name = Google
caption = The
url = [http://www.google.com/ www.google.com]
list of domain names
commercial = yes
type = Search Engine
language = multilingual (~100)
registration = optional
owner = Google Inc.
Larry Pageand Sergey Brin
launch date =
September 15, 1997[cite web | url=http://whois.dnsstuff.com/tools/whois.ch?ip=google.com | title=WHOIS - google.com | accessdate=2007-08-10]
current status = active
revenue = from
Google search is a
Web search engineowned by Google, Inc., and it is the most used search engine on the Web. Google receives several hundred million queries each day through its various services. Google search was originally developed by Larry Page and Sergey Brinin 1997 [cite web | url=http://whois.dnsstuff.com/tools/whois.ch?ip=google.com | title=WHOIS - google.com | accessdate=2007-08-10] .
The domain "google.com" attracted at least 135 million U.S. visitors in May 2008. [ [http://siteanalytics.compete.com/google.com?metric=uv Google.com People Count according to Compete.com] ]
The search engine
algorithmuses a patented system called PageRankto help rank web pages that match a given search string.Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page. [http://infolab.stanford.edu/~backrub/google.html The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine] . Stanford University. 1998. ] The PageRank algorithm computes a recursive score for web pages, based on the weighted sum of the PageRanks of the pages linking to them. The PageRank derives from human-generated links, and is thought to correlate well with human concepts of importance.The exact percentage of the total of web pages that Google indexes is not known, as it is very hard to actually calculate. Previous keyword-based methods of ranking search results, used by many search engines that were once more popular than Google, would rank pages by how often the search terms occurred in the page, or how strongly associated the search terms were within each resulting page. In addition to PageRank, Google also uses other secret criteria for determining the ranking of pages on result lists, reported to be a number over 200. [ [http://www.google.com/corporate/tech.html Corporate Information: Technology Overview] ]
Google not only indexes and caches web pages but also takes "snapshots" of other file types, which include PDF,
Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, Flash SWF, plain text files and much more. [cite web | url=http://www.google.com/help/faq_filetypes.html#what | title=Google Frequently Asked Questions - File Types | accessdate=2008-01-29] Except in the case of text and SWFfiles, the cached version is a conversion to (X)HTML, allowing those without the corresponding viewer application to read the file.
Users can customize the search engine, by setting a default language, using the "SafeSearch" filtering technology and set the number of results shown on each page. Google has been criticized for placing long-term cookies on users' machines to store these preferences, a tactic which also enables them to track a user's search terms and retain the data for more than a year. For any query, up to the first 1000 results can be shown with a maximum of 100 displayed per page.
Non-web sources of data
Despite its immense index, there is also a considerable amount of data in databases, which are accessible from websites by means of queries but not by links. This so-called
deep webis minimally covered by Google and contains, for example, catalogs of libraries, official legislativedocuments of governments, phone books, and more.
Since Google is the most popular search engine, many
webmasters have become eager to influence their website's Google rankings. An industry of consultants has arisen to help websites raise their rankings on Google and on other search engines. This field, called search engine optimization, attempts to discern patterns in search engine listings, and then develop a methodology for improving rankings.
As Google's algorithms and results have gained the trust of web users, commercial websites will profit from subverting these results by artificially inflating their rankings. Some search engine optimization firms have attempted to inflate specific Google rankings by various artifices, and thereby draw more searchers to their client's sites. One of Google's main challenges has been to weaken some of these attempts by reducing the ranking of sites known to use them.
Search engine optimization encompasses both "on page" factors (like body copy, title elements, H1 heading elements and image
alt attributevalues) and Off Page Optimization factors (like anchor textand PageRank). The general idea is to affect Google's relevance algorithm by incorporating the keywords being targeted in various places "on page", in particular the title element and the body copy (note: the higher up in the page, presumably the better its keyword prominence and thus the ranking). Too many occurrences of the keyword, however, cause the page to look suspect to Google's spam checking algorithms.
Google webmaster guidelineswere published for website owners who would like to raise their rankings when using legitimate optimization consultants. [ [http://www.google.com/webmasters/guidelines.html Google Webmaster Guidelines] ]
Uses of Google
A corollary use of Google—and other
Internetsearch engines—is that it can help translators to determine the most common way of expressing ideas in the English language (and other languages). This is generally done by doing a 'count' of different variants, thereby establishing which expression is more common. While this approach requires careful judgment, it does improve the ability of non-native translators to use more idiomatically correct English expressions.
Google dance refers to the period of time when Google indices are tuned. This will often cause both a fluctuation in index size as well a significant change in a web site's search result position.
"Google Dance" also refers to the annual party at the
Googleplexduring the Search Engine StrategiesSan Jose conferences.
The Google search engine has many intuitive features making it more functional. This could have played a role in making it as popular as it is today. Google is one of the top ten most-visited websites today [cite web |url=http://www.alexa.com/site/ds/top_sites?ts_mode=global&lang=none |title=Top 500 |accessdate=2008-04-15 |publisher=Alexa] . Some of its features include a definition link for most searches including dictionary words, a list of how many results you got on your search, links to other searches (e.g. you misspelled something, it gives you a link to the search results had you typed in the correct search), and many more. It is unknown whether functionality, speed, or luck brought it its peak status.
Google's search engine normally accepts queries as a simple text area, and breaks up the user's text into a sequence of search terms, which will usually be words that are to occur in the results, but may also be phrases, delimited by quotations marks ("), qualified terms, with a prefix such as "+", "-", or one of several advanced operators, such as "site:". The [http://www.google.com/help/index.html Google Help Pages] document all of these additional queries.
Google's Advanced Search web form gives several additional fields which may be used to qualify searches by such criteria as date of first retrieval. All advanced queries transform to regular queries, usually with additional qualified terms.
query expansionto the submitted search query, transforming it into the query that will actually be used to retrieve results. As with page ranking, the exact details of the algorithm Google uses are deliberately obscure, but certainly the following transformations are among those that occur:
* Term reordering: in
information retrievalthis is a standard technique to reduce the work involved in retrieving results. This transformation is invisible to the user, since the results ordering uses the original query order to determine relevance;
Stemmingis used to increase search quality by keeping small syntactic variants of search terms [http://www.google.com/support/bin/answer.py?answer=35889#stemming] ;
* There is a limited facility to fix possible misspellings in queries.
"I'm Feeling Lucky"
Google's homepage includes a button labeled "I'm Feeling Lucky". When a user clicks on the button the user will be taken directly to the first search result, bypassing the
search engine results page. The thought is that, if a user is "feeling lucky", the search engine will return the perfect match the first time without having to page through the search results.
According to a study by Tom Chavez of "Rapt", this feature costs Google $110 million a year as 1% of all searches use this feature and bypass all advertising.cite web | title=""I'm feeling lucky" button costs Google $110 million per year" | year=2007 | publisher=Valleywag | url=http://valleywag.com/tech/google/im-feeling-lucky-button-costs-google-110-million-per-year-324927.php | accessdate=2008-01-19]
earch engine features
Besides the main search engine feature of searching for text, the search engine can also be used as a calculator, base, unit and currency converter, dictionary and many other useful tools.
Some searches will give a 403 Forbidden error with the text
"We're sorry...followed by a
... but your query looks similar to automated requests from a computer virus or spyware application. To protect our users, we can't process your request right now.
We'll restore your access as quickly as possible, so try again soon. In the meantime, if you suspect that your computer or network has been infected, you might want to run a virus checker or spyware remover to make sure that your systems are free of viruses and other spurious software.
We apologize for the inconvenience, and hope we'll see you again on Google."
CAPTCHAprompt. [cite web | url=http://www.google.com/sorry/ | title=Google error page | accessdate=2007-12-16]
The screen was first reported in 2005, and was a response to the heavy use of Google by
search engine optimizationcompanies to check on ranks of sites they were optimizing. The message may also be triggered by high volumes of different searches from a single IP address. The block is removed after a day.Fact|date=October 2007
Google is available in many languages and has been localized for many countries [http://www.google.com/language_tools?hl=en Language Tools ] ] .
In addition to the main URL [http://www.google.com Google.com] , Google owns 160 domain names for each of the countries/regions in which it has been localized. As Google is an American company, the main domain name can be considered as the U.S. one though the gTLD
.comcan be used by any company in the world (not only those from the United States). Google.us does exist but is only a redirection to google.com because dot-US is by far less common than dot-com in the United States. An example is [http://www.google.ca Google.ca] or [http://www.google.com.au Google.com.au] .
Some domain names unregistered by Google are currently squatted:
*Google.ua (Ukraine), the correct URL is google.com.ua
Google.by(Belarus), the correct URL is google.com.by
*Google.cm (Cameroon), common mis-typing of google.com (there is no localized version for Cameroon)
*googol.com, the correct spelling of the number
one googol, or 10^100, to which the name Google is a reference.
In addition to its tool for searching
webpages, Google also provides services for searching images, Usenet newsgroups, news websites, videos, searching by locality, maps, and items for sale online. In 2006, Google has indexed over 25 billion web pages, [http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~zives/cis555/slides/I-Crawlers-Sync.ppt Google, Web Crawling and Distributed Synchronization] p. 11.] 400 million queries per day, [http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~zives/cis555/slides/I-Crawlers-Sync.ppt Google, Web Crawling and Distributed Synchronization] p. 11.] 1.3 billion images, and over one billion Usenet messages. It also caches much of the content that it indexes. Google operates other tools and services including Google News, Google Suggest, Google Product Search, Google Maps, Google Co-opand Google DesktopSearch.
There are also products available from Google that are not directly search-related.
Gmail, for example, is a webmailapplication, but still includes search features; Google Browser Syncdoes not offer any search facilities, although it aims to organize your browsing time.
History of Google
List of Google products
List of search engines
Google Image Labeler
Google Hacks" from O'Reilly is a book containing tips about using Google effectively. Now in its third edition. ISBN 0-596-52706-3.
*"Google: The Missing Manual" by Sarah Milstein and Rael Dornfest (O'Reilly, 2004). ISBN 0-596-00613-6
*"How to Do Everything with Google" by Fritz Schneider, Nancy Blachman, and Eric Fredricksen (McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 2003). ISBN 0-07-223174-2
*"Google Power" by Chris Sherman (McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 2005). ISBN 0-07-225787-3
*"SEO for Google " by Paul Bliss - an eBook that describes in precise detail the methods needed to get your site top rankings in Google for your keywords.
*cite journal |last=Barroso |first=Luiz Andre |authorlink= |coauthors=Dean, Jeffrey; Hölzle, Urs |year=2003 |month= |title=Web Search for a Planet: The Google Cluster Architecture |journal=IEEE micro |volume=23 |issue=2 |pages=22–28 |doi=10.1109/MM.2003.1196112 |url= |accessdate= |quote=
* [http://www.google.com Google.com]
* [http://www.usesimulator.com/google/index.html Use Simulator for Google Search - comprehensive visual and interactive reference tool and user guide.]
* [http://www.editorial.co.in/software/google_links.php Hidden Google]
* [http://www.sankey.ws/searchbots.html Search Engines: costs vs. benefits] Google wins
* [http://www.geocities.com/theskillspool/google.html Google Tips and Tricks]
* [http://www.scroogle.org Google Scraper]
* [http://forgeeks.ismywebsite.com/index.php?m=0009 Private Google Search]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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