- European ethnic groups
The European peoples are the various
nationsand ethnic groupsof Europe. European ethnology is the field of anthropologyfocusing on Europe.
Of the total population of Europe of some 730 million (as of 2005), some 85% or 630 million fall within three large ethno-linguistic super-groups, viz., Slavic, Latin (Romance) and Germanic. The largest groups that do not fall within either of these are the
Greeks(though as Indo-European speakers, are still related to the other three) and the Hungarians(about thirteen million each). About 20-25 million residents are members of diasporas of non-European origin. The population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population.
The largest ethnic groups of Europe are the
Russians(with some 90 million settling in the European parts of Russia), followed by the Germans(76 million), French (63 million [Recensement officiel de l'Insee [http://www.insee.fr/fr/ffc/docs_ffc/IP1042.pdf] ] ), Italians(58 million), English (45 million), Spanish (42 million), Poles(42 million) and the Ukrainians (41 million). Amongst the smallest are the people of Malta with a population of 400,200, 95.3% of which is ethnic Maltese [http://www.populstat.info/Europe/maltag.htm] .Europe has a population of about 2 million ethnic Jews(mostly also counted as part of the ethnic group of their respective home countries):
Ashkenazi Jews(about 1.4 million, mostly German and Polish)
Sephardi Jews(about 0.3 million, mostly French)
Mizrahi Jews(about 0.3 million, mostly French)
Italian Jews(some 50,000, mostly Italian)
Romaniotes(some 6,000, mostly Greek)
Depending on what parts of the
Caucasusare considered part of Europe, various peoples of the Caucasusmay also be considered "European peoples":
Armenians: approx. 4.5 million
Georgians: approx. 4 million [As a transcontinental country, Georgia may be considered to be in Asiaand/or Europe. The UN [http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm classification of world regions] places Georgia in Western Asia; the CIA World Factbook [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gg.html#Geo] , [http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/atlas/index.html?Parent=asia&Root
] , and " [http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9365466 Encyclopædia Britannica] " also place Georgia in Asia. Conversely, numerous sources place Georgia in Europe such as the
BBC[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1102477.stm] , "Oxford Reference Online" [http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t186.e21064&srn=1&ssid=416740626#FIRSTHIT] , " [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/Georgia Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary] ", and [http://worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/eu.htm www.worldatlas.com] .]
*Chechens: approx. 2 million
Ossetians: approx. 600,000
Basquesare assumed to descend from the populations of the Atlantic Bronze Agedirectly. The Indo-Europeangroups of Europe (the Centumgroups plus Balto-Slavicand Albanian) are assumed to have developed "in situ" by admixture of early Indo-European groups arriving in Europe by the Bronze Age ( Corded ware, Beaker people). The Finnic peoplesare indigenous to northeastern Europe. Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europeinclude Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italicand Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages of the centumgroup, and Proto-Slavicand Proto-Baltic, of the satemgroup. A group of Tyrrhenian languagesappears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and perhaps also Eteocretanand Eteocypriot. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basquecan only be reconstructed with great uncertainty.
European Bronze Age, the only secure reconstruction is that of Proto-Greek(ca. 2000 BC). A Proto-Italo-Celticancestor of both Italic and Celtic (assumed for the Bell beakerperiod), and a Proto-Balto-Slaviclanguage (assumed for roughly the Corded Warehorizon) has been postulated with less confidence. Old European hydronymyhas been taken as indicating an early (Bronze Age) Indo-European predecessor of the later centum languages.
Iron Age (pre-
Great Migrations) populations of Europe known from Greco-Roman historiography, notably Herodotus, Pliny, Ptolemyand Tacitus:
Aegean: Greek tribes, Pelasgians/ Tyrrhenians.
Balkans: Illyrians( list of Illyrian tribes), Dacians, Thracians.
Italian peninsula: Italic peoples, Etruscans, Adriatic Veneti, Ligurians.
Central Europe: Celts( list of peoples of Gaul), Rhaetians.
Iberian peninsula: Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula( Iberians, Lusitani, Aquitani, Celtiberians).
British Isles: Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland, Picts/ Priteni.
Northern Europe: Germanic peoples( list of Germanic peoples).
Southern Europe: Sicani
Eastern Europe: Scythians, Sarmatians, Vistula Veneti, Lugii.
Carolingian Empire(purple), the Byzantine Empire(orange) and the Caliphate of Córdoba(light green). (Borders are approximate.)]
Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside Europe during historical times are:
Phoeniciancolonies in the Mediterranean, from about 1200 BC to the fall of Carthage after the Third Punic Warin 146 BC.
Achaemenidcontrol of Thrace(512-343 BC) and the Bosporan Kingdom, Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans, Ossetes.
Jewish diasporareached Europe in the Roman Empireperiod, the Jewish community in Italy dating to before AD 70 and records of Jews settling Central Europe ( Gaul) from the 5th century(see History of the Jews in Europe). [ [http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Medieval/TheStory6321666/Christendom/EuropeanOrigins.htm My Jewish Learning - European Origins] ]
Hunnic Empire(5th century), converged with the Slavic migrations, contributing to the formation of the First Bulgarian Empire
* Avar Khaganate (c.560s-800), fused into the South Slavic states from the 9th century.
Magyars(Hungarians), an Ugric people, and the Turkic Pechenegsand Khazars, arrived in Europe in about the 8th century.
* the Arabs conquered
Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Malta, Sardinia, and Hispania.
* exodus of
MaghrebChristians [ [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/maghreb.htm The Last Christians Of North-West Africa] ]
* the western
Kipchaksknown as Cumansentered the lands of present-day Ukraine in the 11th century.
* the Mongol/
Tatar invasions(1223-1480), and Ottoman control of the Balkans (1389-1878). These medieval incursions account for the presence of European Turks and Tatars.
Romani peoplearrived during the Late Middle Ages
Kalmyksarrived in Kalmykiain the 17th century.
In a more narrow sense of "
indigenous peoples", ethnic minoritiesmarginalized by historical expansion of their neighbour populations, Europe's present-day indigenous populations are relatively few, mainly confined to northern and far-eastern reaches of this Eurasian peninsula. Whilst there are numerous ethnic minorities distributed within European countries, few of these still maintain traditional subsistence cultures and are recognized as indigenous peoples, "per se".The following groups can be considered "indigenous peoples" of Europe in this narrow sense: [see also Definitions and identity of indigenous peoples.]
northern indigenous peoples of Russia, marginalized by Russian expansion, mostly Finno-Ugric peoplessuch as the Komi and Mordvinsof the western Urals, and Samoyedic peoplesof the northern Russian Federation such as the Nenets.
Samiand the Kvensof northern Scandinavia (marginalized by Finnish and North Germanicexpansion)
Basque peopleof France and Spain (marginalized by Latin/ Western Romanceexpansion)
European identity and culture
The culture of
Europemight better be described as a series of overlapping cultures. Whether it is a question of West as opposed to East; Christianity as opposed to Islam; many have claimed to identify cultural fault lines across the continent.
European culture has had a very broad influence on the rest of the world, basically due to the wide-spread practice and legacy of
colonialism. The exchange has not all been one way, some European features have been drastically changed by imports from elsewhere. Popular European foods such as chips (frites or French fries) and riceare derived from products that are not European, but indigenous to South America and Southern Asia respectively. Nearly all of the Americasand all of Africawere European colonies at one time or another - though in earlier times, European nations often colonized each other. Or were even colonized by Non-Europeans - Arabs and North African Moorscolonized the Iberian peninsula leaving, for example, a significant Arabic influence on the Spanish language.
Various parts of the Americas are also considered
overseas territories of Francewhich are considered integral parts of the French Republic. A large proportion of the population of the Americas are descended from European emigrants (in some cases fleeing harsh economic times or religious intolerance). As a consequence most people in the Americas speak languages that are to varying degrees, derived from European languages. These include Latin American Spanish, American English, Caribbean English, Brazilian Portuguese, Haitian Kreyoland Papiamento. There are still significant cultural, economic and political ties between the former European colonial nations ( Spain, Britain, the Netherlands, Portugal, Belgiumand France) and the former colonies around the world.
Pan-European identity refers to both the sense of personal identification with Europe, and to the identity possessed by 'Europe' as a whole. 'Europe' is widely used as a synonym for the
European Unioneven though there are millions of people living on the European continent in non-EU states. The prefix "pan" implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, 'pan-European' is often contrasted with national.
thumb|250px|Predominant religions in Europe
High Middle Ages, most of Europe has been dominated by Christianity. There are three major denominations, Roman Catholic, Protestantand Eastern Orthodox, with Protestantism restricted mostly to Germanic regions, and Orthodoxy to Slavic regions, Greece and Georgia. Catholicism, while centered in the Latin parts, has a significant following also in Germanic, Slavic and Celtic regions. Islamhas some tradition in the Balkans(the European dominions of the Ottoman Empirein the 16th to 19th centuries), in Albania, Former Yugoslavia, Bulgariaand Turkish East Thrace. European Russia has the largest Muslim community, including the Tatarsof the Middle Volga and multiple groups in the Caucasus, including Chechens, Avars, Ingush and others. With 20th century migrations, Muslims in Western Europehave become a noticeable minority. Judaismhas a long history in Europe, but is a small minority religion, with France (1%) the only European country with a Jewish population in excess of 0.5%. The Jewish population of Europe is comprised primarily of two groups, the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi. Ashkenazi Jews migrated to Europe as early as the 8th century, while Sephardi Jews established themselves in Spain and Portugal at least one thousand years before that. Jewish European history was notably affected by the Holocaustand resulting emigration in the 20th century.
In modern times, significant
secularizationhas taken place, notably in laicist France in the 19th century and in Communist Eastern Europein the 20th century. Currently, distribution of theismin Europe is very heterogeneous, with more than 95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the Czech Republic. The 2005 Eurobarometerpoll [ [http://europa.eu.int/comm/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf ReportDGResearchSocialValuesEN2.PDF ] ] found that 52% of EU citizens believe in God.
Populations of non-European origin in Europe (approx. 25 - 30+ million, or approx. 3% to 4% [depending on definition of non-European origin] , out of a total population of approx. 730 million):
**Armenians (sometimes considered European, see above): approx. 1.5 million
Kurds: approx. 1.5 million, mostly in Germany and Sweden
Aramean-Syriac people: approx. 130,000, mostly in Sweden
Lebanese diaspora: especially in France, Netherlands, Germany, Cyprus and the UK.
North Africans ( Arabs and Berbers): approx. 5 million, mostly in France, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden
**Horn Africans: approx. 200,000 Somalis, [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/05/20/nstab120.xml Youths bring violence from a war-torn land] ] mostly in the UK, Netherlands and Scandinavia
** Sub-Saharan Africans (many ethnicities including
Afro-Caribbeans and others by descent): approx. 5 million, mostly in the UK, France, the Netherlands and Germany [ [http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20070205.wxfrance05/BNStory/International/home France's blacks stand up to be counted] ]
Latin Americans(mainly Mestizos): approx. 2.2 million, with the largest groups in Spain and Italy [ [http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=609 Latin American Immigration to Southern Europe] ]
Latin American Britonsnumber around 1 million and are of European, African, Native South American and many other races
*South Asians (many ethnicities): approx. 3 million, mostly in the UK
**Pakistanis: approx. 1,000,000, mostly in the UK
**Tamils: approx. 250,000
**Chinese: approx. 1 million, mostly in France, the UK and the Netherlands
**Filipinos: approx. 500,000, mostly in the UK, France, Germany and Italy
**Japanese: ca. 100,000, mostly in the UK
Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations of European ancestry [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2075.html Ethnic groups by country.] Statistics (where available) from CIA Factbook.] :
North Africa( Vandals) [ [http://www.metmuseum.org/TOAH/ht/05/afw/ht05afw.htm Western North Africa, 1–500 A.D.] , The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
Asia Minor( Galatians) [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04E7D81431F936A15751C1A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all Archaeologists Find Celts In Unlikely Spot: Turkey] , New York Times]
Tarim Basin(possibly Tocharians) [ [http://discovermagazine.com/1994/apr/themummiesofxinj359 The Mummies of Xinjiang] , DISCOVER Magazine] [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/a-meeting-of-civilisations-the-mystery-of-chinas-celtic-mummies-413638.html A meeting of civilisations: The mystery of China's celtic mummies] , The Independent]
** Egypt (
Greeks in Egypt) [ [http://www.lib.umich.edu/pap/exhibits/diversity/people.html Diversity in the Desert: Daily Life in Greek and Roman Egypt, 332 B.C.E. - 641 C.E.] ]
** India (
Indo-Greeks) [ [http://thetorontotimes.com/content/view/1019/66/ Alexander the Great and precious stones in Afghanistan] , The Toronto Times]
Asia Minor( Slavs) [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3763/is_200106/ai_n8980372 Cyril and Methodius of Thessalonica: The Acculturation of the Slavs] ]
Greenland(Greenland Vikings) [ [http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/greenland/ The Fate of Greenland's Vikings] ]
Kingdom of Jerusalem(Franks) - 25-35% of the population [Benjamin Z. Kedar, "The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant", in "The Crusades: The Essential Readings", ed. Thomas F. Madden, Blackwell, 2002, pg. 244. Originally published in "Muslims Under Latin Rule, 1100-1300", ed. James M. Powell, Princeton University Press, 1990. Kedar quotes his numbers from Joshua Prawer, "Histoire du royaume latin de Jérusalem", tr. G. Nahon, Paris, 1969, vol. 1, pp. 498, 568-72.] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7316281.stm Crusaders 'left genetic legacy'] , BBC News]
Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations of European ancestry [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2075.html Ethnic groups by country.] Statistics (where available) from CIA Factbook.] :
Africa(see Whites in Africa)
South Africa( Whites in South Africa) - 9.6% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html#People South Africa: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Namibia- 6% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/wa.html#People Namibia: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Réunion( Franco-Réunionnaise) approx. 25% of the population [ [http://www.lvlr.net/crocvl/2006/html/reunion_island.html Réunion Island] ]
Zimbabwe( Whites in Zimbabwe)
Botswana[ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bc.html#People Botswana: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Kenya( Whites in Kenya)
Swaziland- 3% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/wz.html#People Swaziland: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Morocco[ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mo.html#People Morocco: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Tunisia[ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ts.html#People Tunisia: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Siberia( Russians) [Fiona Hill, [http://www.theglobalist.com/printStoryId.aspx?StoryId=3727 Russia — Coming In From the Cold?] , The Globalist, 23 February 2004]
Kazakhstan( Russians in Kazakhstan, Germans of Kazakhstan) - 30% of the population
Uzbekistan[Robert Greenall, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4420922.stm Russians left behind in Central Asia] , BBC News, 23 November 2005.]
Kyrgyzstan[ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kg.html#People Kyrgyzstan: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Turkmenistan[ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tx.html#People Turkmenistan: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Hong Kong[HK Census. " [http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hong_kong_statistics/statistical_tables/index.jsp?htmlTableID=139&excelID=&chartID=&tableID=139&ID=&subjectID=1 HK Census] ." "Statistical Table." Retrieved on 2007-03-08.]
Singapore( Eurasians in Singapore)
The Middle East
Greenland- 12% of the population [ [http://www.stalvik.com/Engelska/laegreenland.htm Greenland] ]
Canada- 83% of the population
United States of America( European American) - 75.1% of the population, including Hispanic/Non-Hispanic Whites
Mexico[ [http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9373623 North America - Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust! ] ] ( White Mexican) - 9-15% of the population [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-27384/Mexico Mexico :: Ethnic groups - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ] and 60% as Mestizos. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html#People Mexico: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Central America, the Caribbeanand South America(see White Latin American)
Argentina( White Argentine) - 97% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html#People Argentina: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Bahamas- 12% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bf.html#People Bahamas: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Barbados( White Barbadian) - 4% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bb.html#People Barbados: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Bermuda- 34.1% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bd.html#People Bermuda: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Bolivia- 15% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bl.html#People Bolivia: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Brazil( White Brazilian) - 53.7% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html#People Brazil: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Colombia- 20% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/co.html#People Colombia: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Cuba- ( White Cuban) 37%,cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Cuba; People; Ethnic groups | date= | publisher= | url =https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cu.html#People | work =CIA World Factbook | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-21] or 65.5% of the population [ [https:http://dev.prenhall.com/divisions/hss/worldreference/CU/people.html#People Cuba: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Dominican Republic- 16% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dr.html#People Dominican Republic: People: Ethnic groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Ecuador- 7% of the populationcite news | title=Ecuador: People; Ethnic groups| url =https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ec.html#People | work =CIA World Factbook | accessdate = 2007-11-26]
El Salvador- 9% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/es.html#People El Salvador: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
French Guiana- 12% of the population [ [http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact2006/geos/fg.html#People French Guiana: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Jamaicaapprox. 0.2% of the population
Martinique- 5% of the population [ [http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact2003/geos/mb.html#People Martinique: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Nicaragua- 17% of the population [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Nicaragua: People; Ethnic groups | date= | publisher= | url =https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nu.html#People | work =CIA World Factbook | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-15 | language = ]
Panama10% of the populationcite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Panama; People; Ethnic groups | date= | publisher= | url =https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pm.html#People | work =CIA World Factbook | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-21]
Puerto Ricoapprox. 80% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pm.html#People Puerto Rico: People: Ethnic Groups] World Factbook of CIA]
Peru- 15 % of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pe.html#People Peru: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Trinidad and Tobagoapprox. 0.6% of the population
Venezuela- 20 % of the population
Uruguay- 88% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uy.html#People Uruguay: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Oceania(see Europeans in Oceania)
Australia- 89.3% of the population
New Zealand( New Zealand European) - 78% of the population
New Caledonia( Caldoche) - 34.5% of the population
French Polynesia- 10% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fp.html#People French Polynesia: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
Hawaii- 41.26% of the population
Guam- 6.9% of the population [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gq.html#People Brazil: People: Ethnic Groups.] World Factbook of CIA]
*citation|first=Peter A.|last=Andrews|first2=Rüdiger|last2= Benninghaus|title=Ethnic Groups in the Republic of Turkey|year=2002|publisher=Reichert|id=ISBN 3895003255
*Marcus Banks, "Ethnicity: Anthropological Constructions", Routledge (1996).
*Cole, J. W., Wolf, E. R., "The Hidden Frontier: Ecology and Ethnicity in an Alpine Valley", University of California Press; (1999), ISBN 978-0520216815.
*Dow, R. R., Bockhorn, O., "The Study of European Ethnology in Austria", Progress in European Ethnology, Ashgate Publishing (2004), ISBN 978-0754617471.
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first2= Jan|last2=Owsinski|year=2003|publisher=M.E. Sharpe|id=ISBN 0765606658
* citation|last=Gresham|first=D. et al|year=2001|title=Origins and divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)|journal=American Journal of Human Genetics
volume=69 (6)|pages=1314-1331 [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2001_v69_p1314-1331.pdf Online article]
*citation|title=European Identity: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Insights|first=Ireneusz Pawel|last=Karolewski|first2=Viktoria|last2= Kaina
year=2006|publisher=LIT Verlag|id=ISBN 3825892883
*Jordan, T. G., "The European culture area: A systematic geography" (2nd ed.). New York: Harper and Row (1988).
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*citation|title=Ethnic groups worldwide: a ready reference handbook|first=David |last=Levinson|year=1998|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|id=ISBN 1573560197
* E. J. Hobsbawm and David J. Kertzer, "Ethnicity and Nationalism in Europe Today", "Anthropology Today", Vol. 8, No. 1 (Feb., 1992), pp. 3-8.
*citation|title=An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empire|first=James Stuart|last=Olson|first2=Lee Brigance |last2=Pappas
first3=Nicholas Charles|last3=Pappas|publisher=Greenwood|year=1994|id=ISBN 0313274975
*citation|title=An Ethnic History of Europe Since 1945: Nations, States and Minorities|first=Panikos|last=Panayi
*Parman, S. (ed.), "Europe in the Anthropological Imagination", Prentice Hall (1998).
*citation|fist=Meic|last=Stephens|year=1976|title=Linguistic Minorities in Western Europe|publisher=Gomer Press|id=ISBN 0608187593
*citation|title=On European Identity: Nationalism, Culture & History|year=1998|first=Csaba |last=Szaló|year=1998|publsiher=Masaryk University
id =ISBN 8021018399
*citation|title=The Smallest Slavonic Nation: The Sorbs of Lusatia|first=Gerald|last=Stone|year=1972|publisher=Athlene Press
*citation|title=Understanding European Integration: History, Culture, and Politics of Identity|first=R. Pavananthi|last=Vembulu|year=2003
publisher=Aakar Books|id=ISBN 8187879106
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* [http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/comparative.cfm Migration Policy Institute - Country and Comparative Data]
Demography of Europe
Languages of Europe
Genetic history of Europe
White Latin American
Peoples of the Caucasus
List of ethnic groups
Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic groups
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Ethnic groups in West Asia — The ethnic groups in West Asia fall into several categories: The Middle East proper is dominated by the Arabs. There are various other ethnic groups, the Iranian peoples (primarily the Kurds), Turkic peoples (such as the Syrian and Iraqi… … Wikipedia
Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom — This article is about ethnic groups in the United Kingdom regardless of birthplace. For foreign born groups in the United Kingdom, see Foreign born population of the United Kingdom. People from various ethnic groups reside in the United Kingdom.… … Wikipedia
Ethnic groups in Brazil — Brazil is a racially diverse and multiracial country. [ [http://www.bvgf.fgf.org.br/frances/obra/opusculos/homem cultura tempo.htm Bibliothèque Virtuelle Gilberto Freyre L oeuvre ] ] Intermarriage among different ethnic groups has been part of… … Wikipedia
Ethnic groups in the Philippines — Map of the ethnic groups of the Philippines by province. Shade per province is determined on which group has the highest number of people; several provinces may be split into several ethnic groups. The Philippine islands are inhabited by number… … Wikipedia
Ethnic groups in Omaha, Nebraska — Various ethnic groups in Omaha, Nebraska have lived in the city since its organization by Anglo Americans in 1854. Native Americans of various nations lived in the Omaha territory for centuries before European arrival, and some stayed in the area … Wikipedia
Ethnic groups of South Asia — The ethno linguistic composition of the population of South Asia, that is the nations of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka, as well as sometimes Afghanistan, mostly falls within two large groups, Dravidian and… … Wikipedia
Ethnic groups in Pakistan — About 99% of languages spoken in Pakistan are Indo Iranian (sub branches: 75% Indo Aryan and 24% Iranian), a branch of Indo European family of languages. Most languages of Pakistan are written in the Perso Arabic script, with significant… … Wikipedia
Ethnic groups in Russia — Russian Federation is a multi national state with over 170 ethnic groups designated as nationalities, population of these groups varying enormously, from millions in case of e.g. Russians and Tatars to under ten thousand in the case of Samis and… … Wikipedia