervais was filmed principally in Lowell. The film also stars Jennifer Garner, Rob Lowe, and Tina Fey.
*High on Crack Street - An HBO film made in 1995 documenting the lives of three crack cocaine addicts.

Notable residents

*Charles Herbert Allen, Governor of Puerto Rico
*James Taylor Ames, born in Lowell, noted manufacturercite book | title = Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896 | publisher = Marquis Who's Who | date = 1967]
*Michael Ansara, actor
*Benjamin Franklin Butler, Congressman, Union general in the Civil War, Governor of Massachusetts, and Greenback Party presidential candidate
*Michael Casey, poet
*Michael Chiklis, actor
*George Bassett Clark, astronomer
*Bette Davis, Academy Award-winning actress.
*Benjamin Dean, lawyer and politician
*George Washington Dixon, entertainer and newspaper editor
*Olympia Dukakis, actress
*Rosalind Elias, opera singer
* [http://www.providence.edu/About+PC/College+History/Foley.htm Frederick Clement Foley] , President, Providence College
*Gustavus Fox, Assistant Secretary of the Navy during the Civil War
*James B. Francis, pioneer of American civil engineering
*Maurice K. Goddard, Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, a driving force in creating 45 Pennsylvania state parks in his 24 years in office.
*Ray Goulding, radio comedian (Bob & Ray)
*Frederic Thomas Greenhalge, Congressman
*Mary Hallaren, Director Women's Army Corps
*Deborah Hopkinson, children's author
*Boney James, Smooth Jazz Saxophonist
*Jack Kerouac, writer
*Ted Leonsis, founder AOL
*Walker Lewis, African American abolitionist and early Mormon Elder
*Richard M. Linnehan, NASA astronaut and veterinarian
*Elinor Lipman, writer, columnist "The Boston Globe"
*Francis Cabot Lowell, businessman for whom the town is named
*Brooke Lyons, eastern culture expert, philosopher
*Christopher Makos, photographer, artist
*Ed McMahon, entertainer
*Marty Meehan, Congressman, current Chancellor of UMass/Lowell
*F. Bradford Morse, Republican; Congressman
*David Neeleman, Chairman and CEO of JetBlue Airways
*William Henry O'Connell, Cardinal, Archdiocese of Boston
* [http://www.umassd.edu/commencement/2005/pedroso.cfm Luis Pedroso] , co-founder Accutronics
*Leonard Pollard, decorated police officer and TOP COP award recipient
*John Jacob Rogers, Republican; Congressman
*Tom Sexton, writer
*Ezekiel A. Straw, Governor of New Hampshire
*Paul Sullivan, sports radio personality WBZ and columnist Lowell Sun
*Robert Tessier, Actor and Stuntman
*Paul Tsongas, Congressman, United States Senator, and Democratic presidential candidate
*Vince Vouyer, male pornographic actor
*An Wang, inventor and businessman
*Micky Ward, boxer
*James McNeill Whistler, painter and etcher
*Dave Bachinsky, professional skateboarder

References

External links

* [http://www.Lowellma.gov/ City of Lowell official web site]
* [http://www.merrimackvalley.org/fusebox/index.cfm?fuseaction=category.list Merrimack Valley Region tourist information]
* [http://www.Lowellsun.com/ "Lowell Sun" newspaper]
* [http://www.lowell.com/ Lowell.com - Online Guide to Lowell]
* [http://library.uml.edu/clh/ University of Massachusetts Lowell, Center for Lowell History]


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