This article is part of a series on Jainism
Prayers and Vows Ṇamōkāra mantra · Ahimsa · Brahmacharya · Satya · Nirvana · Asteya · Aparigraha · Anekantavada · Parasparopagraho Jīvānām Key concepts Kevalajñāna · Cosmology · Samsara · Karma · Dharma · Moksha · Gunasthana · Navatattva Major figures The 24 Tirthankaras · Rishabha · Mahavira · Acharya · Ganadhara · Siddhasena Divakara · Haribhadra Jainism by region India · Europe · United States · Canada Sects Śvētāmbara · Digambara · Svetambar Terapanth · Sthānakavāsī · Bhattaraka · Murtipujaka Texts Kalpa Sūtra · Āgama · Tattvartha Sutra · Sanmatti Prakaran Other Festivals Paryushana · Diwali
The Adhyatma movement among the Jains arose in 1626 AD (1683 in the Vikram Samvat calendar) in Agra. Its leading proponent was Banarasidas of Agra. Adhyatma groups flourished during 1644-1726 in Agra, Lahore and Multan. While the movement was based on the books written by Acharya Kundakunda, most of its followers were of Shwetambar sect. It represents an interaction of the Digambara and Shwetambar sects. Later it indirectly influenced the emergence of Terapanth. Poet Dyanatrai was associated with the Adhyatma movement.
Terapanth was founded by Amra Bhaunsa Godika and his son Jodhraj Godika during 1664-1667, who were prominent citizens in Sanganer, who expressed opposition to the Bhattaraka Narendrakirti of Amber. Authors Daulatram Kasliwal  and Pandit Todarmal (author of Moksh Marg Prakashak ) were associated with the Terapanth movement.
The Digambra Terapanth movement was against the domination of the Bhattarakas. They opposed worship of various minor gods and goddesses. Some Terapanthi practices, like not using flowers in worship, gradually spread throughout North India among the Digambaras.
The Digambara Jains who have continued to follow older practices are termed Bis-panthi. Most Digambar Jains do not identify themselves as being exclusively Terapanthi or Bispanthi.
Bakhtaram in his "Mithyatva Khandan Natak" (1764) mentions that group that started it included 13 individuals, who collectively built a new temple, thus giving it its name Tera (13) Panth. However according to "Kavitta Terapanth kau" by an unknown Chanda Kavi, the movement was named Tera Panth, becuae the founders disagreed with the Bhattaraka on 13 points. A letter of 1692 from Tera Panthis at Kama to those at Sanganer mentions 13 rituals practices rejected.
The Terapanthis reject these practices:
Mentioned in Buddhivilas (1770) of Bakhtaram:
- Authority of Bhattarakas
- Use of flowers, cooked food or lamps
- Abhisheka (panchamrita)
- consecretation of images without supervision by the representatives of Bhattarakas.
The letter by Tera Panthis at Kama also mentions:
- Puja while seated
- Puja at night
- Using drums in the temple
Terapanth Khandan of Pandit Pannalal also mentions:
- Worship of minor gods like dikpalas, shasan devis (Padmavati etc.) and Kshetrapal.
In 20th century, the people who led the movement are:
1. Srimad Rajchandra, who started Shrut Prabhavak Mandal. The Mandal was responsible for translating a lot of Digambar Jain Scriptures in modern indian languages. He also wrote many poems and proses and refers the "Terapanth Digambar" as "Mool Maarag" ( The Root cause of Liberation) in his work.
2. Kanji Swami
3. Champaben, Chief disciple of Kanji Swami.
4. Shantaben, Chief disciple of Kanji Swami.
5. Pandit Himmatlal Jethalal Shah, who translated Samaysar, Pravachansar, Panchastikay and Niyamsar Scriptures into Gujarati Language in Prose form as well as Poetic form.
6. Brahmachari Pandit Vrajlal Girdhrlal Shah, who translated Purusharth Siddhi Upai and Dravya Sangrah into Gujarati Language.
7. Pandit Hukumchand Bharril, who started Todarmal Smarak Trust, and was instrumental in translation and study of many Digambar Jain Scriptures.
- Terapanth for other use of the term
- Kanji Swami
- ^ Ardha kathanaka: Half a tale, Mukunda Lath, Rajasthan Prakrit Bharati, 1981
- ^ John E. Cort "A Tale of Two Cities: On the Origins of Digambara Sectarianism in North India." L. A. Babb, V. Joshi, and M. W. Meister (eds.), Multiple Histories: Culture and Society in the Study of Rajasthan, 39-83. Jaipur: Rawat, 2002.
- ^ http://www.jainuniverse.com/AgamTimeLog.html Time log of Great Jain Shastras
- ^ http://www.atmadharma.com/shastras/mokshmargprakashak_eng_txt/index.html The Illuminator of the Path of Liberation) By Acharyakalp Pt. Todamalji, Jaipur
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Terapanth — (or Tera Panth) the name given to two independent Jain sects:* Digambar Terapanth: A sect of the Digambara tradition, that introduced several reforms in 1664 AD, but worship idols. It is not an organized sect, rather a philosophy regarding some… … Wikipedia
Digambar — (दिगंबर) (sky clad in Sanskrit) (alternate orthographies: Digambara ), has many different meaning and associations throughout Indian religions. Many representations of deities within these traditions are depicted as sky clad. Certain traditions… … Wikipedia
Timeline of Jainism — Timeline of JainismPrehistoryJainism is one of the oldest religions of India. We do not know exactly when it was founded. The Jains themselves say that Jainism has existed since eternity and it had like the Jain universe no beginning and would… … Wikipedia
Digambara — Jainism This article is part of a series on Jainism Prayers and Vows … Wikipedia
Banarasidas — (b. Jaunpur 1586 1643) was a Shrimal Jain businessman and poet of Mughal India. He is known for his poetic autobiography ardha kathAnaka , (The Half Story), [Ardhakathanaka: Half a Tale by Mukund Lath (Translator), Rupa Co, 2005] composed in Braj … Wikipedia
Narsingpura — is a one of the Jain communities. It originated from the Mewar (Rajasthan) region. Many of them have migrated to Gujarat, MP, and recently to Maharashtra. Narsingpura community follows Digambar Jain sect. According to tradition, it was founded by … Wikipedia
Bispanthi — is a Digambar Jain sect that follows the Bhattarakas.ee also* Terapanth … Wikipedia
Criticism of Jainism — Jainism This article is part of a series on Jainism Prayers and Vows … Wikipedia