SS France (1961)

The SS "France" was a Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (CGT, or French Line) ocean liner, constructed by the Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyard at Saint-Nazaire, France, and put into service in February 1962. At the time of her construction in 1960 she was the longest passenger ship ever built. Her length of 316 meters remained unchallenged until the construction of the 345 meter RMS|Queen Mary 2 in 2004. The "France" was later renamed SS "Norway" and undertook mostly cruises for Norwegian Cruise Line (NCL).

Characteristics

The SS "France" was the French Line flagship from 1961 to 1974, combining regular transatlantic crossings - six days and nights - with occasional winter cruises, as well as two world circumnavigations.

As the SS "Norway" she was the flagship of the Norwegian Cruise Line from 1980 to approximately 2001.

Some, like ship historian John Maxtone-Graham, believe that the "France" was purpose built to serve as both a liner and a cruise ship, stating: "Once again, the company had cruise conversion in mind... for cruises, all baffle doors segregating staircases from taboo decks were opened to permit free circulation throughout the vessel." [Maxtone-Graham, John; "Liners to the Sun"; Pg. 71] However, others, such as ship historian William Miller, have asserted that the "France" was the "last purposely designed year-round transatlantic supership." [Miller, William H.; "Famous Ocean Liners"; Patrick Stephens Ltd.; 1987; Pg. 107]

History

Concept and construction

The ship was constructed to replace the line's other aging ships like the SS|Ile de France and SS "Liberté", which by the 1950s were considered old and outdated. Without these vessels, however, the French Line had no ability to compete against their rivals, most notably Cunard Line, which also had plans for constructing a new modern liner. It was rumoured that this ship would be a 75,000-ton replacement for their ships RMS|Queen Mary and RMS|Queen Elizabeth. (This ship would eventually be the 68,000-ton RMS|Queen Elizabeth 2.) Further, the United States Lines had put into service in 1952 the SS|United States, which had broken all speed records on her maiden voyage, with an average speed of 35.59 knots (65.91 km/h).

At first, the idea of two 35,000-ton running mates was considered to replace the "Ile de France" and "Liberté". However, Charles de Gaulle (the future President of France) opined that it would be better for French national pride (which was flagging due to the then ongoing Algerian War of Independence) to construct one grand ocean liner as an oceangoing showcase for France, in the tradition of the SS|Normandie. The idea of the liner caused some controversy, with some for and others against it, as its construction would be publicly funded, leading to raucous debates in the French parliament. The dealing lasted three and a half years, and though the letter commissioning the construction was finally signed by the Chairman of the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique, Jean Marie, on July 25, 1956, debate about the form, cost and construction schedule for the "France" lasted a further year.Offrey, Charles; "303 Arts, recherces et créations":SS Normandie/SS France/SS Norway: The "France", the Last French Passenger Liner]

Beyond the luxuries, the French Line had to also face the realities that transatlantic passenger trade was, at that time, forecast to decline due to increased use of the airplane. Also, costs to operate ships were increasing, mostly due to prices of crude oil. Thus, the new ship would be larger than the "Ile", but smaller and cheaper to operate than the "Normandie". She would also only be a two-class liner, which would, like the recently built SS|Rotterdam, be able to be converted from a segregated, class restricted crossing mode to a unified, classless cruising mode, thereby allowing the ship to be more versatile in its operations. Despite these requirements, she was still to be the longest ship ever built, as well as one of the fastest, meaning not only an advanced propulsion system, but also a hull design which would withstand the rigours of the North Altantic at high speed.

Hull G19 was built by Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyard, in Saint-Nazaire, France, her keel being laid down on September 7, 1957. She was built in a non-conventional manner: rather than constructing a skeleton which was then covered in steel hull plating, large parts of the ship were prefabricated in other cities (such as Orléans, Le Havre and Lyon). She was built with a unique double bottom that enabled her to carry 8,000 tons of fuel - enough for the trip to New York and back. The hull was fully welded, leading to weight savings, and had two sets of stabilisers fitted.

She was blessed by the Bishop of Nantes, Monseigneur Villepelet, and launched on May 11, 1960, at 4:15 pm, by Madame Yvonne de Gaulle, wife of the President, and was then named "France", in honour both of the country, and of the two previous CGT ships to bear the name. By 4:22 pm the "France" was afloat and under command of tugs. President De Gaulle was also in attendance at the launch, and gave a patriotic speech, announcing that France had been given a new "Normandie", they were able to compete now with Cunard's "Queens", and the Blue Riband was within their reach. In reality, however, the 35 knot speed of the "United States" would prove impossible to beat.

After the launch, the propellers were installed (the entire process taking over three weeks), the distinctive funnels affixed to the upper decks, the superstructure completed, life boats placed in their davits, and the interiors fitted out.

The "France" undertook her sea trials on November 19, 1961, and averaged an unexpected 35.21 knots.

With the French Line satisfied, the ship was handed over, and undertook a trial cruise to the Canary Islands with a full complement of passengers and crew. During this short trip she met, at sea, the "Liberté" on her way to the scrap yard. [http://www.greatoceanliners.net/index2.html SS France (III)/Norway] ]

ervice history as SS "France"

The "France's" maiden voyage to New York took place on February 3, 1962, with many of France's film stars and aristocracy aboard.

On December 14, 1962, the "France" carried the Mona Lisa from Le Havre to New York, where the painting was to embark on an American tour.

From July 13 to July 26, 1967, the "France" docked at the Île Notre-Dame in Montreal, acting as a secondary French pavilion at the 1967 World's Fair, Expo 67. [ [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/histoire/HistoireIndexA.html France: Sommaire] ]

She sailed the North Atlantic run between Le Havre and New York for thirteen years. However, by the beginning of the 1970s jet travel was by far more popular than ship travel, and the costs of fuel was ever increasing. The "France", which had always relied on subsidies from the French government, was forced to take advantage of these more and more.

Using the ship's versatile design to its full potential, the CGT began to send the "France" on more cruises during the winter, which was off-season for the Atlantic trade. One design flaw, however, was revealed when the ship reached warmer waters: her two swimming pools, one each for first and tourist class, were both indoors; the first class pool deep within the ship's hull, and the tourist class pool on an upper deck, but covered with an immovable glass dome. The latter, perhaps, was the more aggravating in hot weather. She also had limited outdoor deck space, with much of what was available protected behind thick glass wind-screens; useful on the North Atlantic, but frustrating when blocking cooling breezes in the tropics. (The "Queen Elizabeth 2" suffered from a similar design flaw as well.)

Nonetheless, the "France's" cruises were popular, and her first world cruise took place in 1972. Too large to traverse the Panama and Suez Canals, she was forced to sail around Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope. That same year, with the destruction of the "Seawise University" (former RMS "Queen Elizabeth") by fire in Hong Kong, the "France" became the largest passenger ship in the world.

Still, as the opening years of the decade progressed, the cruise market expanded, seeing the construction of smaller, purpose built cruise ships which could also fit through the Panama Canal. Worse, in 1973 the Oil Crisis hit and the price of oil went from $3 US to $12 US per barrel. When the French government, at the end of the Trente Glorieuses, realised that keeping the "France" running would necessitate an additional ten million dollars a year, they opted instead to subsidise the then developing Concorde. Without this government money, the French Line could not operate, and with a press release issued in 1974 it was announced that the "France" would be withdrawn from service on October 25 that year.

At that, the crew decided to take matters into their own hands: an eastbound crossing on September 6, her 202nd crossing, was delayed several hours while the crew met to decide whether to strike then and there, in New York, or six days later outside Le Havre; Le Havre won, and the ship was commandeered by a group of French trade unionists who anchored the "France" in the entrance to the port, thereby blocking all incoming and outgoing traffic. The 1200 passengers aboard had to be ferried to shore on tenders, while approximately 800 of the crew remained aboard. The hijackers demanded that the ship be allowed to continue to serve, along with a 35% wage increase for themselves. However, their mission failed, and the night of the hijacking proved to be the ship's last day of service for the CGT. It took over a month for the stand-off to end, and by December 7, 1974, the ship was moored at a distant quay in Le Havre, known colloquially as the "quai de l'oubli" - the pier of the forgotten. [ [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/histoire/HistoireIndexQ.html SS France: Quai de l'oubli] ]

By that time the "France" had completed 377 crossing and 93 cruises (including 2 world cruises), carried a total of 588,024 passengers on trans-Atlantic crossings, and 113,862 passengers on cruises, and had sailed a total of 1,860,000 nautical miles. [http://www.captainsvoyage.com/ssnorwaytimeline.html SS Norway: Timeline] ]

First decommissioning

The mothballing of the "France" was met with dismay by much of the French population, resulting in a song by Michel Sardou, titled "Le France".

The ship sat in the same spot for approximately four years, with the interiors, including all furniture, still completely intact. There were no plans to scrap the ship, nor to sell it. However, in 1977 Saudi Arabian millionaire Akram Ojjeh expressed an interest in purchasing the vessel for use as a floating museum for antique French furniture and artworks, as well as a casino and hotel off the coast of the south-east United States. Though he purchased the ship for $24 million, this proposal was never realised, and others were rumoured to have floated, including bids from the Soviet Union to use her as a hotel ship in the Black Sea, and a proposal from China to turn her into a floating industrial trade fair.

In the end, the ship was sold in 1979 to Knut Kloster, the owner of Norwegian Cruise Line for $18 million for conversion by him into the world's largest cruise ship. Just before the "France" was renamed "Norway" one last marriage was performed aboard the ship at the quay in Le Havre. The wedding was performed by Rev. Agnar Holme, the Norwegian Seaman's Priest. Greg Tighe, Director of Research and Corporate Development for NCL, was married to Lorraine Anne Evering (Tighe) in the "France's" chapel. Witnesses included the ship's Captain, and several members of NCL's management team. This marked the last marriage to be performed aboard the SS "France", which had hosted hundreds of weddings over its transatlantic career.

By August of that year the "Norway" was moved to the Lloyd shipyards in Bremerhaven, Germany, where she would undergo renovations to the cost of $80,000,000 US. [ [http://www.maritimematters.com/norway.html France Norway] ]

ervice history as SS "Norway"

The SS "Norway" was registered in Oslo, given the call sign LITA (literally meaning "small"), and was re-christened on April 14, 1980, as the first superliner employed exclusively in cruise service. On her maiden call to Oslo, senior steward Wesley Samuels of Jamaica, in the presence of King Olav V, hoisted the United Nations flag as a sign of the ship's international crew. The "Norway" remains the only ship given permission to fly the UN flag.Fact|date=August 2008

She began her maiden voyage to Miami that same year, amidst speculation about her future in the cruise industry. The "France" had been built as an ocean liner: for speed; long, narrow, with a deep draft, as well as an array of cabin shapes and sizes designed in a compact manner more for purpose travel than languid cruising. But the "Norway" proved popular, and made the notion of the ship being a destination in itself credible.

Her size, passenger capacity, and amenities revolutionized the cruise industry and started a building frenzy as competitors began to order bigger and larger ships. As cruise competition attempted to take some of "Norway's" brisk business, the "Norway" herself was upgraded several times in order to maintain her position as the "grande dame" of the Caribbean, including the addition of new decks to her superstructure. While many ship aficionados believe the new decks spoiled her original clean, classic lines, the new private veranda cabins on the added decks were instrumental in keeping "Norway" financially afloat during the later years of her operation, as these became a common feature throughout the cruise industry. Competition eventually overtook the "Norway", and she even started taking a backseat to other ships in NCL's lineup itself. No longer the "Ship amongst Ships", her owners severely cut back on her maintenance and upkeep. She experienced several mechanical breakdowns, fires, incidents of illegal waste dumping, and safety violations for which she was detained at port pending repairs. Despite the cutbacks, the ship remained extremely popular among cruise enthusiasts, some of whom questioned the owner's actions in light of the continuing successful operation of the RMS|Queen Elizabeth 2, which had become a well-maintained rival operating 5-star luxury cruises still for Cunard.

In spite of this, the cutbacks continued and problems mounted even as the ship continued to sail with full occupancy. A turbo-charger fire erupted on the "Norway" as she entered Barcelona in 1999, which pulled her out of service for three weeks.

Slated for retirement, the "Norway" sailed out of Manhattan's west side piers for the last time on September 9, 2001, on yet another transatlantic crossing to Greenock, Scotland, and then on to her home port of Le Havre, France. Her passengers would learn of the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington two days later, while in mid-ocean. However, as the cruise industry reeled from the aftermath of the terrorist attacks, her owners decided to place her back into service - operating bargain-basement cruises from Miami, after a brief cosmetic refit that failed to address her mounting mechanical and infrastructure problems.

On May 25, 2003, after docking in Miami at 5:00 a.m., the "Norway" was seriously damaged by a boiler explosion [ [http://www.ntsb.gov/publictn/2007/MAB0703.htm Noway Accident Investigation Report ] ] at 6:30 a.m. that killed seven crew members, and injured seventeen, as superheated steam flooded the boiler room, and blasted into crew quarters above through ruptured decking. None of the passengers were affected. On June 27, 2003, NCL/Star decided to relocate the "Norway", and she departed Miami under tow, although at first NCL/Star refused to announce her destination. However, she headed towards Europe and eventually arrived in Bremerhaven on September 23, 2003. NCL announced that constructing a new boiler was not possible; boiler parts, however, were available to repair her. In Bremerhaven she was used as accommodation for NCL crew training to take their places on board the line's new "Pride of America".

econd decommissioning

"France"Fact|date=August 2008 will never sail again," it was announced on March 23, 2004, by NCL Chief Executive Colin Veitch. The ship's ownership was transferred to NCL's parent company, Star Cruises.

Due to large amounts of asbestos aboard the ship (mostly in machine and bulkhead areas), the "Norway" was not allowed to leave Germany for any scrap yards due to the Basel Convention. However, after assuring the German authorities that "Norway" would go to Asia for repairs and further operation in Australia, she was allowed to leave port under tow. It was reported that the art from her two dining rooms, children's playroom, stairtower, and library were removed and placed in storage, to possibly be utilized on board a revitalized SS|United States, or another ship in the NCL fleet. [ [http://www.ss-norway.com/ Some Interior Elements Removed in Bremerhaven] ] However, later photos of the ship at the scrapyards of Alang, India, would prove this statement to be untrue. The "Norway" left Bremerhaven under tow on May 23, 2005, and reached Port Klang, Malaysia on August 10, 2005.

In fact, the ship was sold to an American naval demolition dealer for scrap value in December 2005. After eventually reselling the ship to a scrap yard, the ship was to be towed to India for demolition. However, in light of protests from Greenpeace, potentially lengthy legal battles due to environmental concerns over the ship's breakup, and amidst charges of fraudulent declarations made by the company to obtain permission to leave Bremerhaven, her owners cancelled the sale contract, refunded the purchase price, and left the ship where she was. [ [http://www.ssmaritime.com/norway.htm SS Norway ex France] ]

"Blue Lady"

The SS "Norway" was sold in April 2006 to Bridgend Shipping Limited of Monrovia, Liberia, renamed SS "Blue Lady" in preparation for scrapping. One month later she was again sold, to Haryana Ship Demolition Pvt. Ltd., and was subsequently left anchored in waters off the Malaysian coast after the government of Bangladesh refused the "Blue Lady" entry into their waters due to the onboard asbestos. Three weeks later, the ship began its journey towards Indian waters, though it was announced that she had left Malaysian waters for the United Arab Emirates for repairs, and to take on new crew and supplies. [ [http://www.ssmaritime.com/newsupdates7.htm Letter of Pennisular Malaysia Marine Department, May 19, 2006] ] [ [http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2006/june/theuae_june941.xml Khaleej Times: Did mystery ship owners lie over fate of SS Norway?] ]

Upon learning of the ship's destination, Gopal Krishna, an environmentalist and an anti-asbestos activist, filed an application before the Supreme Court of India to ensure that the ship, reportedly containing asbestos, complied with the Court's October 14, 2003, order which sought prior decontamination of ships in the country of export before they could be allowed entry into Indian waters. On May 17, 2006, Kalraj Mishra expressed his concern to the Indian Parliament over possible hazards the "Blue Lady" presented, and requested that the government put a halt to the ship's entry. However, as the Indian Supreme Court had lifted any ban on the ship's entry, the "Blue Lady" was anchored 100 km off the Indian coast in mid-July, coming from Fujairah, UAE. [ [http://www.ssmaritime.com/newsupdates.htm SS France/Norway Project Dubai] ] [ [http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?xfile=data/theuae/2006/June/theuae_June870.xml&section=theuae&col Khaleej Times: Dubai bid to save historic cruise liner] ] This also cleared the way for her scrapping at Alang, in Gujarat, pending an inspection of the on-board asbestos by experts from the Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB). [ [http://www.maritimematters.com/shipnews.html Maritime Matters Shipnews] ]

After GPCB chairman, K.V. Bhanujan, said the Board had constituted an experts' committee for inspection, "Blue Lady" was docked in Pipavav, Kutch District. On August 2, 2006, after a five-day inspection, the experts declared the ship safe for beaching and dismantling in Alang. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/rss/-/2/hi/south_asia/5237334.stm BBC: 'Toxic ship' cleared for breaking] ] However, this prompted a fury of controversy over the legality of such an act, including a press release from the NGO Platform on Shipbreaking that critiqued the technical report, alleging that the Technical Committee was under undue pressure to allow the ship to be beached, and had failed to follow the Basel Convention and the Supreme Court of India's order that ships must be decontaminated of hazardous substances such as PCBs and asbestos, and, in any case, must be fully inventoried and formally notified prior to arrival in the importing country. [ [http://www.ban.org/ban_news/2006/060803_irregularities_alleged.html Toxic Trade News; "Irregularities alleged in the functioning of the Technical Committee on Blue Lady"; August 3, 2006] ] [ [http://www.ban.org/Library/NGO_Platform_Critique_on_TC_Inspection_Report_Final.pdf NGO Platform on Shipbreaking; "Comments on the Indian Committee Inspection Report on the Hazardous Materials Onboard the SS Blue Lady"; July 31, 2006] ] No such notification was made by either Malaysia (last country of departure) nor Germany (country where the ship became waste). The NGO Platform on Shipbreaking also announced that it was prepared to launch a global campaign against Star Cruises and their subsidiary Norwegian Cruise Lines for corporate negligence in this case. [ [http://www.ban.org/ban_news/2006/060726_cruise_line.html Toxic Trade News; "Cruise Line Called on to Take Responsibility for Toxic Cruise Ship"; July 26, 2006] ]

Photos from Alang revealed that "Blue Lady" was still partially afloat off the coast; her bow on dry beach at low tide, and the ship fully afloat at high tide. The photos also showed that neither NCL nor Star Cruises had removed any of the ship's onboard furniture or artworks (including the murals in the Windward Dining Room and Children's Playroom, and the Steinway piano in Le Bistro), as had previously been reported. Fans of the "France" became concerned about the future of the art pieces, both due to the ship lying at anchor in a very humid environment without power for air conditioning, and due to lack of concern for preservation on the part of the scrappers. [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1895897.cms "The Times of India"; 'Blue Lady' gets ready for shipbreaking; Aug 15, 2006] ] [ [http://www.ssnorway.no/images.php the Last of SS Norway Web Auctions: Images] ] Still, it was stated that as of early September 2006, the ship's owner had signed contracts with various buyers, including auctioneers and a French museum, to sell the artworks. Other fittings were to be sold by the ton.

Gopal Krishna again moved an application seeking compliance with the Basel Convention, and three days later the Indian Supreme Court decided that the scrapping was to be postponed, stipulating that the Technical Committee, which earlier approved the scrapping, were to write a new report to be submitted before the Court's final decision. [http://www.vg.no/pub/vgart.hbs?artid=126919 Ege, Rune Thomas; VG Net; "Her ligger hun på stranden"; August 17, 2006 (Article in Norwegian)] That decision was reached on September 11, 2007 (the 33rd anniversary of the SS "France's" last day on the Atlantic), when the court ruled that the "Blue Lady" was safe to scrap, a decision that was received negatively by ship aficionados and environmentalists alike. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6988763.stm BBC News: "Indian court clears 'toxic' ship"; September 11, 2007] ] By December 4 of the same year, it was confirmed that the tip of the "Blue Lady's" bow had been cut; a ceremonial move done to most ships that end up in Alang just prior to the full scale breaking of a ship. [http://www.maritimematters.com/norway.html Maritime Matters: France, Norway] ] It was confirmed on January 20 that the "Blue Lady" has commenced scrapping. Scrapping began on the forward part of the sun deck. The suites added during the 1990 refit were gone by March. By July 12, 2008 the bow and the stern of the ship had been removed, with little of the ship's famous profile still recognizable. [ [http://www.midshipcentury.com/ MidShipCentury ] ] By September of 2008, most of what remained above the waterline had been cut away, and the ship's destruction was essentially completed by late 2008.

Design

Exterior

When the "France" was commissioned in 1956 the French Line asked for a ship which was to be the longest ever built, as well as one of the fastest. But beyond the technicalities, the ship was also to be a Ship of State - an oceangoing symbol of France - and thus had to be artfully designed. Her 316 meter (1,035 ft) hull was designed with a traditional tumble-home, but with a flared stem line at the bow, which ended in a bulbous bow beneath the waterline, evoking similar lines on the SS|Normandie|3=2. Also similar to the "Normandie", the "France" was equipped with a whaleback on her bow. The hull also included a unique double bottom that enabled her to carry 8,000 tons of fuel - enough for the trip to New York and back. The shafts which turned her quadruple screws were the longest yet built, and the rudder weighed 74 tons.

Deckhouses on the France's superstructure were built of aluminium, to reduce the ship's weight, and therefore conserve fuel in her operation. Within the superstructure a full length outdoor promenade deck was designed into both sides of the Pont Canots. However, unlike on many other ships, this deck did not wrap completely around the ship, being blocked at the forward end by cabins built in behind the bridgescreen.

One of the "France's" most distinguishable features was her funnels, designed not only to be eye-catching but practically functional as well. They were constructed with two wings on the sides, each to lead the exhaust fumes outwards into the ship's slipstream, where they would be caught by the wind and carried away from the passenger decks below. In addition, each stack had a device that filtered all solids from the outlet, returned it into the depths of the ship and then disposed of it into the ocean.

Despite the modern appearance of the "France", she was painted in the traditional CGT colours, used since the 19th century, of a black hull with red boot-topping and white superstructure, and funnels in red with black cap-bands.

The ship's exterior remained unchanged during her thirteen years of service. However, through conversion of the "France" into a ship used for cruising, many alterations were made to her exterior decks.

Most notably, vast areas of deck space were opened up, and extended at the stern. A large lido deck was created at the very aft, built so wide, to accommodate as many sunbathing passengers as possible, that it cantilevered over the hull below, which narrowed in towards the stern at that point. The terrace off of the First Class Smoking Room was lost in the construction of an outdoor buffet restaurant, and the Patio Provencal on the Sun Deck was filled in with a top-side swimming pool. This last addition created an odd space on the "Norway", where a tunnel-like space remained around the tank of the pool, into which the original exterior windows and doors of the surrounding cabins, which once looked into the Patio Provencal, still opened, all in their original 1960s colours.

At the forecastle, behind the whaleback, giant davits were installed to hoist two two-story, 11-knot tenders, built by Holen Mekaniske Verksted in Norway, and used to transfer passengers between the "Norway" and island docks where the harbour would not allow for the ship's 9-meter (35 ft) draft. These tenders were named "Little Norway I" and "Little Norway II", and were each themselves registered as ships, making the "Norway" the only ship in the world to carry ships. (The tenders and davits are illustrated [http://www.captainsvoyage.com/ssnorwaygallery-page05.html here] .)

Below the waterline, the forward engine room was dismantled and the two outboard propellers were removed to reduce fuel costs as a high service speed was no longer required as she was now a cruise ship.

Her operation was revived three further times, in 1990, 1997, and 2001, after machinery, decks, and recreational facilities were renovated. During her 1990 refit, two further decks were added to the top of her structure that featured luxury suites with private verandas. This addition raised her overall tonnage to 76,049 (winning her back the title of largest passenger ship in the world, from the 73,000-ton MS "Sovereign of the Seas"), her passenger capacity to 2,565, and gave her a competitive edge against newer ships being built at that time which featured more and more private balcony suites for their passengers. But ship aficionados were incensed that these new decks, built with very rectilinear lines to accommodate the prefabricated cabin units within, ruined the original sweeping lines of the "France", and made the "Norway" appear top-heavy.

Interior

"France"

The "France's" interiors were where the ship displayed its purpose as a showcase of modern French art and design. However, the interior designers were burdened with the pressure of living up to France's last great Ship of State, the SS Normandie, whose interiors had been on a scale never surpassed before or after her construction. On top of this they had to work within the more strict fire regulations laid down after the end of World War II, which gave them a limited palette consisting of few woods and much aluminium, Formica, and plastic veneers. This was very much like the interiors of the SS|United States, put into service nearly ten years previous, and inspired the design of the public rooms on the RMS|Queen Elizabeth 2 eight years later. Also, fire regulations would not allow the "France" to have the grand vistas that were constructed through the "Normandie's" main First Class rooms. The "France's" only double-height spaces were the theatre, First Class smoking room, and both First and Tourist Class dining rooms.

One area given an unusual amount of attention was the ship's kitchens; 1,500 square meters in area, and placed almost amidships, between the two dining rooms which the one kitchen served. It was thought by the CGT directors that the "France" would not only display the best in French art and design, but also French cuisine. The kitchens were equipped with the most advanced machinery available, as well as many traditional cooking aides, including a stove that was 12 meters long and 2.5 meters wide. Staffed with 180 of France's best cooks, sauce and pastry chefs, rotisserie cooks, head waiters and wine stewards, this team made the "France" one of the finest restaurants in the world,] and the food on board prompted food critic Craig Claiborne to state the "France's" Grille Room was the "best French restaurant in the world."

The "France's" dog kennels were located on the Sun Deck, and, as they served both European and American dogs, a passenger could choose to have their pet's run installed with a Parisian milestone or a New York City fire hydrant."

For First Class passengers, the Pont Veranda (Veranda Deck) held most of the public rooms. These included the [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV16.html Library and Reading Room] , [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV14.html Smoking Room] , [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV17.html Grand Salon] , and balcony of the [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV18.html theatre] , which was dedicated to First Class passengers only. These rooms were arranged down the centre of the ship, with large, glass enclosed promenades to either side. The Library was a circular room with glass and lacquered aluminum enclosed book-cases all around, holding 2,200 editions, and was overseen by an attendant who regulated the borrowing and returning of books, as well as assisting passengers with their choices. The Grand Salon was had a raised ceiling in the centre, over the abstract grey and white marble mosaic dance floor, with lower more intimate spaces at the corners. The theatre, which functioned both as a Proscenium and cinema, sat 185 in the balcony, and 479 on the orchestra level, and had a projection booth which could handle 16, 35, and 70 mm film. Until the 1990s it was the largest theatre ever constructed on a ship. However, one of the main showpieces of the First Class salons was the Smoking Room at the very aft of the Pont Veranda. Two stories high, with a raised section in the centre flanked by large columns, and double-height windows to port and starboard, the room was one of the most imposing aboard the ship.

One level down was Pont Promenade, the main Tourist Class deck. The main lounges and rooms here were the [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV10.html Library] , [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV11.html Smoking Room] , [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV9.html Grand Salon] , and orchestra level of the theatre. Like the Pont Veranda, Pont Promenade also had a glass enclosed promenade along the port and starboard sides of the ship, though the windows did not run full height, nor were the spaces as long.

Pont A held both First Class and Tourist Class dining rooms. These rooms served as the gastronomic counterparts to the smoking rooms, in terms of importance, and thus of form and decor. The [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV2.html First Class Dining Room] was located amidships, and spanned the full width of the ship, accommodating 400 passengers. The centre of the space rose to a circular dome, some 5.5 m (18 ft) high, and as on the "Normandie", passengers entered from one deck up (Pont Principale) and descended a grand, central staircase to the main dining room floor. Glassware, of which there was 4,800 wine and water glasses, was provided by Saint-Louis crystal factory, and tableware consisted of 22,000 china items, with 25,500 pieces of silverware. The [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV4.html Tourist Class Dining Room] similarly was two decks high, but differed in that it had dining on the upper level, with only a well betweel the two floors, and no connecting staircase. It was placed aft of the kitchens, and sat 826 people. Next to the upper level of this dining room was the [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV6.html Children's Dining Room] , which allowed both First and Second class parents to dine without the "inconvenience" of young children.

After the first few of the "France's" cruises, CGT executives realised that there was a problem regarding the naming of the public rooms. After her entrance into service, the rooms were simply known as the "First Class Grand Salon," "First Class Dining Room," "Tourist Class Library," etc. However, during a cruise, where class barriers were withdrawn and all passengers were allowed to use all the spaces equally, it became a slight embarrassment for a passenger traveling in a large cabin to ask a steward for directions to the Tourist Class Dining Room. Hence, proper names were applied to each room to avoid the issue:
* First Class Salon - Salon Fontainebleau
* First Class Music Room - Salon Debussy
* First Class Card Room - Salon Monaco
* First Class Smoking Room - Salon Riviera
* First Class Dining Room - Salle à Manger Chambord
* Tourist Class Salon - Salon Saint Tropez
* Tourist Class Music Room - Salon Ravel
* Tourist Class Smoking Room - Cafe Rive Gauche
* Tourist Class Dining Room - Salle à Manger Versailles

Some anomalies that contravened the class lines were the [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV13.html Bar de l'Atlantique] , essentially an after-hours club for drinking and dancing late into the night which was open to both First and Second Class passengers, the [http://perso.orange.fr/paquebot.france-norway/visite/VisiteVirtuelle/PageVisiteVV21.html Tourist Children’s' Playroom] , and the Chapel, open as well to both classes, all of which were located on First Class Pont Veranda.

Art

The decor of the rooms was regarded itself as art, with many notable French designers and artists commissioned to create the most striking spaces at sea. Beyond this, many pieces of artwork were especially ordered to adorn the walls of the dining rooms, lounges and cabins. Within the Salon Rivierra the tapestry by Jean Picart le Doux dominated the entire forward wall, at 17.4 m (57 ft) long. In the same room two paintings by Roger Chapelain-Midy occupied niches in opposite corners to the aft. The overall interior was designed by Arbus, who had previously worked with Chapelain-Midy to design sets for a performance of Les Indes galantes at the Palais Garnier in 1952. Slightly forward, the Salon Fontainebleau was decorated by Maxime Old, and within was contained three tapestries by Lucien Coutaud ("Les femmes fleurs"), two by Claude Idoux ("Jardin magique", "Fée Mirabelle") and Camille Hilaire ("Sous-bois, Forêt de France"). Near to that room was the Salon Debussy (Music Room) with thee bronze lacquered panels by Bobot, and a bronze abstract sculpture of a young woman playing a flute, by Hubert Yencesse. The theatre's interior was done in red, grey and gold by Peynet, with the ceiling in grey mosaic tile, and the port and starboard walls in vertical gold lacquered aluminum panels, tilted outwards to allow for recessed lighting from behind. The [http://www.revedefrance.com/nouvellepage51.htm Chapel's interior] was created by Anne Carlu Subes (daughter of Jacques Carlu) in silver annodized aluminum panels arranged in a 45 degree grid pattern. Jacques Noël created trompe l'oeil panels for all four walls of the First Class Children's Playroom in a Renaissance theme, and Jean A. Mercier painted a full mural entitled "Une nouvelle arche doe Noe" (A New Noah's Arc) for the Tourist Class Children's' Playroom, using an abstract rendition of the "France" as the Arc. The Bar du l'Atlantique contained two ceramics by Pablo Picasso, as well three other ceramic sculptures ("Faune cavalier", "Portrait de jacqueline",and "Joueur de flûte et danseuse") by the artist in the Salon Saint Tropez.

Lower down the dining rooms were fitted out with the intention that the rooms would be visual equivalents of the excellent food served within them. The Chambord dining room was decorated by Mrs. Darbois-Gaudin in gold anodized aluminum, with monochrome chairs in red, orange, and cream. The dome, painted black, contained an array of recessed pot-lights, and sat within a circular band of translucent, fluorescent-lit panels, all on a truncated rotunda of gold aluminum. Around all four walls of the room Jean Mandaroux's continuous mural, painted on 17 lacquered aluminum sheets, was entitled "Les plaisirs de la vie": The Pleasures of Life. Less sumptuous in design, the Versailles dining room was done by Marc Simon in tones of green, white and grey. The walls were produced from Polyrey and Formica with a decoupaged gold leaf abstract pattern. Only the forward wall held a mural done in 14 engraved glass panels by Max Ingrand, as well as two tapestries, "Les amoureux du printemps" by Marc Saint-Saëns, and "Paysage provençal" by Auvigné. Lowest in the ship, the walls of the First Class swimming pool were covered with back-lit engraved glass panels by Max Ingrand, and a ceramic sculptural fountain by Jean Mayodon sat at the forward end of the room.

The First Class cabins also showcased design and art, especially in the Apartements de Grande Luxe. There were two aboard the "France", amidships, on the port and starboard sides, on Pont Superieur. Each had a salon, dining room, two bedrooms, and three bathrooms. The Apartement de Grande Luxe Île de France held a painting, "La place de la Concorde", by Bernard Lamotte, as well as one, "Parc de Versailles", by Jean Carzou, who also designed the suite's main slaon. Slightly less expensive were the Apartements de Luxe, of which there were 12. Each of these was decorated by artists, including the bathrooms where mosaic artwork adorned the walls around tubs and showers. [ [http://www.revedefrance.com/nouvellepage14.htm Les ponts et ses amenagements: Ses Intérieurs] ]

"Norway"

After the ship was purchased by Kloster in 1979 many of the original 1960s interiors were lost as rooms were either demolished within larger renovations, or redecorated to suit Caribbean cruising, under the direction of maritime architect Tage Wandborg and New York interior designer Angelo Donghia.Conquer, Philippe; "303 Arts, recherces et créations": SS Normandie/SS France/SS Norway: Love's Labours... Lost?] Areas that were completely remodeled included all of the Tourist Class public rooms, and their indoor promenade areas were filled with prefabricated "junior suite" cabins. The former Versailles dining room, now the Leeward, [http://www.revedefrance.com/nouvellepage759.htm saw the least remodeling] , the wall finish and etched glass mural remaining; however, carpeting and furniture was replaced, the open well was lined with smoked glass and aluminum handrails, an aluminum chandelier was placed over the two-storey space, and a spiral staircase was installed to connect the two levels. The former Salon Saint Tropez became the "Norway's" North Cape Lounge for cabaret and other shows; the decor more dark and muted. Further forward on the same deck, the old Cafe Rive Gauche was transformed into the ship's Monte Carlo casino. With the promenade windows now within cabins, no daylight penetrated to the casino, and so all windows were filled in. The Tourist Class swimming pool, its glass dome gone after the construction of the open pool deck above, was filled with neon lights and covered with a glass dance floor as part of the remodeling of the entire space into the ship's A Club Called Dazzles disco.

However, most First Class rooms were left intact, save for the Salon Rivierra and Salon Fontainbleu. The former was transformed into the Club International (dubbed Club-I by "Norway" affectionados), where every element of the original decor was removed. The square columns were made round with vertical aluminum fluting, the walls were repainted in a cream with baby-blue in the ceiling and wall niches, and all the original artwork and furniture was removed. In the corner niches oversized, crystal encrusted Neptune statues were placed, and similar crystal garlanded busts sat on brackets on the forward bulkhead. Lounge seating, sofas and ratan chairs were placed amongst potted ferns, giving the room an overall Miami art-deco feel. Only the railings and bronze, star-shaped light fixtures were original to the room..

Power station

The "France" was constructed by the CGT with speed and comfort in mind, and used the most advanced technology of the time in the design of the ship's propulsion system and other power generating machinery. Fuel costs were also an added factor.

Her engines consisted of eight high-pressure, super-heating boilers delivering 65 kg per cc and 500 degrees Celsius, all weighing 8,000 tons. This delivered 175,000 hp, and provided for a maximum speed of 35 knots, with a fuel consumption of 750 tonnes of oil in a 24 hour period; a savings, compared to the "Normandie", of 40 to 50%. The machinery turning the four screws was divided into two fore and aft groups, as was the electrical generating station.

When the "France" was converted into the "Norway", the speed for trans-Atlantic crossing was not needed, and so the forward boilers and engines were shut down and eventually dismantled. This move cut down fuel consumption to 250 tonnes per 24 hours. The remaining four boilers and engine room were made fully automated, and operated from either a central control station below decks, or from the bridge. Five bow and stern thrusters, developing 10,600 hp, were also installed to increase manoeuvrability in ports without the assistance of tugs.

ee also

*SS|France|1912
*SS|Normandie
*SS|United States
*SS|Constitution
*SS|Independence

External links

Image galleries

* [http://www.thewaywewent.com/nor_1.html "Norway" Farewell Transatlantic 2001] ; many photos of the "Norway", including interiors and details of artwork
* [http://youtube.com/watch?v=6gDlrVFcgk4 Slide show of SS "France/Norway" images]
* Pictures of the SS "Blue Lady" at Alang, India: [http://www.ssnorway.no/images/ssnorway-outside/index.htm exterior] and [http://www.ssnorway.no/images/ssnorway-inside/ interior]
* [http://www.captainsvoyage.com Webpage Pictures galleries and personal stories from SS France and SS Norway]
* [http://www.frenchlines.com/images/resultat_fr.php?origine=rindex&champ=navire&mc=France+%28CGT+1962%29 SS france Pictures from the official French Line Archives] (french captions)
* [http://www.maritimematters.com/francetour.html SS France: The tour page]
* [http://www.dvomarinedesign.com/france3d/france3d-intro.htm 3-D virtual still photo and movie renderings of the SS France]

Other

* [http://classicliners.nicholaswwilson.com/ships/france.htm The Classic Liners of Long Ago: France]
* [http://www.frenchlines.com/ship_en_178.php The liner France in French Lines Archives]
* [http://www.transatlantique.fr.st Compagnie Générale Transatlantique]
* [http://BL.bluenorway.org/ Letter regarding the 2003 boiler explosion filed at the Indian Supreme Court]
* [http://ss-norway.com/ S/S Norway Preservation Foundation]
* [http://BlueNorway.Org/ BlueNorway.org concentrates on the 2003 Boiler Explosion and current Environmental issues.]

Footnotes


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