Graphite


Graphite
Graphite

Graphite specimen
General
Category Native element mineral
Chemical formula C
Strunz classification 01.CB.05a
Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal
H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m)
Space group: P 63/mmc
Unit cell a = 2.461 Å, c = 6.708 Å; Z = 4
Identification
Color Iron-black to steel-gray; deep blue in transmitted light
Crystal habit Tabular, six-sided foliated masses, granular to compacted masses
Crystal system Hexagonal
Twinning Present
Cleavage Basal - perfect on {0001}
Fracture Flaky, otherwise rough when not on cleavage
Tenacity Flexible non-elastic, sectile
Mohs scale hardness 1–2
Luster Metallic, earthy
Streak Black
Diaphaneity Opaque, transparent only in extremely thin flakes
Density 2.09–2.23 g/cm3
Optical properties Uniaxial (–)
Pleochroism Strong
Solubility Molten Ni
References [1][2][3]

The mineral graphite /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is one of the allotropes of carbon. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράφω (graphō), "to draw/write",[4] for its use in pencils, where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). Unlike diamond (another carbon allotrope), graphite is an electrical conductor, a semimetal. It is, consequently, useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Therefore, it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal, just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite, although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite.

There are three principal types of natural graphite, each occurring in different types of ore deposit:

  1. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated, flat, plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular;
  2. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal, the last stage of coalification, and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade;
  3. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates, and is probably hydrothermal in origin.

Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research.[5] The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiber-reinforced polymer.

Contents

Occurrence

Graphite output in 2005

Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds during metamorphism. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites.[3] Minerals associated with graphite include quartz, calcite, micas and tourmaline. In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate minerals.[3]

According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1,110 thousand tonnes (kt), of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt), India (130 kt), Brazil (76 kt), North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). Graphite is not mined in US, but US production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1.18 billion. US graphite consumption was 42 kt and 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite, respectively.[6]

Properties

Structure

Graphite has a layered, planar structure. In each layer, the carbon atoms are arranged in a hexagonal lattice with separation of 0.142 nm, and the distance between planes is 0.335 nm.[7] The two known forms of graphite, alpha (hexagonal) and beta (rhombohedral), have very similar physical properties (except that the graphene layers stack slightly differently).[8] The hexagonal graphite may be either flat or buckled.[9] The alpha form can be converted to the beta form through mechanical treatment and the beta form reverts to the alpha form when it is heated above 1300 °C.[10] The layering contributes to its lower density.[clarification needed]

Rotating graphite stereogram

Other properties

The acoustic and thermal properties of graphite are highly anisotropic, since phonons propagate very quickly along the tightly-bound planes, but are slower to travel from one plane to another.

Graphite can conduct electricity due to the vast electron delocalization within the carbon layers (a phenomenon called aromaticity). These valence electrons are free to move, so are able to conduct electricity. However, the electricity is primarily conducted within the plane of the layers. The conductive properties of powdered graphite[11] allowed its use as a semiconductor substitute in early Carbon microphones.

Graphite and graphite powder are valued in industrial applications for its self-lubricating and dry lubricating properties. There is a common belief that graphite's lubricating properties are solely due to the loose interlamellar coupling between sheets in the structure.[12] However, it has been shown that in a vacuum environment (such as in technologies for use in space), graphite is a very poor lubricant. This observation led to the discovery that the lubrication is due to the presence of fluids between the layers, such as air and water, which are naturally adsorbed from the environment. This molecular property is unlike other layered, dry lubricants such as molybdenum disulfide. Recent studies suggest that an effect called superlubricity can also account for graphite's lubricating properties. The use of graphite is limited by its tendency to facilitate pitting corrosion in some stainless steel,[13][14] and to promote galvanic corrosion between dissimilar metals (due to its electrical conductivity). It is also corrosive to aluminium in the presence of moisture. For this reason, the US Air Force banned its use as a lubricant in aluminium aircraft,[15] and discouraged its use in aluminium-containing automatic weapons.[16] Even graphite pencil marks on aluminium parts may facilitate corrosion.[17] Another high-temperature lubricant, hexagonal boron nitride, has the same molecular structure as graphite. It is sometimes called white graphite, due to its similar properties.

When a large number of crystallographic defects bind these planes together, graphite loses its lubrication properties and becomes what is known as pyrolytic carbon. This material is useful for blood-contacting implants such as artificial heart valves. It is also highly diamagnetic, thus it will float in mid-air above a strong magnet.

Natural and crystalline graphites are not often used in pure form as structural materials, due to their shear-planes, brittleness and inconsistent mechanical properties.

History of natural graphite use

Graphite was used by the 4th millennium B.C. Marica culture to create a ceramic paint to decorate pottery during the Neolithic Age in southeastern Europe.[18]

Some time before 1565 (some sources say as early as 1500), an enormous deposit of graphite was discovered on the approach to Grey Knotts from the hamlet of Seathwaite in Borrowdale parish, Cumbria, England, which the locals found very useful for marking sheep.[19][20] During the reign of Elizabeth 1 (1533-1603), Borrowdale graphite was used as a refractory material to line molds for cannon balls, resulting in rounder, smoother balls that could be fired further, contributing to the growing superiority of the English navy. This particular deposit of graphite was extremely pure and soft, and could easily be broken into sticks. Because of its military importance, this unique mine and its production were strictly controlled by the Crown.

Other names

Historically, graphite was called blacklead and plumbago.[21]

Plumbago was commonly used for its massive mineral form. Both of these names arise from confusion with the similar-appearing lead ores, particularly galena. The Latin word for lead is plumbum, which gave its name to both the English term for this grey metallic-sheened mineral and even the leadworts or plumbagos, plants with flowers that resemble this colour.

The term blacklead has usually been applied to a powdered or processed form, where this fine powder then appears as a matte non-metallic black.

Uses of natural graphite

Natural graphite is mostly consumed for refractories, steelmaking, expanded graphite, brake linings, foundry facings and lubricants.[6] Graphene, which occurs naturally in graphite, has unique physical properties and might be one of the strongest substances known; however, the process of separating it from graphite will require some technological development before it is economically feasible to use it in industrial processes.

Refractories

This end-use begins before 1900 with the graphite crucible used to hold molten metal; this is now a minor part of refractories. In the mid 1980s, the carbon-magnesite brick became important, and a bit later the alumina-graphite shape. Currently the order of importance is alumina-graphite shapes, carbon-magnesite brick, monolithics (gunning and ramming mixes), and then crucibles.

Crucibles began using very large flake graphite, and carbon-magnesite brick requiring not quite so large flake graphite; for these and others there is now much more flexibility in size of flake required, and amorphous graphite is no longer restricted to low-end refractories. Alumina-graphite shapes are used as continuous casting ware, such as nozzles and troughs, to convey the molten steel from ladle to mold, and carbon magnesite bricks line steel converters and electric arc furnaces to withstand extreme temperatures. Graphite Blocks are also used in parts of blast furnace linings where the high thermal conductivity of the graphite is critical. High-purity monolithics are often used as a continuous furnace lining instead of the carbon-magnesite bricks.

The US and European refractories industry had a crisis in 2000–2003, with an indifferent market for steel and a declining refractory consumption per tonne of steel underlying firm buyouts and many plant closings. Many of the plant closings resulted from the acquisition of Harbison-Walker Refractories by RHI AG some plants had their equipment auctioned off. Since much of the lost capacity was for carbon-magnesite brick, graphite consumption within refractories area moved towards alumina-graphite shapes and monolithics, and away from the brick.The major source of carbon-magnesite brick is now imports from China. Almost all of the above refractories are used to make steel and account for 75% of refractory consumption; the rest is used by a variety of industries, such as cement.

According to the USGS, US natural graphite consumption in refractories was 11,000 tonnes in 2006.[6]

Steelmaking

Natural graphite in this end use mostly goes into carbon raising in molten steel, although it can be used to lubricate the dies used to extrude hot steel. Supplying carbon raisers is very competitive, therefore subject to cut-throat pricing from alternatives such as synthetic graphite powder, petroleum coke, and other forms of carbon. A carbon raiser is added to increase the carbon content of the steel to the specified level. An estimate based on USGS US graphite consumption statistics indicates that 10,500 tonnes were used in this fashion in 2005.[6]

Expanded graphite

Expanded graphite is made by immersing natural flake graphite in a bath of chromic acid, then concentrated sulfuric acid, which forces the crystal lattice planes apart, thus expanding the graphite. The expanded graphite can be used to make graphite foil or used directly as "hot top" compound to insulate molten metal in a ladle or red-hot steel ingots and decrease heat loss, or as firestops fitted around a fire door or in sheet metal collars surrounding plastic pipe (during a fire, the graphite expands and chars to resist fire penetration and spread), or to make high-performance gasket material for high-temperature use. After being made into graphite foil, the foil is machined and assembled into the bipolar plates in fuel cells. The foil is made into heat sinks for laptop computers which keeps them cool while saving weight, and is made into a foil laminate that can be used in valve packings or made into gaskets. Old-style packings are now a minor member of this grouping: fine flake graphite in oils or greases for uses requiring heat resistance. A GAN estimate of current US natural graphite consumption in this end use is 7,500 tonnes.[6]

Intercalated graphite

Structure of CaC6

Graphite forms intercalation compounds with some metals and small molecules. In these compounds, the host molecule or atom gets "sandwiched" between the graphite layers, resulting in compounds with variable stoichiometry. A prominent example of an intercalation compound is potassium graphite, denoted by the formula KC8. Graphite intercalation compounds are superconductors. The highest transition temperature (by June 2009) Tc = 11.5 K is achieved in CaC6 and it further increases under applied pressure (15.1 K at 8 GPa).[22]

Brake linings

Natural amorphous and fine flake graphite are used in brake linings or brake shoes for heavier (nonautomotive) vehicles, and became important with the need to substitute for asbestos. This use has been important for quite some time, but nonasbestos organic (NAO) compositions are beginning to cost graphite market share. A brake-lining industry shake-out with some plant closings has not helped either, nor has an indifferent automotive market. According to the USGS, US natural graphite consumption in brake linings was 6,510 tonnes in 2005.[6]

Foundry facings and lubricants

A foundry facing mold wash is a water-based paint of amorphous or fine flake graphite. Painting the inside of a mold with it and letting it dry leaves a fine graphite coat that will ease separation of the object cast after the hot metal has cooled. Graphite lubricants are specialty items for use at very high or very low temperatures, as forging die lubricant, an antiseize agent, a gear lubricant for mining machinery, and to lubricate locks. Having low-grit graphite, or even better no-grit graphite (ultra high purity), is highly desirable. It can be used as a dry powder, in water or oil, or as colloidal graphite (a permanent suspension in a liquid). An estimate based on USGS graphite consumption statistics indicates that 2,200 tonnes was used in this fashion in 2005.[6]

Other uses

Natural graphite has found uses as the marking material ("lead") in common pencils, in zinc-carbon batteries, in electric motor brushes, and various specialized applications.

Uses of synthetic graphite

Invention of synthetic graphite

Synthetic graphite was invented/discovered by Edward Goodrich Acheson (1856 - 1931). In the mid 1890s, Acheson discovered that overheating carborundum (also called silicon carbide or SiC, which he also invented/discovered) produced almost pure graphite. While studying the effects of high temperature on carborundum, he had found that silicon vaporizes at about 4,150° C (7,500° F), leaving behind graphitic carbon. This graphite was another major discovery for him, and it became extremely valuable and helpful as a lubricant. The Acheson Graphite Co. was formed in 1899. In 1928 this company was merged with National Carbon Co (now Union Carbide). Acheson also developed a variety of colloidal graphite products including Oildag and Aquadag. These were later manufactured by the Acheson Colloids Co. (now Acheson Industries).

Electrodes

These electrodes carry the electricity that melts scrap iron and steel (and sometimes direct-reduced iron: DRI) in electric arc furnaces, the vast majority of steel furnaces. They are made from petroleum coke after it is mixed with coal tar pitch, extruded and shaped, then baked to carbonize the binder (pitch), and then graphitized by heating it to temperatures approaching 3000°C, that converts carbon to graphite. They can vary in size up to 11 ft. long and 30 in. in diameter. An increasing proportion of global steel is made using electric arc furnaces, and the electric arc furnace itself is getting more efficient and making more steel per tonne of electrode. An estimate based on USGS data indicates that graphite electrode consumption was 197,000 tonnes in 2005.[6]

Powder and scrap

The powder is made by heating powdered petroleum coke above the temperature of graphitization, sometimes with minor modifications. The graphite scrap comes from pieces of unusable electrode material (in the manufacturing stage or after use) and lathe turnings, usually after crushing and sizing. Most synthetic graphite powder goes to carbon raising in steel (competing with natural graphite), with some used in batteries and brake linings. According to the USGS, US synthetic graphite powder and scrap production was 95,000 tonnes in 2001 (latest data).[6]

Neutron moderator

Special grades of synthetic graphite also find use as a matrix and neutron moderator within nuclear reactors. Its low neutron cross-section also recommends it for use in proposed fusion reactors. Care must be taken that reactor-grade graphite is free of neutron absorbing materials such as boron, widely used as the seed electrode in commercial graphite deposition systems—this caused the failure of the Germans' World War II graphite-based nuclear reactors. Since they could not isolate the difficulty they were forced to use far more expensive heavy water moderators. Graphite used for nuclear reactors is often referred to as nuclear graphite.

Other uses

Graphite (carbon) fiber and carbon nanotubes are also used in carbon fiber reinforced plastics, and in heat-resistant composites such as reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC). Commercial structures made from carbon fiber graphite composites include fishing rods, golf club shafts, bicycle frames, sports car body panels, the fuselage of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and pool cue sticks and have been successfully employed in reinforced concrete, The mechanical properties of carbon fiber graphite-reinforced plastic composites and grey cast iron are strongly influenced by the role of graphite in these materials. In this context, the term "(100%) graphite" is often loosely used to refer to a pure mixture of carbon reinforcement and resin, while the term "composite" is used for composite materials with additional ingredients.[23]

Graphite has been used in at least three radar absorbent materials. It was mixed with rubber in Sumpf and Schornsteinfeger, which were used on U-boat snorkels to reduce their radar cross section. It was also used in tiles on early F-117 Nighthawks. Modern smokeless powder is coated in graphite to prevent the buildup of static charge.

Graphite mining, beneficiation, and milling

Graphite is mined around the world by both open pit and underground methods. While flake graphite and amorphous graphite are both mined open pit and underground, lump (vein) graphite is only mined underground in Sri Lanka. The open pit mines usually employ equipment (i.e. bulldozers) to scoop up the ore, which is usually put in trucks and moved to the plant. Since the original rock is usually lateritized or weathered, this amounts to moving dirt with flecks or pieces of graphite in it from the pit (blasting is seldom required). The underground graphite mines employ drilling and blasting to break up the hard rock (ore), which is then moved by mine cars pulled by a locomotive, or moved by automotive vehicles, to the surface and then to the plant. In less-developed areas of the world, the ore can be mined by pick and shovel and transported by mine cars pushed by a laborer or by women carrying baskets of ore on their heads.

Graphite usually needs beneficiation, although thick-bedded amorphous graphite and vein graphite is almost always beneficiated, if beneficiated at all, by laborers hand-picking out the pieces of gangue (rock) and hand-screening the product. The great majority of world flake graphite production is crushed and ground if necessary and beneficiated by flotation. Treating graphite by flotation encounters one big difficulty: graphite is very soft and "marks" (coats) the particles of gangue. This makes the "marked" gangue particles float off with the graphite to yield a very impure concentrate. There are two ways of obtaining a saleable concentrate or product: regrinding and floating it again and again (up to seven times) to obtain a purer and purer concentrate, or by leaching (dissolving) the gangue with hydrofluoric acid (for a silicate gangue) or hydrochloric acid (for a carbonate gangue).

In the milling process, the incoming graphite products and concentrates can be ground before being classified (sized or screened), with the coarser flake size fractions (below 8 mesh, 8–20 mesh, 20–50 mesh) carefully preserved, and then the carbon contents are determined. Then some standard blends can be prepared from the different fractions, each with a certain flake size distribution and carbon content. Custom blends can also be made for individual customers who want a certain flake size distribution and carbon content. If flake size is unimportant, the concentrate can be ground more freely. Typical final products include a fine powder for use as a slurry in oil drilling; in zirconium silicate, sodium silicate and isopropyl alcohol coatings for foundry molds; and a carbon raiser in the steel industry (Synthetic graphite powder and powdered petroleum coke can also be used as carbon raiser). Rough graphite is typically classified, ground, and packaged at a graphite mill; often the more complex formulations are also mixed and packaged at the mill facility. Environmental impacts from graphite mills consist of air pollution including fine particulate exposure of workers and also soil contamination from powder spillages leading to heavy metals contaminations of soil. Dust masks are normally worn by workers during the production process to avoid worker exposure to the fine airborne graphite and zircon silicate.

Graphite recycling

The most common way graphite is recycled occurs when synthetic graphite electrodes are either manufactured and pieces are cut off or lathe turnings are discarded, or the electrode (or other) are used all the way down to the electrode holder. A new electrode replaces the old one, but a sizeable piece of the old electrode remains. This is crushed and sized, and the resulting graphite powder is mostly used to raise the carbon content of molten steel. Graphite-containing refractories are sometimes also recycled, but often not because of their graphite: the largest-volume items, such as carbon-magnesite bricks that contain only 15–25% graphite, usually contain too little graphite. However, some recycled carbon-magnesite brick is used as the basis for furnace repair materials, and also crushed carbon-magnesite brick is used in slag conditioners. While crucibles have a high graphite content, the volume of crucibles used and then recycled is very small.

A high-quality flake graphite product that closely resembles natural flake graphite can be made from steelmaking kish. Kish is a large-volume near-molten waste skimmed from the molten iron feed to a basic oxygen furnace, and is a mix of graphite (precipitated out of the supersaturated iron), lime-rich slag, and some iron. The iron is recycled on site, so what is left is a mixture of graphite and slag. The best recovery process uses hydraulic classification (Which utilizes a flow of water to separate minerals by specific gravity: graphite is light and settles nearly last.) to get a 70% graphite rough concentrate. Leaching this concentrate with hydrochloric acid gives a 95% graphite product with a flake size ranging from 10 mesh down.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Graphite at Mindat". http://www.mindat.org/min-1740.html. 
  2. ^ "Webmineral". http://www.webmineral.com/data/Graphite.shtml. 
  3. ^ a b c Handbook of Mineralogy
  4. ^ Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott (1940). "γράφω". A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Dgra%2Ffw. 
  5. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "highly oriented pyrolytic graphite".
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Graphite Statistics and Information". USGS. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/graphite/. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  7. ^ P. Delhaes (2001). Graphite and Precursors. CRC Press. ISBN 9056992287. http://books.google.com/?id=7p2pgNOWPbEC&pg=PA146. 
  8. ^ C. S. G. Cousins (2003). "Elasticity of carbon allotropes. I. Optimization, and subsequent modification, of an anharmonic Keating model for cubic diamond". Physical Review B 67 (2): 024107. Bibcode 2003PhRvB..67b4107C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.67.024107. 
  9. ^ W.G. Wyckoff (1963). Crystal Structures. New York, London: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0882758004. 
  10. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "Rhombohedral graphite".
  11. ^ http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/21/1/015
  12. ^ Lavrakas, Vasilis (1957). "Textbook errors: Guest column. XII: The lubricating properties of graphite". Journal of Chemical Education 34 (5): 240. Bibcode 1957JChEd..34..240L. doi:10.1021/ed034p240. 
  13. ^ "Galvanic Corrosion". http://steel.keytometals.com/Articles/Art160.htm. 
  14. ^ "ASM Tech Notes - TN7-0506 - Galvanic Corrosion". http://metals.lincdigital.com.au/files/ASM_Tech_Notes/TN7-0506-Galvanic%20Corrosion.pdf. 
  15. ^ "Better Lubricants than Graphite". http://www.graflex.org/speed-graphic/lubricants.html. 
  16. ^ "Weapons Lubricant in the Desert". http://gojackarmy.blogspot.com/2005/09/weapons-lubricant-in-desert.html. Retrieved 2009-06-06. [dead link]
  17. ^ "Good Engineering Practice/Corrosion". http://7faq.com/owbase/ow.asp?GoodEngineeringPractice%2FCorrosion. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  18. ^ Boardman, John. "The Neolithic-Eneolithic Period". The Cambridge ancient history, Volume 3, Part 1. pp. 31–32. 
  19. ^ Martin and Jean Norgate, Geography Department, Portsmouth University (2008). "Old Cumbria Gazetteer, black lead mine, Seathwaite". http://www.geog.port.ac.uk/webmap/thelakes/html/lgaz/lk00976.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  20. ^ Alfred Wainwright (2005). A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells, Western Fells. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 0-7112-2460-9. http://books.google.com/?id=BbYQmWu8OfEC&pg=RA1-PT16. 
  21. ^ Electro-Plating on Non-Metallic Substances. Spons' Workshop Receipts. Vol. II: Dyeing to Japanning. Spon. 1921. p. 132. 
  22. ^ N. Emery et al. (2008). "Synthesis and superconducting properties of CaC6" (free-download pdf). Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 9 (4): 044102. Bibcode 2008STAdM...9d4102E. doi:10.1088/1468-6996/9/4/044102. http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1468-6996/9/4/044102/stam8_4_044102.pdf. 
  23. ^ "What is the best material for a tennis racquet?". http://tennis.about.com/od/tennisracquetsfaq/f/faqracquets42.htm. 

Further reading

  • C.Michael Hogan, Marc Papineau et al. (December 18, 1989). Phase I Environmental Site Assessment, Asbury Graphite Mill, 2426-2500 Kirkham Street, Oakland, California, Earth Metrics report 10292.001 (Report). 
  • Klein, Cornelis and Cornelius S. Hurlbut, Jr. (1985). Manual of Mineralogy: after Dana (20th ed.). ISBN 0-471-80580-7. 
  • Taylor, Harold A. (2000). Graphite. Financial Times Executive Commodity Reports. London: Mining Journal Books ltd.. ISBN 1-84083-332-7. 
  • Taylor, Harold A. (2005). Graphite. Industrial Minerals and Rocks (7th ed.). Littleton, CO: AIME-Society of Mining Engineers. ISBN 0-87335-233-5. 

External links


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Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Graphite — Catégorie I : Éléments natifs[1] Graphite natif Général …   Wikipédia en Français

  • graphite — [ grafit ] n. m. • 1799; du gr. graphein « écrire » ♦ Variété naturelle de carbone cristallisé formée de carbone presque pur. Le graphite est employé dans la fabrication des crayons. ⇒ plombagine (cf. Mine de plomb). Électrodes de graphite.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Graphite — (auch SILGraphite, früher OpenGraphite) ist ein Projekt zur Erstellung eines Unicode kompatiblen sogenannten „Smartfont“ Formates mit zugehörigem Software System zur Verarbeitung, das von SIL International unter Leitung von Sharon Correll mit… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Graphite — (Гроссето,Италия) Категория отеля: Адрес: 58100 Гроссето, Италия Описани …   Каталог отелей

  • Graphite — Graph ite, n. [Gr. gra fein to write: cf. F. graphite. See {Graphic}.] (Min.) Native carbon in hexagonal crystals, also foliated or granular massive, of black color and metallic luster, and so soft as to leave a trace on paper. It is used for… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Graphite — См. Графит Термины атомной энергетики. Концерн Росэнергоатом, 2010 …   Термины атомной энергетики

  • graphite — (n.) 1796, from Ger. Graphit black lead, coined 1789 by German mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner (1750 1817) from Gk. graphein write (see GRAPHY (Cf. graphy)) + mineral suffix ITE (Cf. ite). So called because it was used in pencils. Related:… …   Etymology dictionary

  • graphite — ► NOUN ▪ a grey form of carbon used as a solid lubricant and as pencil lead. DERIVATIVES graphitic adjective. ORIGIN from Greek graphein write (because of its use in pencils) …   English terms dictionary

  • graphite — [graf′īt΄] n. [Ger graphit < Gr graphein, to write (see GRAPHIC): from its use as writing material] a very soft, black, hexagonal mineral of pure carbon, formed in thin plates and found in metamorphic rocks: used in making electrodes, paints,… …   English World dictionary

  • graphite — graphitic /greuh fit ik/, adj. /graf uyt/, n. a very common mineral, soft native carbon, occurring in black to dark gray foliated masses, with metallic luster and greasy feel: used for pencil leads, as a lubricant, and for making crucibles and… …   Universalium


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