Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act
The Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act is a
United States federal law, passed in 1970, designed to limit the practice of smoking. It required a stronger health warning on cigarettepackages, saying "Warning: The Surgeon General Has Determined that Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health". The act also banned cigarette advertisements on American radioand television.cite web | url=http://tobaccodocuments.org/atc/71066088.html | title=Tobaccodocuments.org - Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1969 | accessdate=2007-03-31]
The Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act was one of the major bills passed by the
United States Congressin response to U.S. Surgeon General Luther Leonidas Terry's that found that lung cancerand chronic bronchitisare causally related to cigarette smoking.cite web | title=History of the Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health | url=http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/history.htm | publisher= Centers for Disease Control and Prevention| accessdate=2007-03-31] Congress previously passed the Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Actin 1965requiring that all cigarette packages sold in the United States carry a health warning.cite web | title=The 1964 Report on Smoking and Health | url=http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/Views/Exhibit/narrative/smoking.html | publisher= United States National Library of Medicine| accessdate=2007-03-31] But after a recommendation by the Federal Trade Commission, the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act amended the 1965 law so that the warnings are made in the name of the Surgeon General.cite web | title=History of Tobacco Regulation | url=http://www.druglibrary.org/Schaffer/LIBRARY/studies/nc/nc2b.htm | publisher=druglibrary.org | accessdate=2007-03-31]
One of the major advocates of the cigarette advertising ban was the
Federal Communications Commission. The FCC argued that since the topic of smoking is controversial, numerous TV and radio stations continued to break the Fairness Doctrinewhen airing these commercials because they did not give equal time to the opposing viewpoint that smoking is dangerous.
The Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act was introduced into Congress in 1969, but it was not until
April 1 1970when U.S. President Richard Nixonsigned it into law. The actual cigarette advertising ban did not come into force until January 2 1971, as per a compromise that allowed broadcasters to air these commercials during their telecasts of college football bowl games on New Year's Day.
In 1981, the FTC reported that the health warning labels as mandated by the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act had little effect on American smoking habits. Congress therefore passed the
Comprehensive Smoking Education Actof 1984, requiring more specific health warnings.cite web | title=2000 Surgeon General's Report—Reducing Tobacco Use: Warning Label | url=http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/sgr_2000/highlights/highlight_labels.htm | publisher= Centers for Disease Control and Prevention| accessdate=2007-03-31]
The tobacco industry has begun to use a variety of other marketing tools and strategies to influence people and attract new customers.cite web | title=2000 Surgeon General's Report—Reducing Tobacco Use: Tobacco Advertising and Promotion | url=http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/sgr_2000/highlights/highlight_advertising.htm | publisher=
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention| accessdate=2007-03-31] In particular, ads targeted to adolescents affect their perceptions on the image and function of smoking.cite web | title=1994 Surgeon General's Report—Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: Major Conclusions | url=http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/sgr_1994/chapter1_intro.htm | publisher= Centers for Disease Control and Prevention| accessdate=2007-03-31] In 1991, the Journal of the American Medical Associationpublished a study showing that more children 5 and 6 years old could recognize Camel cigarettes' Joe Camelmascot than could recognize Mickey Mouseor Fred Flintstone.Fischer PM, Schwartz MP, Richards JW Jr, Goldstein AO, Rojas TH. Brand logo recognition by children aged 3 to 6 years. Mickey Mouse and Old Joe the Camel. JAMA. 1991 Dec 11;266(22):3145-8. PMID 1956101] Camel increased its adolescent customer base dramatically, from less than 1% before 1988 to more than 13% in 1993.
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