Blood orange

taxobox
name = Blood Orange



image_caption = Blood Orange
regnum = Plantae
unranked_divisio = Angiosperms
unranked_classis = Eudicots
unranked_ordo = Rosids
ordo = Sapindales
familia = Rutaceae
genus = "Citrus"
species = "C. sinensis"
binomial_authority = (L.) Osbeck|
The blood orange is a variety of orange ("Citrus sinensis") with crimson, blood-colored flesh. The fruit is smaller than an average orange; its skin is usually pitted, but can be smooth. The juice is sweet but somewhat bitter and less acidic than that of regular table oranges. [http://www.monin.com/france/en/pdf/Blood_Orange-05.pdf Blood Orange Origin] ] The distinctive dark flesh color is due to the presence of anthocyanin, a pigment common to many flowers and fruit, but uncommon in citrus fruits. Sometimes there is dark coloring on the exterior of the rind as well, depending on the variety of blood orange. The degree of coloration depends on light, temperature and variety.cite web |url=http://gourmetsleuth.com/bloodoranges.htm |title="Gourmet Sleuth - Blood Oranges" |accessdate=2007-04-14]

The blood orange is a hybrid of ancient origin, possibly between the pomelo and the tangerine. It probably originated in Sicily.

Cultivars

The three most common types of blood oranges are: the Tarocco (native to Italy), the Sanguinello (native to Spain), and the Moro, the newest variety of the three. The other less common types include Khanpur, Washington Sanguine, Ruby Blood, Sanguina Doble Fina, Delfino, Red Valencia, Burris blood Valencia orange, Vaccaro blood orange, Sanguine grosse ronde, Entre Fina blood orange and Sanguinello a pignu. Vainiglia Sanguigno and Cara Cara can be considered in the same category when these are all grouped together as pigmented oranges. Cara Cara or Pink Navel and the Vainiglia Sanguigno's pigmentations are based on lycopene instead of anthocyanins of the true blood oranges.

Moro

The Moro, a recent addition to the blood orange family, is the most colorful of the three types, with a deep purple flesh and reddish orange rind. The flavor is stronger and the aroma is more intense than a normal orange. This fruit has a distinct, sweet flavor with a hint of raspberry particular to blood oranges. The Moro variety is believed to have originated at the beginning of the 19th century in the citrus-growing area around Lentini (in the Province of Siracusa in Sicily) as a bud mutation of the "Sanguigno". Moro are "full-blood" oranges, meaning that the flesh ranges from orange-veined with ruby coloration, to vermilion, to vivid crimson, and nearly to black. The thick orange-colored peel has a medium fine grain with spots or red wine veins.

Tarocco

The Tarocco is a medium-sized fruit and is perhaps the sweetest and most flavorful of the three types. The most popular table orange in Italy, the Tarocco is thought to have derived from a mutation of the "Sanguinello". It is referred to as "half-blood", because the flesh is not accentuated in red pigmentation as much as with the Moro and Sanguinello varieties. It has thin orange skin, slightly blushed in red tones. The Tarocco is one of the world's most popular oranges because of its sweetness (Brix to acid ratio is generally above 12.0) and juiciness. It has the highest Vitamin C content of any orange variety grown in the world, mainly on account of the fertile soil surrounding Mount Etna, and it is easy to peel. The Tarocco orange is seedless, and it contains anthocyanins, as do other blood oranges. The name "Tarocco" is thought to be derived from an exclamation of wonder expressed by the farmer who was shown this fruit by its discoverer. The University of California Riverside Citrus Variety Collection has delineated three subcultivars of Tarocco: The Bream Tarocco which was originally donated by Robert Bream of Lindsay, California, is of medium to large fruit with few to no seeds; Tarocco #7 or CRC 3596 Tarocco which is one of the most delicious blood orange varieties in the entire Citrus Variety Collection but the rind of this blood orange has very little to no coloration at all, vigorous tree but only moderately productive; and the Thermal Tarocco which was donated by A. Newcomb of Thermal Plaza Nursery in Thermal, California.

anguinello

The Sanguinello (sahn-gwee-NEHL-loh), also called Sanguinelli in the US (its Sicilian common name), discovered in Spain in 1929, has a reddish skin, few seeds, and a sweet and tender flesh. Sanguinello, the Sicilian late "full-blood" orange, is close in characteristics to the Moro. It matures in February, but can remain on trees unharvested until April. Fruit can last until the end of May. The peel is compact, and clear yellow with a red tinge. The flesh is orange with multiple blood-colored streaks.

History and background

Citrus fruits have been cultivated in Sicily since time immemorial, and cultivation is documented since the time of Moorish rule. While Arabs are credited with originally planting lemons and bitter oranges in Sicily, the Genovese and Portuguese crusaders introduced the sweet variety, Portogallo, in the 15th century.

As the fruit's health-benefiting properties became known, Sicily began shipping oranges around the world. Today, Sicilian citrus is found in virtually every country that permits imports. Blood oranges cultivated in the United States are in season from December to March (Texas), and from November to May (California). While the tree will grow and bear fruit in Florida, the "Mediterranean" temperature variation between day and night seems to be necessary to develop the distinctive red colorFact|date=March 2008 – blood oranges grown in Florida often have little to no red pigmentation.

Nutrition

Blood oranges, like all citrus fruits, are a good source of Vitamin C. They contain about 130 percent of the recommended amounts of Vitamin CFact|date=August 2008. One medium-size orange contains 260 milligrams of potassium, 15 percent of the FDA's daily recommendation. The fruit's red pigment, anthocyanin, is an antioxidant that reduces the risks associated with many ailments, including age-related illnesses.Fact|date=March 2008

Blood oranges diminish the risk of heart disease, some types of cancer and "bad" cholesterol build-up.Fact|date=March 2008 They may also reduce the risk of cataracts, and aid in the body's healing process.Fact|date=March 2008

Eating a medium-sized orange provides 28 percent of the recommended daily amount of dietary fiber. Oranges can also be a valuable source of iron, calcium and vitamin A.

Uses

Blood oranges yield a tasty juice, which can be used as a cocktail ingredient. The oranges can also be used to create marmalade. They have also been used to create gelato and Italian soda.

References

*Antonio Saltini, "I cento volti di Trinacria. Viaggio fotografico nella Sicilia agricola", Ismea - Spazio rurale, Rome 2004

External links

* [http://www.functionalingredientsmag.com/fimag/articleDisplay.asp?strArticleId=703&strSite=FFNSite/ Sicilian red oranges as functional food]
* [http://davesgarden.com/pf/go/73496/ Dave's Garden: Detailed information on Blood Orange 'Moro']
* [http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/bloodoranges.htm#Buy%20and%20Store Gourmet Sleuth]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Blood orange — Blood Blood (bl[u^]d), n. [OE. blod, blood, AS. bl[=o]d; akin to D. bloed, OHG. bluot, G. blut, Goth. bl[=o][thorn], Icel. bl[=o][eth], Sw. & Dan. blod; prob. fr. the same root as E. blow to bloom. See {Blow} to bloom.] 1. The fluid which… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • blood orange — Orange Or ange ([o^]r [e^]nj), n. [F.; cf. It. arancia, arancio, LL. arangia, Sp. naranjia, Pg. laranja; all fr. Ar. n[=a]ranj, Per. n[=a]ranj, n[=a]rang; cf. Skr. n[=a]ranga orange tree. The o in F. orange is due to confusion with or gold, L.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • blood orange — blood .orange n an orange with red juice …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • blood orange — blood ,orange noun count a type of orange with red flesh and juice …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • blood orange — UK / US noun [countable] Word forms blood orange : singular blood orange plural blood oranges a type of orange with red flesh and juice …   English dictionary

  • blood orange — apelsininis citrinmedis statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Rūtinių šeimos medingas, maistinis, vaistinis nuodingas augalas (Citrus sinensis), auginamas atogrąžose ir paatogrąžiuose; jo vaisiai valgomi, iš jų gaminami gėrimai, kvapiosios… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • blood orange — noun : any of several varieties of the sweet orange with deep red pulp * * * ˈblood orange [blood orange] noun a type of orange with red flesh …   Useful english dictionary

  • blood orange — blood′ or ange n. pln any of various sweet oranges having a dark red pulp • Etymology: 1850–55 …   From formal English to slang

  • blood orange — /ˈblʌd ɒrɪndʒ/ (say blud orinj) noun a variety of orange with blood red flesh and skin when ripe …   Australian English dictionary

  • blood orange — noun Date: 1851 a cultivated sweet orange having fruit with usually red pulp; also its fruit …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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