Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, also polypeptide [eMedicineDictionary|vasoactive+intestinal+polypeptide] ) is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues and is produced in many areas of the human body including the gut, pancreas and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the brain.

It has a half-life (T1/2) in the blood of about two minutes.

Function

VIP has an effect on several different parts of the body:

* With respect to the digestive system, VIP seems to induce smooth muscle relaxation (lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, gallbladder), stimulate secretion of water into pancreatic juice and bile, and cause inhibition of gastric acid secretion and absorption from the intestinal lumen. [ [http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/gi/vip.html Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide ] ] Its role in the intestine is to greatly stimulate secretion of water and electrolytes [GPnotebook|1892679719] , as well as dilating intestinal smooth muscle, dilating peripheral blood vessels, stimulating pancreatic bicarbonate secretion, and inhibiting gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. These effects work together to increase motility. [ [http://www.anatomyatlases.org/MicroscopicAnatomy/Section06/Plate06111.shtml Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy: Section 1 - Cells ] ]

* It also has the function of stimulating pepsinogen secretion by chief cells.
* It is also found in the brain and some autonomic nerves. One region of the brain includes a specific area of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the location of the 'master circadian pacemaker'. The SCN coordinates daily timekeeping in the body and VIP plays a key role in communication between individual brain cells within this region. Further, VIP is also involved in synchronising the timing of SCN function with the environmental light-dark cycle. Combined, these roles in the SCN make VIP a crucial component of the mammalian circadian timekeeping machinery.

* VIP helps to regulate prolactin secretion. [cite journal |author=Kulick R, Chaiseha Y, Kang S, Rozenboim I, El Halawani M |title=The relative importance of vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine as physiological regulators of prolactin in the domestic turkey |journal=Gen Comp Endocrinol |volume=142 |issue=3 |pages=267–73 |year=2005 |pmid=15935152 |doi=10.1016/j.ygcen.2004.12.024]

* It is also found in the heart and has significant effects on the cardiovascular system. It causes coronary vasodilation [http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/gi/vip.html Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide ] ] as well as having a positive inotropic and chronotropic effect. Research is being performed to see if it may have a beneficial role in the treatment of heart failure.

Pathology

VIP is overproduced in VIPoma. ]

See also

* Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor

References

Further reading

PBB_Further_reading
citations =
*cite journal | author=Fahrenkrug J |title=Gut/brain peptides in the genital tract: VIP and PACAP |journal=Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. Suppl. |volume=234 |issue= |pages= 35–9 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11713978 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Delgado M, Pozo D, Ganea D |title=The significance of vasoactive intestinal peptide in immunomodulation |journal=Pharmacol. Rev. |volume=56 |issue= 2 |pages= 249–90 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15169929 |doi= 10.1124/pr.56.2.7
*cite journal | author=Conconi MT, Spinazzi R, Nussdorfer GG |title=Endogenous ligands of PACAP/VIP receptors in the autocrine-paracrine regulation of the adrenal gland |journal=Int. Rev. Cytol. |volume=249 |issue= |pages= 1–51 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16697281 |doi= 10.1016/S0074-7696(06)49001-X
*cite journal | author=Hill JM |title=Vasoactive intestinal peptide in neurodevelopmental disorders: therapeutic potential |journal=Curr. Pharm. Des. |volume=13 |issue= 11 |pages= 1079–89 |year= 2007 |pmid= 17430171 |doi=10.2174/138161207780618975
*cite journal | author=Gonzalez-Rey E, Varela N, Chorny A, Delgado M |title=Therapeutical approaches of vasoactive intestinal peptide as a pleiotropic immunomodulator |journal=Curr. Pharm. Des. |volume=13 |issue= 11 |pages= 1113–39 |year= 2007 |pmid= 17430175 |doi=10.2174/138161207780618966
*cite journal | author= |title= [Quaternary structure of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthetase] |journal=Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR |volume=222 |issue= 4 |pages= 997–1000 |year= 1975 |pmid= 807467 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Kitamura K, Kangawa K, Kawamoto M, "et al." |title=Isolation and characterization of peptides which act on rat platelets, from a pheochromocytoma |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=185 |issue= 1 |pages= 134–41 |year= 1992 |pmid= 1318039 |doi=10.1016/S0006-291X(05)80966-0
*cite journal | author=Glowa JR, Panlilio LV, Brenneman DE, "et al." |title=Learning impairment following intracerebral administration of the HIV envelope protein gp120 or a VIP antagonist |journal=Brain Res. |volume=570 |issue= 1-2 |pages= 49–53 |year= 1992 |pmid= 1617429 |doi=10.1016/0006-8993(92)90562-N
*cite journal | author=Theriault Y, Boulanger Y, St-Pierre S |title=Structural determination of the vasoactive intestinal peptide by two-dimensional H-NMR spectroscopy |journal=Biopolymers |volume=31 |issue= 4 |pages= 459–64 |year= 1991 |pmid= 1863695 |doi= 10.1002/bip.360310411
*cite journal | author=Gozes I, Giladi E, Shani Y |title=Vasoactive intestinal peptide gene: putative mechanism of information storage at the RNA level |journal=J. Neurochem. |volume=48 |issue= 4 |pages= 1136–41 |year= 1987 |pmid= 2434617 |doi=10.1111/j.1471-4159.1987.tb05638.x
*cite journal | author=Yamagami T, Ohsawa K, Nishizawa M, "et al." |title=Complete nucleotide sequence of human vasoactive intestinal peptide/PHM-27 gene and its inducible promoter |journal=Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. |volume=527 |issue= |pages= 87–102 |year= 1988 |pmid= 2839091 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Bodner M, Fridkin M, Gozes I |title=Coding sequences for vasoactive intestinal peptide and PHM-27 peptide are located on two adjacent exons in the human genome |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=82 |issue= 11 |pages= 3548–51 |year= 1985 |pmid= 2987932 |doi=10.1073/pnas.82.11.3548
*cite journal | author=DeLamarter JF, Buell GN, Kawashima E, "et al." |title=Vasoactive intestinal peptide: expression of the prohormone in bacterial cells |journal=Peptides |volume=6 Suppl 1 |issue= |pages= 95–102 |year= 1985 |pmid= 2995945 |doi=10.1016/0196-9781(85)90016-6
*cite journal | author=Linder S, Barkhem T, Norberg A, "et al." |title=Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=84 |issue= 2 |pages= 605–9 |year= 1987 |pmid= 3025882 |doi=10.1073/pnas.84.2.605
*cite journal | author=Gotoh E, Yamagami T, Yamamoto H, Okamoto H |title=Chromosomal assignment of human VIP/PHM-27 gene to 6q26----q27 region by spot blot hybridization and in situ hybridization |journal=Biochem. Int. |volume=17 |issue= 3 |pages= 555–62 |year= 1989 |pmid= 3202886 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Yiangou Y, Di Marzo V, Spokes RA, "et al." |title=Isolation, characterization, and pharmacological actions of peptide histidine valine 42, a novel prepro-vasoactive intestinal peptide-derived peptide |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=262 |issue= 29 |pages= 14010–3 |year= 1987 |pmid= 3654650 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Gozes I, Bodner M, Shani Y, Fridkin M |title=Structure and expression of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene in a human tumor |journal=Peptides |volume=7 Suppl 1 |issue= |pages= 1–6 |year= 1986 |pmid= 3748844 |doi=10.1016/0196-9781(86)90156-7
*cite journal | author=Tsukada T, Horovitch SJ, Montminy MR, "et al." |title=Structure of the human vasoactive intestinal polypeptide gene |journal=DNA |volume=4 |issue= 4 |pages= 293–300 |year= 1985 |pmid= 3899557 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Heinz-Erian P, Dey RD, Flux M, Said SI |title=Deficient vasoactive intestinal peptide innervation in the sweat glands of cystic fibrosis patients |journal=Science |volume=229 |issue= 4720 |pages= 1407–8 |year= 1985 |pmid= 4035357 |doi=10.1126/science.4035357
*cite journal | author=Bloom SR, Christofides ND, Delamarter J, "et al." |title=Diarrhoea in vipoma patients associated with cosecretion of a second active peptide (peptide histidine isoleucine) explained by single coding gene |journal=Lancet |volume=2 |issue= 8360 |pages= 1163–5 |year= 1984 |pmid= 6139527 |doi=

External links

* [http://www.biocarta.com/pathfiles/vipPathway.gifPathway at biocarta.com]
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