Red-crowned Parakeet (South America)

Taxobox
name = Red-crowned Parakeet


status = NR
status_system = iucn3.1
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
ordo = Psittaciformes
familia = Psittacidae
genus = "Pyrrhura"
species = "P. roseifrons"
binomial = "Pyrrhura roseifrons"
binomial_authority = Gray, 1859
synonyms ="Pyrrhura picta roseifrons" "Pyrrhura picta peruviana" "Pyrrhura peruviana"

: "Not to be confused with the Red-crowned Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) from New Zealand."The Red-crowned Parakeet ("Pyrrhura roseifrons"), also known as the Red-crowned Conure in aviculture, is a species of parrot in the family Psittacidae. It is found in the western Amazon basin in eastern Peru, far south-eastern Ecuador, north-western Bolivia and far western Brazil. It includes the Wavy-breasted Parakeet ("P. roseifrons peruviana"), also known as the Wavy-breasted Conure, which sometimes is considered a separate species ("see Taxonomy").

Description

Total length ca. 22 cm (8½ in). As other members of the "Pyrrhura picta" complex, it is a long-tailed mainly green parakeet with a dark red belly, rump and tail-tip (tail all dark red from below), a grey-scaled chest, a whitish or dull yellow patch on the auriculars and bluish remiges. The forehead, ocular region and carpal edge are red in the nominate race ("P. r. roseifrons"). The other subspecies, "P. r. peruviana", lacks any pure red in its plumage, but most of its crown and ocular region are very dark brownish-maroon (often appear blackish), while the forecrown is blue. Both races have dark grey legs and a white eye-ring.

Habitat and behavior

It occurs in tropical humid lowland forest and adjacent habitats. It is social and typically seen in pairs or groups. It feeds on fruits, seeds and flowers. The nest is placed in a tree cavity. It is fairly common in most of its range and occurs in several protected areas, e.g. Manú National Park.

Taxonomy

It has typically been considered a subspecies of the Painted Parakeet. While reviewing this group, Joseph (2002) discovered that an undescribed population existed in northern Peru (later also found in far south-eastern Ecuador). It was described as "Pyrrhura peruviana" (Hocking, Blake and Joseph, 2002). It was further recommended that "P. roseifrons" should be considered a monotypic species, instead of a subspecies of "P. picta". While few have expressed doubts over the validity of "peruviana" as a distinct taxon, most authorities (notably SACC and Howard & Moore) recognized neither it nor "roseifrons" as anything but subspecies of "P. picta". Ribas "et al" (2006) confirmed by mtDNA that "P. roseifrons" should be considered a species separate from "P. picta" (otherwise, "P. picta" would be paraphyletic), but also showed that "peruviana" was very close to, and therefore better considered a subspecies of, "P. roseifrons". The taxonomic status in relations to Deville's Parakeet and the so-called "group 6" (per Joseph, 2002) remain unclear.

References

* Joseph, L. (2002). "Geographic variation, taxonomy and distribution of some Amazonian Pyrrhura parakeets." Ornitologia Neotrpical 13(4): 337-363.
* Juniper, T., and M. Parr (1998). "A Guide to the Parrots of the World". Pica Press, East Sussex. ISBN 1-873403-40-2
* Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. Version 6 Sep. 2007. [http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html "A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union."]
* Ribas, C. C., L. Joseph, C. Y. Miyaki (2006). "Molecular sytematics and patterns of diversification in "Pyrrhura" (Psittacidae), with special reference to the "picta-leucotis" complex." Auk 123(3): 660-680.


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