D. D. Sheehan
Daniel Desmond Sheehan Member of Parliament
for Mid Cork
17 May 1901 – 14 December 1918
Preceded by Charles K. D. Tanner Succeeded by Terence MacSwiney Personal details Born 28 May 1873
Kanturk, County Cork, Ireland
Died 28 November 1948(aged 75)
Nationality Irish Political party Irish Parliamentary Party,
Spouse(s) Mary O'Connor Alma mater Barrister, Journalist, Author
Daniel Desmond Sheehan, usually known as D. D. Sheehan (28 May 1873 – 28 November 1948) was an Irish nationalist, politician, labour leader, journalist, barrister and author. He served as Member of Parliament (MP) in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland representing Mid-Cork from 1901 to 1918, a constituency comprising the districts of Ballincollig, Blarney, Ballyvourney, Coachford, Macroom and Millstreet. As co-founder and President of the Irish Land and Labour Association, he was credited with considerable success in land reform, labour reforms and in rural state housing. From 1909, he was General Secretary of the Central Executive of the All-for-Ireland League, favouring a policy of National reconciliation between all creeds and classes in Ireland. During World War I he served as Irish regiments officer with the 16th (Irish) Division in France, 1915–16. He resigned his parliamentary seat in 1918 and lived in England for several years, returning to Dublin following the ending of the civil war, when he was appointed editor of the Dublin Chronicle.
- 1 Journalistic beginnings
- 2 Land and Labour leader
- 3 All-for-Ireland League
- 4 Great War
- 5 New beginnings
- 6 Personal background
- 7 Sources and references
- 8 External links
Sheehan was born in Dromtariffe, near Kanturk, County Cork, Ireland, the second eldest of three sons and one daughter of Daniel Sheehan senior and Ellen Sheehan (née Fitzgerald). His father was a tenant farmer. He was educated at the local primary school; in 1880 when he was seven years old, the family experienced eviction from the family homestead at the onset of the Irish Land League's Land War, when tenant farmers united to protest against landlords' excessive and unjust rents by withholding payment.
Sheehan's family were supporters of the Fenian tradition, and his experience of discrimination made him a strong supporter of Irish nationalism. Sheehan was a continued supporter of Charles Stewart Parnell after the 'Parnell split' of 1890 in the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP).
He began his career as a schoolteacher at the age of 16, studying law when time allowed. He undertook part-time journalism from 1890 and was otherwise self-educated to a high literary degree. Sheehan was correspondent for the Kerry Sentinel, and later special correspondent to the Cork Daily Herald in Killarney. After he married in 1894, he moved to Scotland and joined the staff of the Glasgow Observer in pursuit of journalistic experience, later becoming editor of the Catholic News in Preston, England.
In 1898, at the beginning of national self-reliance under the revolutionary Local Government Act (1898), which established Local County Councils for the first time, he returned to Ireland working on various papers in Munster including the Cork Constitution, and from 1899 to 1901 as editor  of the Cork County Southern Star, Skibbereen.
Land and Labour leader
Early in his life when appointed correspondence secretary of the Kanturk Trade and Labour Council, Sheehan began active involvement in labour and trade union affairs – "engaged to lead the labourers out of the poverty and misery that encompassed them" he wrote.
In August 1894, in alliance with the Clonmel, County Tipperary solicitor J. J. O'Shee (Member of Parliament for West Waterford from 1895), he co-founded and chaired the Irish Land and Labour Association (ILLA)  as follower organisation to the Irish Democratic Trade and Labour Federation to agitate on behalf of small tenant farmers and agrarian labourers, setting forth Michael Davitt's achievements. He was similarly convinced that social change could only be advanced by means of political and constitutional agitation, but at no times through physical force.
Under his leadership as President from 1898, the ILLA spread rapidly across Munster and later Connacht, campaigning vigorously against the pitiful plight of small tenant farmers and landless rural labourers, and also for their rights, demanding sweeping changes to the inadequate Irish Land Acts, duly acknowledged by government. By 1900, he had helped found and organize nearly one hundred ILLA branches, mostly in County Cork, County Tipperary, and County Limerick, which increased to 144 by 1904.
Member of Parliament
Standing as ILLA candidate on a labour platform, "D. D.", as he was popularly known, defeated the official Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) candidate at a United Irish League Convention for the selection of a parliamentary candidate for Mid-Cork on the death of Dr C. K. D. Tanner (former Mid-Cork anti-Parnellite Nationalist MP from 1895). When elected MP in the by-election of 17 May 1901, he wrote:
- My heart was with the neglected labourer and I stood, accordingly, as a Labour candidate, my programme being the social elevation of the masses, employment and wages. . . . .
This was heralded as a tremendous triumph for the Labour movement, . . . . .
Long associated with land agitation, Sheehan settled many disputes between landlord gentry and their under-privileged tenant farmers. In his capacity as honorary secretary of the Cork Advisory Committee, he was foremost in ending centuries of oppressive "landlordism" under the far reaching Wyndham Land Purchase Act of 1903. Crafted through Parliament following the 1902 Land Conference by his Mallow compatriot, William O'Brien MP, Sheehan successfully negotiated the larger number of the 16,159 tenant land purchases in Munster that decade. In his own words: "changing rack-rented farmers into peasant proprietors". The act was later extended to introduce compulsory purchase under the Birrell Land Act (1909).
From 1904 Sheehan was drawn to O’Brien for his willingness to agitate for a "settlement of the Irish labourers' grivances", and allied himself after O’Brien was alienated from the Irish Party for his conciliatory approach in securing the Land Act. Sheehan brought O’Brien the ally whose organisational skills and social programme secured him a County Cork base, his talents and ILLA branches placed at the disposal of the O'Brienite organisation in rural Munster.
The January 1906 general election returned Sheehan unopposed. The IPP deputy leader John Dillon set about splitting the ILLA, forming a new ILLA group under its secretary, the loyal "Redmonite" O'Shee MP, – to confine Sheehan’s movement, otherwise "the whole of Munster will be poisoned and no seat safe on vacancy". Later that year, the Irish Party mounted a feud against Sheehan for being a "factionist" by supporting a policy of Conciliation and for not allowing his labourers' movement be subservient to the Party autocracy, his reason being "to realize the great democratic principle of the government of the people, by the people and for the people". Also for not adhering to the party pledge and expelled both him and John O'Donnell from its ranks. It deprived them both of the quarterly party stipends, particularly damaging as parliamentary allowances were only introduced five years later. D. D. retaliated by resigning his seat in November and challenged the IPP to stand against him. He was re-elected unopposed as Ireland's first independent nationalist Labour MP on 31 December 1906. His income from then depended on constituent's collections at church gates on Sundays.
At countrywide ILLA meetings and in leading articles and editorials, he strove passionately to attain social "betterment for the working Irish", winning together with O'Brien, under the "Macroom programme" the exceptional Bryce Labourers (Ireland) Act (1906), remarkable for its financial features, several provisions of which Sheehan suggested and drafted. He was convinced that nothing could be either final or satisfactory which did not ultimately "root the labourers in the soil".
The Act provided for the erection of over 40,000 cottages each on an acre of land, 7,560 alone in county Cork, known locally as Sheehan's cottages. It was followed by the Birrell Labourers (Ireland) Act (1911) with provision for further 5,000 dwellings. The dwellings provided homes for over 60,000 landless labourers and their families, comprising a rural population of a quarter of a million previously living wretchedly, mostly together with their livestock, in one room stone cabins and sod hovels.
A further important D. D. Sheehan landmark his Model Irish Village scheme at Tower, near Blarney. He initiated, organised and furthered the completion of this unique co-operative project, developed in unison with the local ILLA branch and the Cork Rural District Council, initially comprising 17 cottages, provided with all local amenities including school and meeting hall on which he reported:
- The decay of village life in Ireland constitutes one of the most tragic chapters of our history for the past half century. .... But even if we cannot resurrect the spirit of our former village life it is, however, well within our power to reconstruct ...... a Model Village on up-to-date and practical lines – a village which we trust may become a pattern and an example to be copied with profit and advantage in other parts of Ireland.
These achievements, won together with the local Land and Labour Associations, laid a solid foundation for the later successes of the labour movement in the province of Munster.
With D. D. Sheehan as its organising honorary secretary, William O'Brien inaugurated the All-for-Ireland League (AFIL) in Kanturk in March 1909. The League was a distinctively new political group whose deep conviction was that the success of a United Ireland parliament must depend on Irish Home Rule being won with the consent rather than by the compulsion of the Protestant minority. The political slogan of the AFIL was "the Three C's" – for Conference, Conciliation and Consent as applied to Irish politics, particularly to Home Rule. Sheehan rejected the Irish Party leader John Redmond's uncompromising "Ulster will have to follow" approach to Home Rule. The political activist Canon Sheehan of Doneraile was also a central AFIL founder member.
Prophetically farsighted, both Sheehan and O'Brien advocated granting Ulster every conceivable concession to overcome its fears of a Catholic-dominated Dublin parliament, as otherwise an All-Ireland settlement would fail. The two Sheehans contributed regularly to the League's newspaper the Cork Free Press, before it was suppressed in 1916 by the Chief Press Censor.
1910 general elections
In autumn 1909 a Divisional Conference of the Irish Party was summoned for the purpose of “organising” Sheehan out of Mid-Cork and taking over his constituency. But whenever their delegations made an appearance in Cork they were quickly put to rout by Sheehan’s followers. Opposed by the official IPP nominee William Fallon in the 24 January 1910 general election, he was returned with 2824 votes against 1999 for his opponent. Sheehan later commented on the contest:
I was left to fight my battle almost single handed, having arrayed against me two canons of my Church, and every Catholic clergyman in the constituency, with two or three notable exceptions. The odds seamed hopeless . . . . . . . but . . . I scored a surprising majority . ., and I have good reason for stating that 95 percent of the illiterate votes were cast in my favour, although a most powerful personal canvass was made of every vote in the constituency by the clergy.
Throughout 1910 he turned to promoting the political principles of the All-for-Ireland League. A renewed election was called due to a parliamentary stalemate at Westminster. D. D. campaigned for the AFIL's policies at large meetings across counties Cork and Limerick, in Mayo together with O'Brien, but to little avail – coming under revolver fire at Crossmolina – their party generally handicapped by lack of clerical support. In the December 1910 election he retained his seat with 2738 votes against 2115 for his IPP opponent T. Corcoran. The AFIL Party returned eight MPs in the nine Cork constituencies.
At election times broadsheets and ballads sung to popular airs extolling the candidates' merits were commonplace, one such entitled The Ballad of D. D. Sheehan made the rounds in 1910, was re-published in 1968.
While in parliament he was called to the Irish Law Bar as barrister on 3 July 1911,  having been exhibitioner and prizeman in law University College Cork (1908–09) and honoursman King's Inns Dublin (1910), practising on the Munster circuit.
Dominion Home Rule
In 1911 the All-for-Ireland Party specifically proposed Dominion Home Rule in a letter to Prime Minister Asquith as the wisest of all solutions for Ireland. During 1913–1914, Sheehan was active in promoting an Imperial Federation League having as its immediate object a federal settlement of the Home Rule question as the alternative to Ulster's threat of partition. He later became vice-Chairman of the League.
In January 1914 he published specific proposals and concessions the AFIL perceived acceptable to Ulster to enable them to come in on an All-Ireland Home Rule settlement, which however the Irish Party and Dillon turned down with "no concessions to Ulster". Later in the Commons, Sir Edward Carson, the Ulster Unionist Party leader, acknowledged that concessions proposed by the AFIL for Ulster to participate in Home Rule were praiseworthy, adding that had they been earlier supported rather than thwarted by the Irish Parliamentary Party, Ulster's objections might have been overcome.
In May 1914, the AFIL resolutely resisted the violation of Ireland's national unity and as a final protest before history, abstained from voting on the amended Third Home Rule Act which provided for the temporary exclusion of six Ulster counties in what the AFIL called would be an irreversible partition deal.
With the involvement of Ireland in World War I when war was declared with Germany in August 1914, Sheehan gave support to William O'Briens call for voluntary enlistment in Irish regiments of Kitchener's New Service Army, regarding service to be both in the interest of the Allied cause of a Europe free from oppression as well as in the interest of an All-Ireland Home Rule settlement.
In November despite being aged 41 and father of a large family, he offered himself for enlistment, as did the National Volunteers and four other Irish nationalist MPs, J. L. Esmonde, Stephen Gwynn, Willie Redmond and William Redmond and former MP Tom Kettle. Trained at Buttevant barracks County Cork, gazetted lieutenant, he practically raised the 9th(Service) Battalion of the Royal Munster Fusiliers, a regiment of the 16th (Irish) Division.
Three of his sons also joined, one aged 16 was in 1915 the youngest commissioned officer on the Western Front, his two other sons killed serving with the Royal Flying Corps/Royal Air Force; his daughter, a V A D front nurse, disabled in a bombing raid. A brother serving with the Irish Guards severely disabled and a brother-in-law killed at Passchendaele.
In the spring and summer of 1915, undertook the organisation and leadership of voluntary enlistment campaigns in County Cork, County Limerick, and County Clare. Receiving Captaincy and Company command in July 1915, served with his battalion along the Loos salient in France under Irish General William Hickie. From early 1916 contributed a series of widely quoted articles from the trenches to the London Daily Express, to the Irish Times and the Cork Constitution.
Deafness by shellfire and ill-health necessitated his transfer to the 3rd RMF (Reserve) Battalion at Aghada, then Ballincollig barracks, Co. Cork. Hospitalised often, was decommissioned late 1917, bulletin stating "relinquished his commission on account of ill-health contracted on active service, and is granted the honorary rank of Captain, 13 Jan.1918". Awarded the World War I campaign medals: 1914-15 Star, British War Medal, Victory Medal and Silver War Badge.
Those Irish who died in the war are commemorated at the Island of Ireland Peace Park, Messines, Belgium and the Irish National War Memorial Gardens, Dublin, Ireland as well as by Sheehan in his verse A Tribute and a Claim.
Continuing to pursue Irish interests in parliament, he vehemently condemned British mishandling of Irish affairs, during the April Conscription Crisis threatening in a dramatic anti-conscription speech in the Commons "to fight you if you enforce conscription on us".
Sheehan later expressed disillusionment at Britain's and the Irish Party's failure to agree on All-Ireland Home Rule. The AFIL members, seeing their political concepts for an All-Ireland settlement displaced by the path of militant physical-force, recognised the futility of contesting the December 1918 general elections. O’Brien had been acting since 1910 as spokesman in parliament for Arthur Griffith moderate Sinn Féin movement, so that as Sheehan wrote:
- at the general election O’Brien and all the other members of the Independent Nationalist group the present writer included, withdrew from the contest and signed a manifesto calling upon their followers to support the new movement. This appeal of ours met with enthusiastic response, Sinn Féin candidates being elected for our constituencies in every instance.
Terence MacSwiney followed Sheehan as MP for mid-Cork. In the changed political climate strongly opposed to Sheehan's earlier army service and recruiting, he and his family left their Cork city home and moved to England.
During the Commons debate in October 1918 on the Irish Land (Provision for Soldiers) Bill, in the course of a lengthy speech Sheehan said:
- ... even although it may only benefit 3,000 or 4,000 of those Irish soldiers who have patriotically fought for their country and for the liberties of the world ... I want this measure to become law and to become operative ......
With an election demand of "Land for fighters" aimed at returned ex-servicemen, Sheehan contested in December the United Kingdom general election as adopted Labour Party candidate for the Limehouse-Stepney division of London's East End and polled 2,407 votes second to the returned Liberal, over a million demobilised servicemen still in Europe were unfortunately unable to vote. His demand was vindicated by the government's subsequent "Land for Soldiers" small holdings and cottage scheme announced in January. It became the Irish Land (Sailors and Soldiers) Act, 1919 which provided thousands of cottages for Irish ex-servicemen and their dependents. His engagement for labour paved the way for his successor in this constituency, the later Labour Prime Minister Clement Attlee. From 1920 he eked out a living in journalism, in 1921 published his authoritative book, Ireland since Parnell, covering the period Parnell to Sinn Féin (book may be read online or downloaded free under the Project Gutenberg, external link below). Unable to practise at the bar due to impaired hearing (sustained in the war), made some business endeavours, for a time Literary Editor, leader writer and dramatic critic of the Sunday National News, and in 1925 publisher and editor of The Stadium, a daily newspaper for sportsmen.
After earlier intimidations ceased to be an impediment, he returned to Dublin in 1926 (his ailing wife died soon afterwards). He was managing editor of the Irish Press and Publicity Servicesand from 1928 co-publisher and editor of the South Dublin Chronicle, a weekly newspaper (3 Jan. 1925-13 July 1926) covering township and district news. In July 1929 the paper was re-titled the Dublin Chronicle (20 July 1929-1 Aug. 1931) by a new directorate, with Sheehan as managing director and editor. Its editorial objectives were:
- To pursue a policy of fearless independence. Remove all barriers of distrust that separate North and South on the question of National Unity. Land and Labour as the most important factors of Irish life. Putting deep sea fisheries on an economic basis. Social issues, the grave evil of the slums – the need to speed up housing of the impoverished masses.
In a series of six front pages articles in the Dublin Chronicle under his name during 1929, Sheehan exposed and highlighted with harrowing descriptions the lives of the slum poor:
Interviews followed with Lord Longford and General Richard Mulcahy, Minister for Local Government, on means to house the great numbers of poor people. On a wider range of important issues, he admonished the Irish Labour Party (ILP) for neither having an active agricultural policy nor a fighting programme. He rigorously demanded national de-rating for farmers and objected to the County Council "manager system", proposing instead the establishment of separate independent coastal Boroughs north and south of Dublin. Sheehan repeatedly stressed the need for the housing of labourers and unskilled worker and the abolition of slums. Sheehan condemned Republicans for two militant articles they published in An Phoblacht criticising Irish ex-servicemen of the Great War "that they fought for England ... and so forth". He countered:
- Nothing of the kind! They fought for liberty, they fought for the freedom of humanity, and against the spirit of Prussianism, which if it had prevailed would put the whole world under the sway of an atrocious tyranny. ...... The thing is too absurd and ridiculous for words, yet it is those puerile arguments that are being trotted out again and again by those who never spared the art of lying and wilful perversion when dealing with Irishmen of the Great War.
Controversial themes continued to be high-lighted during 1930 in the Dublin Chronicle, particularly when calling for freedom of speech after the "disgraceful breaking up" of the new Labour Party's inaugural meeting on April 8 in the Mansion House by organised gangs of Fianna Fáil and Peadar O'Donnell followers shouting "Up de Valera" and "Up Devlin".
Leading up to the 29 September 1930, Dublin County Council and Borough elections and the August nomination of eight official Labour candidates, Sheehan held town hall meetings from Bray to Balbriggan, emphasising:
- When he consented to become a candidate in that election, he did so on account of one thing only – the betterment of his fellowmen, and the progress and advancement of all classes. ....... He had done that all his life .... such record as he possessed was one that had been always associated with Labour.
The Dublin Chronicle gave broad promotional support to Labour prior to the election, unlike the very reserved announcement of the election in the official ILP’s Irishman. But it was not to be. Only the three previous Labour councillors were re-elected. Sheehan finished mid-field in the list of candidates, his housing campaign hijacked by the larger party rivals Fianna Fáil and Cumann na nGaedheal. The election epitomised the dilemma of the Labour Party. In contrast to Sheehan’s policy of basic social change and political inclusiveness, the ILP confused voters with a mixed message. The party's new March constitution abandoned its working class character and diluted its objectives, in its desire and in order to broaden the class basis of the new party to appeal to white-collar professionals. In the long term it also failed due to lack of branch organisation (Dublin having only one branch) so that in the following 1932 general election its number of Dáil seats sank to an all time low of 7, from 13 in September 1927 (and 22 in 1922).
Service – not self
In January 1931 the Dublin Chronicle promoted a new Irish Industries Purchasing League with a campaign advocating the need to Buy Irish Goods, which was welcomed and supported by Irish manufacturers and retail outlets alike. Sheehan relentlessly pursued the unresoved questions of slums and housing. He then called for the early selection of suitable candidates to stand for Labour at the next (1932) general election. Publication of the Chronicle ended in August 1931 brought on by the world economic Great Depression.
From the 1930s, unable to practise in court due to impaired hearing from the war, as advocate Sheehan provided legal advice and assistance to former constituents, helped unemployed Irish ex-servicemen of the Great War, many sons of families he once housed and later recruited, supported Old Comrades Associations (O.C.A's) providing lines of communication and information north and south of the Free State border, editing the Northern and Southern Ireland edition of their central council's Annual Journal, its motto "Service – not self". In 1945, reporting on its work he wrote:
It has been beset by many difficulties, has had to overcome prejudice and to surmount numerous other obstacles, yet its work of helping the Irish ex-serviceman and his dependants has been carried on with unwearied effort and considerable success.
On 6 February 1894, he married Mary Pauline O'Connor, daughter of Martin O'Connor, Bridge Street, Tralee, County Kerry;
they had five sons (and five daughters, the youngest Mona b. 1912 (Ms Rutland-Barsby) died 24 Sept. 2008):
- Daniel Joseph Sheehan (2nd Lt Royal Flying Corps) – killed May 1917 on active service during WWI (1894–1917).
He is buried in the Commonwealth War Graves Commission's Cabaret Rouge Cemetery, France; Grave no. N16.
- Martin Joseph Sheehan (2nd Lt Royal Air Force) – killed October 1918 on active service during WWI (1896–1918).
He is buried in the Commonwealth War Graves Commission's Anneux World War I Cemetery, France; Grave no. H21.
- Michael Joseph Sheehan (Brigadier, OBE, CBE, Indian Army, Burma Campaign WWII) (1899–1975)
- Patrick A. Sheehan (later known as Pádraig A. Ó Síocháin SC), (Honorable Society of King's Inns) (1905–1995)
- John F. Sheehan (Surgeon, Lt-Colonel, Medical Corps Indian Army, Burma Campaign WWII), (later Harley Street surgeon) (1909–1985)
- Sgt Robert O'Connor (Leinster Regiment), (in-law), killed at Passchendaele during WWI (1880–1917)
(All family members settled in England, except P. A. Ó Síocháin, a staunch nationalist).
Sources and references
- ^ a b c d Walker, Brian M. (ed.): Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland, 1801–1922, Royal Irish Academy Press, Dublin (1978)
- ^ Guy's Cork City & County Almanac & Directory 1907, 1910, 1913, Parliamentary Electoral Division Mid-Cork: Cork City Council Library
- ^ Who’s Who 1915 and 1918; Thom’s Directory 1918
- ^ Cadogan, Tim & Falvey, Jeremiah: A Biographical Dictionary of Cork, Four Courts Press (2006), Cork City Council Library
- ^ "Cork County Southern Star" newspaper Skibbereen, Centenary Supplement (1889–1989), p.38: Turn of the century editor, Cork City Library
- ^ Maume, Patrick in: McGuire, James and Quinn, James (eds): Dictionary of Irish Biography From the Earliest Times to the Year 2002;
Royal Irish Academy Vol. 7 O’Shee, J. J. p.846; Cambridge University Press (2009) ISBN 978-0-521-19881-0
- ^ Bradley, Dan: Farm Labourers: Irish struggle 1900–1976, Ch.2 Farm Labourer Organisations in co. Cork before 1919 pp.24–37 (1988), Athol Books ISBN 0-85034-038-1
- ^ Ferriter, Diarmaid: "The Transformation of Ireland, 1900–2000", (2004), p. 64 (ISBN 1-86197-443-4)
- ^ Sheehan, D. D.: Ireland since Parnell (1921) pp. 85, 140–41
- ^ Sheehan, D. D.: House of Commons Hansard Parliamentary Debates (1901–1918) website
- ^ O'Brien, William: An Olive Branch in Ireland pp. 388–392, University College Cork (1910), Library
- ^ Maume, Patrick: The Long Gestation, Irish Nationalist Life 1891–1918 p.70, Gill & Macmillan (1999) ISBN 0-7171-2744-3
- ^ Maume, Patrick: p.71
- ^ O'Brien, Joseph: William O'Brien and the course of Irish politics p.170, University of California Press (1976), ISBN 0-520-02886-4
- ^ Lane, Pádraig G., The Land and Labour Association 1894–1914, Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol.98, pp.94/5 (1993), Cork City Council Library
and in the Irish People 31 March 1906 and the North Cork Herald 30 June 1906
- ^ O'Brien, Joseph: William O'Brien and the course of Irish politics p.172, University of California Press (1976), ISBN 0-520-02886-4
- ^ Sheehan, D. D.: pp. 198-199
- ^ "The Irish People" newspaper (1905–1909), National Library of Ireland Dublin: most issues contain an article or editorial by D. D. Sheehan
- ^ Frazer, Murray: John Bull's Other Homes, Rural Housing and the State P.41, Liverpool University Press (1995) ISBN 0-85323-670-4
- ^ McKay, Enda: The Housing of the Rural Labourer, 1883–1916 (1992), SAOTHAR 17, Journal of the Irish Labour History Society, pp. 27–37
- ^ Ferriter, Diarmaid: "The Transformation of Ireland, 1900–2000", (2004), pp. 62–65, 159 (ISBN 1-86197-443-4)
- ^ "The Irish People" newspaper (1905–1909), National Library of Ireland Dublin: Sheehan articles on Model Irish Villages Nov. 16. 1907 p.7; An Irish Model Village 13. Feb. 1910, p6; Our Model Village 13 March 1910 p.6
- ^ Murphy, T. J.: late Labour TD. north-Cork and former Minister for Local Government, in an interview published in an Irish Times article by Patrick Nolan (Series "State of the Unions") 18 November 1965, he expressed the view – The Irish Labour Party was to benefit from the efforts of the local ILLA s
- ^ Schilling, Friedrich K.: William O'Brien and the All-for-Ireland League thesis (1956)Trinity College, Dublin
- ^ Clifford, Brendan: "Cork Free Press" An Account of Ireland's only Democratic Anti-Partition Movement (1984), Athol Books
- ^ "Cork Free Press" newspaper, published by William O'Brien (1910 to 1916) Cork City Council Library
- ^ Martin, Peter: Censorship in the two Irelands 1922–39, Introduction p.9: the Cork Free Press was one of the first newspapers suppressed by Lord Decies the Chief Press Censor for Ireland, when its republican editor Frank Gallagher accused the British authorities of lying about the conditions and situation of republican prisoners in Frongoch internment camp, Irish Academic Press (2008) ISBN 0-7165-2829-0
- ^ Sheehan, D. D.: Ireland since Parnell, 'A Campaign of Extermination' pp. 222–224 (1921)
- ^ Sheehan, D. D.: p. 230
- ^ Maume, Patrick: The long Gestation, Irish Nationalist Life 1891–1918, pp.116 & 108/9, Gill & Macmillan (1999) ISBN 0-7171-2744-3
- ^ Cork County Southern Star, p.5, 9 March 1968 at Cork City Council Library
- ^ Ferguson, Kenneth: King’s Inns Barristers 1868-2004, p.297, The Honourable Society of King’s Inns (2005) ISBN 0-9512443-2-9
- ^ Daily Express London, Jan. 27 1914 British Library, Newspaper Section Colindale, London
- ^ MacDonagh, Michael: The Life of William O'Brien, the Irish Nationalist, All for Ireland, and Ireland for All, pp.188-89, Ernst Benn London (1928)
- ^ Staunton, Martin: The Royal Munster Fusiliers (1914–1919) (MA thesis (1986) the 9th RMF., pp. 220–233) University College Dublin Library
- ^ London Daily Express 27 Jan. 1914 & 1916 (8 issues) British Library, Newspaper Section Colindale, London; Irish Times 11 July 1916; Cork Examiner 12 July 1916
these may be read under: WikiSource link: Articles from the trenches
- ^ London Gazette Supplement, War Office Notices 12 Jan. 1918; Guildhall Library London
- ^ The Cork Constitution newspaper notice: 15 January 1918 at Cork City Council Library
- ^ The National Archives Kew, London, service medals card file
- ^ Sheehan composed document: A Tribute of Remembrance to William O’Brien, February 1928; and MacDonagh, Michael: The Life of William O'Brien (1928) p.234
- ^ Sheehan personal document and Irish Times 16 Feb. 2001, interview with his (last surviving) daughter
- ^ House of Commons debate, 22 Oct. 1918, Hansard Parliamentary Records pp 714–717
- ^ London Daily Sketch 3 Dec. 1918 (British Library, Newspaper Section, Colindale): D. D. Sheehan election campaign policy article Land for Fighters
- ^ The Times (London) 1 Jan. 1919 (British Library Newspapers Section, Colindale): The election results, Labour Vote at Limehouse
- ^ The Times (London) 29 Jan. 1919 (British Library Newspapers Section, Colindale): Government "Land for Soldiers" programme
- ^ Leonard, Jane: Getting them at last:The IRA and ex-servicemen, in Fitzpatrick, Dr. David, ed, Revolution? Ireland 1917-1923, Trinity History Publications, Dublin (1990)
pp. 118-29: "Despite the British Military background of some of their members, the IRA waged 'a campaign of intimidation' against ex-servicemen in 1919-21." ISBN 978-09511-400-48
- ^ Dublin Chronicle, 20 July 1929 editorial p.6, National Library of Ireland
- ^ Dublin Chronicle editorial, 16 November 1929, p.4
- ^ Sheehan, D. D.: lead article: Freedom of Speech and what it implies, Disgrace of the Mansion House from the Dublin Chronicle p.5, 19 April 1930
- ^ Dublin Chronicle, 13 Sept. 1930, p.1
- ^ The Irish Labour Party 1922–1973, Puirseil, Niamh: The foundation of the Irish Labour Party pp. 30–33, Four Courts Press (2007) ISBN 978-1-904558-67-5
- ^ Sheehan, D. D. (ed.): British Legion Irish Free State Area Special Edition Souvenir of ten years of Progress 1925–1935: National Library of Ireland (Librarian's Office)
- ^ Sheehan, D. D.: editorial: British Legion Journal (Annual 1945) p. 12: National Library of Ireland (Librarian's Office)
- ^ Casualty details—Sheehan D J, Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved on 10 November 2008.
- ^ Casualty details—Sheehan M J, Commonwealth War Graves Commission
- ^ Obituaries: Cork Examiner 29 Nov. 1948; The Times (London) 29 Nov. 1948; Cork County Southern Star 4 Dec. 1948; Kerryman 11 Dec. 1948; Irish Independent 29 Dec. 1948;
- Writing: Ireland since Parnell (1921)
- Speeches (Commons)
- O'Brien, William: An Olive Branch in Ireland pp. 388–392, (1910) University College Cork, Library
- O'Brien, Joseph: William O'Brien and the course of Irish politics pp. 166–7, 170, 172, 179, 192, 194, 198, 204, University of California Press (1976), ISBN 0-520-02886-4
- Ó Síocháin, P. A. S.C.: Ireland journey to freedom (1990), Foilsiúcháin Éireann (1990) ISBN 1-872490-02-6
- Denman, Terence: Ireland's unknown soldiers, Irish Academic Press (1992) ISBN 0-7165-2495-3
- Lane, Pádraig G., The Land and Labour Association 1894–1914, Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol.98, pp. 90–106 (1993), Cork City Council Library
- Maume, Patrick: The Long Gestation, Irish Nationalist Life 1891–1918 pp. 70–72, 74, 81, 76, 95, 99, 100, 101, 104, 105, 107, 127, 152–3, 160, 172, 243,
Gill & Macmillan (1999) ISBN 0-7171-2744-3
- Maume, Patrick in: McGuire, James and Quinn, James (eds): Dictionary of Irish Biography From the Earliest Times to the Year 2002;
Royal Irish Academy Vol. 8 pp..875-78; Cambridge University Press (2009) ISBN 978-0-521-19881-0
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by D. D. Sheehan's
- Ireland Since Parnell by D. D. Sheehan – Free eBook at manybooks.net Orderpage of ManyBooks.net for hardcopy of "Ireland Since Parnell"
- Ireland Since Parnell by D. D. Sheehan at Project Gutenberg Homepage of Project-Gutenberg, read, download: "Ireland Since Parnell"
- Royal Munster Fusiliers Association at www.rmfa92.org/ Homepage of the Royal Munster Fusilier's Association
- Bandon War Memorial, Ireland dedicated to soldiers in World War 1 at www.bandonmemorial.com/ Homepage of the Bandon War Memorial Committee
- Department of the Taoiseach: Irish Soldiers in the First World War
Parliament of the United Kingdom Preceded by
Charles Kearns Deane Tanner
Member of Parliament for Mid Cork
1901 – 1918
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Sheehan — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Billy Sheehan (* 1953), US amerikanischer Bassist Cindy Sheehan (* 1957), US amerikanische Friedensaktivistin Daniel Eugene Sheehan (1969–1993), römisch katholischer Erzbischof von Omaha Douglas Sheehan (* … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sheehan Islands — (coord|67|22|S|59|46|E|) is a group of small islands lying at the southeast side of Islay in the William Scoresby Archipelago. Discovered on February 18, 1931, by the British Australian New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition (BANZARE) under… … Wikipedia
Sheehan Glacier — (coord|70|56|S|162|24|E|type:glacier region:AQ|display=inline,title) is a steep and extremely broken glacier draining from the vicinity of Miller Peak in the Explorers Range, Bowers Mountains, and entering the Rennick Glacier just south of… … Wikipedia
Sheehan Mesa — (coord|73|1|S|162|18|E|) is a prominent mesa standing 10 miles (16 km) west northwest of Pain Mesa in the northwest part of Mesa Range, Victoria Land. Named by the northern party of New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition (NZGSAE),… … Wikipedia
Sheehan-Syndrom — [ ʃiːhən ; nach dem amerikanischen Pathologen Harold Sheehan, * 1900, ✝ 1964], durch Schädigung des Hypophysenvorderlappens infolge eines Schockgeschehens nach schwerer Geburt mit Blutverlusten auftretender Hypopituitarismus mit… … Universal-Lexikon
Sheehan, síndrome de — patol. Necrosis de la hipófisis causada por un accidente hemorrágico y un colapso durante el parto. El síndrome provoca hipoglucemia, ausencia de lactación y una insuficiencia corticosuprarrenal, ovárica y tiroidea. El tratamiento consiste en la… … Diccionario médico
Sheehan — People whose surname is or was Sheehan include:*Billy Sheehan, an American rock bassist *Bobby Sheehan, an American rock bassist *Casey Sheehan, an American soldier *Cindy Sheehan, an anti war activist *D. D. Sheehan, an Irish politician,… … Wikipedia
Sheehan, Patty — ▪ 1994 The day after Patty Sheehan qualified for the Hall of Fame of women s golf, she woke up to play a practice round at 7 AM. At age 36, she said, There s a lot of things I still want to do. I m too young to just sit down and be a Hall… … Universalium
Sheehan — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Patronyme Bobby Sheehan (né le 11 janvier 1949 à Weymouth au Massachusetts) est un ancien joueur de hockey sur glace professionnel Billy Sheehan (né le 19 … Wikipédia en Français
Sheehan's syndrome — Infobox Disease Name = Sheehan syndrome Caption = DiseasesDB = 11998 ICD10 = ICD10|E|23|0|e|20 ICD9 = ICD9|253.2 ICDO = OMIM = MedlinePlus = 001175 eMedicineSubj = med eMedicineTopic = 1914 MeshID = D007018 Sheehan syndrome, also known as… … Wikipedia
Sheehan, George — ▪ 1994 U.S. physician, author, and running enthusiast (b. Nov. 5, 1918, Brooklyn, N.Y. d. Nov. 1, 1993, Ocean Grove, N.J.), fueled the recreational running movement in the 1970s with a best selling book, Running and Being (1978), which… … Universalium