Astley Cooper


Astley Cooper

Infobox Scientist
name = Astley Cooper
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image_width =150px
caption = Astley Cooper
birth_date = August 23, 1768
birth_place = Brooke in Norfolk
death_date = February 12, 1841
death_place =
residence =
citizenship =
nationality = English
ethnicity =
field = anatomy
work_institutions =
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doctoral_students =
known_for = otology vascular surgery the anatomy
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Sir Astley Paston Cooper, 1st Baronet (August 23, 1768–February 12, 1841), English surgeon and anatomist, who made historical contributions to otology, vascular surgery, the anatomy and pathology of the mammary glands and testicles, and the pathology and surgery of hernia.

Life

Cooper was born at the village of Brooke in Norfolk on August 23, 1768. His father, Dr. Samuel Cooper, was a clergyman of the Church of England; his mother was the author of several novels. At the age of sixteen he was sent to London and placed under Henry Cline (1750-1827), surgeon to St. Thomas' Hospital. From the first he devoted himself to the study of anatomy, and had the privilege of attending the lectures of John Hunter. In 1789 he was appointed demonstrator of anatomy at St. Thomas's Hospital, where in 1791 he became joint lecturer with Cline in anatomy and surgery, and in 1800 he was appointed surgeon to Guy's Hospital on the death of his uncle, William Cooper.

In 1802 he received the Copley Medal for two papers read before the Royal Society of London on the destruction of the tympanic membrane; and in 1805 he was elected a Fellow of that society. In the same year he took an active part in the formation of the Medical and Chirurgical Society of London, and in 1804 he brought out the first, and in 1807 the second, part of his great work on hernia, which added so largely to his reputation that in 1813 his annual professional income rose to 21,000 pounds sterling. In the same year he was appointed professor of comparative anatomy to the Royal College of Surgeons and was very popular as a lecturer.

In 1817 he performed his famous operation of tying the abdominal aorta for aneurism; and in 1820 he removed an infected sebaceous cyst from the head of King George IV. About six months afterwards received a baronetcy, which, as he had no son, was to descend to his nephew and adopted son, Astley Cooper. He was subsequently appointed sergeant surgeon to King George IV, King William IV and Queen Victoria. He served as president of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1827 and again in 1836, and he was elected a vice-president of the Royal Society in 1830. He died on the February 12, 1841 in London, and was interred, by his own desire, beneath the chapel of Guy's Hospital. A statue by Edward Hodges Baily was erected in St Paul's Cathedral.

Cooper lived at Gadebridge House in the market town of Hemel Hempstead. Due to his influence, among others who were also residents of the area, his vigorous lobbying ensured that the London to Birmingham main railway line was constructed to the south of the town instead of through it, a more natural course. This led to the citizens of Hemel Hempstead having no railway station in their town, instead being obliged to use the one situated at Boxmoor.

Today, Cooper is remembered in the area with a number of local street names, and The Astley Cooper School, formerly Grovehill school, being renamed after him in 1984. The grounds of his former home are now a public park.

Works

Sir Astley's greatest contribution has probably been in the field of vascular surgery, particularly on cerebral circulation. He was the first to demonstrate experimentally the effects of bilateral ligation of the carotid arteries in dogs and to propose treatment of aneurysms by ligation of the vessel. In 1805 he published in the first volume of "Medico-Chirurgical Transactions" his attempt to tie the common carotid artery for treating an aneurysm in a patient. In 1808 he tried the same with the external iliac artery for a femoral aneurysm and in 1817 he ligated the aorta for an iliac aneurysm.

Cooper was an indefatigable and original anatomist and described several new anatomical structures, many of which were named after him:

* Cooper's fascia, a covering of the spermatic cord.
* Cooper's pubic ligament, the superior pubic ligament.
* Cooper's stripes, a fibrous structure in the ulnar ligaments.
* Cooper's ligaments, the suspensory ligaments of the breasts.

He also described a number of new diseases, which likewise became eponymous:

* Cooper's testis (neuralgia of the testicles)
* Cooper's disease (benign cysts of the breast)
* Cooper's hernia (retroperitoneal hernia)
* Cooper's neuralgia (neuralgia of the breast)

His chief published works were:

* "Anatomy and Surgical Treatment of Hernia" (1804-1807);
* "Dislocations and Fractures" (1822);
* "Lectures on Surgery" (1824-1827);
* "Illustrations of Diseases of the Breast" (1829);
* "Anatomy of the Thymus Gland" (1832);
* "Anatomy of the Breast" (1840).

References

* "The life and work of Astley Cooper", by Russell Claude Brock (1952)
* "Life of Sir A. Cooper", by B. B. Cooper (1843).
*1911
*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Jones
first=Roger
authorlink=
year=2007
month=Jul
title=Thomas Wakley, Astley Cooper and the death of George IV
journal=Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
volume=100
issue=7
pages=314–20
publisher = | location =
pmid = 17606751
doi = 10.1258/jrsm.100.7.314
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Sarhadi
first=N S
authorlink=
coauthors=Shaw-Dunn J, Soutar D S
year=1997
month=
title=Nerve supply of the breast with special reference to the nipple and areola: Sir Astley Cooper revisited
journal=Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)
volume=10
issue=4
pages=283–8
publisher = | location =
pmid = 9213048
doi = 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2353(1997)10:4<283::AID-CA12>3.0.CO;2-G
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Bauer
first=G C
authorlink=
year=1987
month=Dec
title=Sir Astley Cooper. Prototype of the modern day academic orthopedist
journal=Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
volume=
issue=225
pages=247–54
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 3315378
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=McGovern
first=F H
authorlink=
year=
month=
title=Sir Astley Cooper and his otological papers
journal=Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
volume=93
issue=6 Pt 1
pages=531–3
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 6391339
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Wilson
first=T G
authorlink=
year=1984
month=Jul
title=Historical vignette. Sir Astley Cooper
journal=The American journal of otology
volume=5
issue=5
pages=411–4
publisher = | location =
pmid = 6383067
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =
doi = 10.1016/S0196-0709(84)80057-5

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Drach
first=G W
authorlink=
year=1978
month=Jul
title=Sir Astley Cooper (1768-1841)
journal=Investigative urology
volume=16
issue=1
pages=75
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 357344
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Nuland
first=S B
authorlink=
year=1976
month=Mar
title=Astley Cooper of Guy's Hospital
journal=Connecticut medicine
volume=40
issue=3
pages=190–3
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 765058
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
year=1973
month=May
title=A treatise on dislocationa and on fractures of the joints: fractures of the neck of the thigh-bone. Sir Astley Cooper, BART., F.R.S., Surgeon to the King
journal=Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
volume=
issue=92
pages=3–5
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4575877
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Brock
first=R C
authorlink=
year=1969
month=Jan
title=The life and work of Sir Astley Cooper
journal=Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
volume=44
issue=1
pages=1–18
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4886764
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Hill
first=W
authorlink=
year=1968
month=
title=Sir Astley Cooper--a bibliography
journal=Guy's Hospital reports
volume=117
issue=3
pages=235–55
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4886642
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Reading
first=P V
authorlink=
year=1968
month=
title=Astley Cooper and the ear
journal=Guy's Hospital reports
volume=117
issue=3
pages=233–4
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4886641
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Brock
first=R C
authorlink=
year=1968
month=
title=Astley Cooper and carotid artery ligation
journal=Guy's Hospital reports
volume=117
issue=3
pages=219–24
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4886640
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Wass
first=S H
authorlink=
year=1968
month=
title=Astley Cooper and the anatomy and surgery of hernia
journal=Guy's Hospital reports
volume=117
issue=3
pages=213–7
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4886639
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Barrett
first=N R
authorlink=
year=1968
month=
title=Sir Astley Cooper and the thymus
journal=Guy's Hospital reports
volume=117
issue=3
pages=207–12
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4886638
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Atkins
first=H
authorlink=
year=1968
month=
title=Astley Cooper and diseases of the breast
journal=Guy's Hospital reports
volume=117
issue=3
pages=199–206
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4886637
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Shaw
first=A B
authorlink=
year=1968
month=
title=Astley Cooper, his Norfolk origins and associations
journal=Guy's Hospital reports
volume=117
issue=3
pages=169–92
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4886635
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Brock
first=R C
authorlink=
year=1968
month=
title=The life and work of Sir Astley Cooper
journal=Guy's Hospital reports
volume=117
issue=3
pages=147–68
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4886634
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Wilson
first=T G
authorlink=
year=1965
month=Nov
title=Sir Astley Cooper
journal=Archives of otolaryngology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
volume=82
issue=5
pages=560–4
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 5321006
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = no
last=Franz
first=A
authorlink=
year=1965
month=
title= [On the traumatologic work of Sir Astley Cooper (1768-1841)]
journal=La Chirurgia degli organi di movimento
volume=54
issue=4
pages=327–37
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 5330072
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

External links

* [http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/947.html Astley Paston Cooper biography] . WhoNamedIt.
* [http://www.surgeons.org.uk/history-of-surgeons/sir-astley-paston-cooper.html Sir Astley Paston Cooper] History of Surgeons from surgeons.org.uk.
* [http://www.surgical-tutor.org.uk/default-home.htm?surgeons/cooper.htm~right Sir Astley Cooper] . Surgical-Tutor.
* [http://jdc.jefferson.edu/cooper On the anatomy of the breast, 1840] . Digital reproduction of the book.


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