High Priests of Amun

The High Priest of Amun or First Prophet of Amun was the highest ranking priest in the priesthood of the Ancient Egyptian god Amun.

The term Maahes was used to describe the caste of high-priests of Amun, these were high ranking hereditary chiefs who originated in Upper Egypt and in the western desert oases of Siwa, Dahkhla and Kharga. Pinudjem, Psusennese, and Masaharta were all Maahes. In this terminology, Maahes means literally, "He who is true beside her". This is in reference to the role of the Maahes chiefs and priests as guardians of heiresses, whose matrilinear ancestry was rooted far back into predynastic days.Fact|date=November 2007

The Maahes chiefs and their mistresses believed in the physical manifestions of divine retribution aspects of powerful storms associated with Bast, Sekhmet, Tefnut, and other lioness deities. As a consequence they were attributed with the ability to control the weather.Fact|date=November 2007

The Oases of Siwa and Bahiriya in Egypt's western desert were the last outposts of the Maahes caste and their descendants.Fact|date=November 2007

18th dynasty

Thuty

First Prophet of Amun and Overseer of the treasurers during the time of Ahmose. Known from a funerary cone in the Metropolitan Museum. The cone is inscribed for “The First Prophet of Amun and Overseer of Treasurers, Thuty. The funerary cones make mention of “The good God Neb-pehty-Re (Ahmose) [W. C. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt II,pg 44 and 59.]

Minmontu

Known from a funerary cone from Thebes, now at University College London [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/thebes/archive/uc37666.gif| UC37666] . Temporary of Ahmose.A heart scarab of Minmontu called Senres is in the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum. [http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.com/record.aspx?id=4768| Global Egyptian Museum]

Hapuseneb

High priest of Amun from the time of Hatshepsut. cite web|url=http://www.ashmolean.museum/gri/s14.pdf|title=Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings|publisher=Griffith Institute|location=Oxford|author=Porter, B. and Moss, R.L.B.] Buried in TT67.Hapuseneb was the son of the third lector of Amun Hepu and the royal ornament Ahhotep. Hapuseneb was married to a lady named Amenhotep. Hapuseneb and Amenhotep are known to have had at least three sons and four daughters: Djehutjmes-machet, User-pekht, Aa-cheper-ka-ra-nefer, Henut, Henut-nefert, Sen-seneb,and Ta-em-resefu.

Hapuseneb had a brother named Sa-Amun and a sister Ahmose

Five cones belonging to Hapuseneb are in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum. His titles are Hereditary Prince and Count, Treasurer of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, First Prophet of Amun, Overseer of the Priest of Upper and Lower Egypt, and Overseer of All the Works of the King. [C. W. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt II, pg. 113 ]

Hapuseneb was the first HPA to also hold the title of Overseer of the hem priests of Upper and Lower Egypt. The second Priest of Amun Puyemre was related to Hapuseneb through marriage: he was married to Hapuseneb’s daughter Seniseneb. Seniseneb was a divine adoratrice of Amun and a temple singer. [O’Conner and Cline (eds), Thutmose III: A New Biography, pg. 107, 110]

enenu

High Priest of Amun and High Priest of Hathor in Hatshepsut’s Deir el-Bahari temple. [O’Conner and Cline (eds), Thutmose III: A New Biography, pg. 125]

Menkheperraseneb (I)

High priest of Amun from the time of Thutmose III, possibly buried in TT86?Possibly the uncle of Menkheperreseneb II? It was assumed up until recently (1990s ?) that there was one High Priest of Amun with the name of Menkheperraseneb. It was assumed that this individual had two Theban tombs (TT86 and TT112). There is a precenence for people with two tomb (Senenmut - favorite of Hatshepsut - for instance). Recently it seems to have become more widely accepted that there were two High Priests with the same name.

Menkheperraseneb (II)

High Priest of Amun, Superintendent of the Gold and silver treasuries, Chief of the Overseers of Craftsmen. Served at the time of Thutmose III and may have been buried in TT112.Son of Amenemhet and the King's Nurse Taonet. [Fazzini, Richard A., A Statue of a High Priest Menkheperreseneb in The Brooklyn Museum, in: Studies Simpson (pdf), 209-225. (ill.).] Several funerary cones are in the collection of University college London [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/thebes/archive/uc37578.gif| UC 37578] , [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/thebes/archive/uc37579.gif| UC 37579] , [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/thebes/archive/uc37580.gif| UC 37580] , [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/thebes/archive/uc37581.gif| UC 37581] , [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/thebes/archive/uc37582.gif| UC 37582] , [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/thebes/archive/uc37583.gif| UC 37583] Items of the High Priest(s) Menkheperre-soneb at the Metropolitan Museum include several funerary cones, a vase inscribed with his namesfrom Saqqara, and a scarab on which he is referred to by the title “Overseer of the Crafts of Amun” [W. C. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt II, pg. 129] Dorman has argued that there are two HPA by the name of Menkheperre-seneb. A discussion of the identification and dating of the two HPA can be found in Thutmose III: A New Biography, by O’Conner and Cline [O’Conner and Cline (eds), Thutmose III: A New Biography, pg. 108-109]

Ahmose

First Prophet in Deir el-Bahari Temple. A funerary cone of the Second Prophet of Amun Ahmose also records that he was First Prophet of Amun in Henket-ankh (Mortuary Temple of Thutmose III in Thebes) [C. W. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt II, pg. 118 ]

Amenemhat

High Priest of Amun from the time of Amenhotep II. Probably buried in TT97. Amenemhat was the son of the wab-priest and Overseer of the sandal makers of Amun Djehutyhotep.A funerary cone exists in the collection of University College, London: UC 37551 [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/thebes/archive/uc37551.gif] Funerary cones of the First Prophet of Amun Amenemhet are in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum. [C. W. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt II, pg. 147] Amenemhet, high priest of Amun in Karnak left an inscription outlining his career at Gebel el-Silsila. [O’Conner and Cline (eds), Thutmose III: A New Biography, pg. 157]

Mery

High Priest of Amun from the time of Amenhotep II, he had tombs made at TT95 and TT84.Mery was the son of the First prophet of Min of Koptos, named Nebpehtire, and Hunayt who was Chief nurse of the Lord of the Two Lands. Mery was married to a lady named Dey. On digitalegypt his titles are listed as: Overseer of the Priests of Upper and Lower Egypt, High Priest of Amun, Overseer of the Fields of Amun, Steward of Amun, Overseer of the Granaries (of Amun), Overseer of the Treasury. See UC37790 [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/thebes/archive/uc37790.gif] and UC37791 [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/thebes/archive/uc37791.gif] A black granite statue of Mery can be found in the Cairo Mus. CG 973 cite web|url=http://www.ashmolean.museum/gri/s14.pdf|title=Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings|publisher=Griffith Institute|location=Oxford] .Mery usurped the tomb of the royal herald Iamunedjeh for himself and his mother [O’Conner and Cline (eds), Thutmose III: A New Biography, pg. 89]

Ptahmose

High Priest of Amen, Vizier of the South, Mayor of Thebes, Overseer of all the works, Overseer of all the Priests of Upper and Lower Egypt, Fan-bearer on the right side of the king. Served during the early part of the reign of Amenhotep III. (Redford thinks he served during the latter part of the reign.) Ptahmose is also known from a stela now in the museum in Lyon.Ptahmose is shown with his wife Apeny (Aypy), his sons Thutmosis (High priest of Horus) and Huy (with side-lock of youth) as well as his daughters Nefertari, Mutemwia, Hemetnetjer, Mutnofret and another daughter named Nefertari. [Varille A. Une stèle du vizir Ptahmes, contemporain d'Aménophis III (n° 88 du Musée de Lyon) [avec 1 planche] . 497-507 1,76 | Bifao030_art_45.pdf] See also museum page from LyonFunerary cones of the First Prophet of Amun Ptahmose are in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum. [C. W. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt II, pg. 27 ] [O’Conner and Cline (eds), Amenhotep III, pg.194, 202]

Meryptah

First prophet of Amen, etc., during the time of Amenhotep III. Known from a statue mentioning Meryptah with Anen, Amenemhat and Si-Mut who were 2nd, 3rd and 4th prophet respectively. Aldred thinks that Meryptah succeeded Ptahmose and served until the end of the reign of Amenhotep III. Meryptah would have served from ca. year 20 of Amenhotep's reign until the end of that reign.Meryptah was granted burial in Thebes (Qurna). Some funerary items were recovered from a pit excavated in the early 19th century.Items include a kneeling statue of Meryptah singing a hymn of praise to Re. [ Cyril Aldred, Two Theban Notables during the Later Reign of Amenhotep III, (Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1959)] The Oriental Institute in Chicago has a statue of Meryptah: Meryptah (Mrjj-pt), First prophet of Amun, etc., with text mentioning Amun-Re lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands and Ptah [south of his] wall, in Chicago (Ill.), Oriental Institute Museum, 10796.From: Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf)The Metropolitan Museum possesses three stamped mud bricks inscribed for The First Prophet of Amun Mery-ptah [C. W. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt II, pg. 306 ]

ennefer

Sennefer was First prophet of Amun in Khentnufer, Chief steward of the King, Overseer of prophets of Min lord of Ipu and of Ptah foremost of ( Tje)nent, etc. Ägyptisches Museum, 21595. (Probably from Tell Bast)

Maya

High Priest of Amen until year 4 of Akhenaten. Redford speculates that Maya is short for Ptahmose and that Ptahmose served from the end of the reign of Amenhotep III until the beginning of the time of Akhenaten. [Donald B. Redford: The Identity of the High-Priest of Amun at the Beginning of Akhenaten's Reign Journal of the American Oriental Society ; Vol. 83, No. 2 (Apr., 1963), pp. 240-241]

Parennefer (also called Wennefer)

High Priest of Amen during the reigns of Tutankhamen and Horemheb [Kampp, F., and K. J. Seyfried, Eine Rückkehr nach Theben, Antike Welt, Mainz 26 (1995), 325-342. (ill. incl. colours, plans).] [Kampp-Seyfried, Friederike, Die Verfemung des Namens pA-rn-nfr, in: Stationen. R. Stadelmann gewidmet, 303-319. (pl.).] [Kampp, F., Vierter Vorbericht über die Arbeiten des Ägyptologischen Instituts der Universität Heidelberg in thebanischen Gräbern der Ramessidenzeit, MDAIK 50 (1994), 175-188. (fig., plans, pl.).]

Nebwa

High Priest of Amun-Re of Paju; From the time of Horemheb.From Topographical Bibliography (pdf - s14) Nebwa Nb-wi, First prophet of Amun-Re of P3-jw (Tell el-Balamûn), son of Huy H.jj With wife Mutnefert(t) Mwt-nfr(t), Songstress of Amun of P3-jw, in Cairo Mus. CG 883 (JE 29092).

References


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