Pan-Americanism


Pan-Americanism

Pan-Americanism is a movement which, through diplomatic, political, economic and social means, seeks to create, encourage and organize relationships, associations and cooperation between the states of the Americas in common interests.

History

The struggle for independence after 1810 by the Latin American nations evoked a sense of unity, especially in South America where, under Simón Bolívar in the north and José de San Martín in the south, there were cooperative efforts. Francisco Morazán briefly headed a Federal Republic of Central America. Early South American Pan-Americanists were also inspired by the American Revolutionary War, where a suppressed and colonized society struggled united and gained its independence. In the United States, Henry Clay and Thomas Jefferson set forth the principles of Pan-Americanism in the early 1800s, and soon afterward the United States declared through the Monroe Doctrine a new policy with regard to interference by European nations in the affairs of the Americas.

In the 19th century, Latin American military nationalism came to the fore. Venezuela and Ecuador withdrew (1830) from Gran Colombia; the Central American Federation collapsed (1838); Argentina and Brazil fought continually over Uruguay, and then all three combined in the War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70) to defeat Paraguay; and in the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia. However, during this same period Pan-Americanism existed in the form of a series of Inter-American Conferences—Panama (1826), Lima (1847), Santiago (1856), and Lima (1864). The main object of those meetings was to provide for a common defense. The first of the modern Pan-American Conferences was held in Washington, DC (1889-90), with all nations represented except the Dominican Republic. Treaties for arbitration of disputes and adjustment of tariffs were adopted, and the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics, which became the Pan-American Union, was established. Subsequent meetings were held in various Latin American cities.

Evolution of Pan-Americanism

The intended liberalization of commercial intercourse did not occur, but collaboration was extended to a series of areas, such as health (Pan-American Health Organization), geography and history (Pan-American Institute of Geography and History), child protection and children's rights (International American Institute for the Protection of Children), rights of the woman (Inter-American Commission of Women), indigenous policies (Inter-American Indigenist Institute), agriculture (Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences) collective continental defense (Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Attendance), economic aid (Inter-American Development Bank), human rights (Inter-American Court of Human Rights), infrastructure works (Pan-American Highway) and peacekeeping (Inter-American Peace Force).

The American states also adopted a series of diplomatic and political rules, which were not always respected or fulfilled, governing relations between the countries, like the following ones: arbitration of disputes, peaceful resolution of conflicts, military non-intervention, equality among the member states of each organism and in their mutual relations, decisions by means of resolutions approved by the majority, the recognition of diplomatic asylum, the Private International Law Code (Bustamente Code), the inter-American system of human rights (American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man; Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, along with its protocols and associate conventions; and the Inter-American Democratic Charter of the Organization of American States).

Congresses and conferences

* 1826 in Panama. Congreso Anfictiónico de Panamá Congress of Panama. Organized by Simon Bolivar
* 1847-1848 Congreso de Lima
* 1856-1857 Congreso de Santiago
* 1864-1864 Congreso de Lima
* 1889/90 in Washington D.C. International Conference of American States. The day of this meeting, 14 April, is celebrated since 1930 as Pan American Day
* ?
* 1906 in Havana
* ?
* 1923 in Santiago
* 1928 in Havana
* 1933 in Montevideo
* 1936 in Buenos Aires (Peace Conference)
* 1938 in Lima
* 1942 in Rio de Janeiro (conference of Ministers of Foreign Affairs)
* 1948 in Bogotá
* 1949 founded Office of Latin American Education, which became the Organization of Ibero-American States
* 1954 in Caracas
* 2nd Latin American Congress of Education took place in Quito
* 1967 Buenos Aires
* 1969 Viña del Mar
* 2006 Panama City, Panama - Sponsored by the President of Panama, Martín Torrijos - Latin American and Caribbean Congress in Solidarity with Puerto Rico’s Independence

Crises

* 2008 South American diplomatic crisis

Conflicts in the Americas

*List of conflicts in the Americas

ee also

*Pan-nationalism
*Continentalism
*Falangism in Latin America
*Dirty War


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pan-Americanism — ☆ Pan Americanism [pan΄ə mer′i kəniz΄əm ] n. any theory or policy of, or movement toward, political and economic cooperation, mutual social and cultural understanding, international alliance, etc. among the Pan American nations …   English World dictionary

  • Pan-Americanism — Pan A*mer i*can*ism, n. The principle or advocacy of a political alliance or union of all the states of America. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • pan-americanism — “+ noun Usage: usually capitalized P&A : a movement of the late 19th and 20th centuries favoring close cooperation (as mutual protection and the promotion of better commercial and cultural relations) among the Pan American nations based upon a… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Pan-Americanism — /pan euh mer i keuh niz euhm/, n. 1. the idea or advocacy of a political alliance or union of all the countries of North, Central, and South America. 2. a movement for or the idea or advocacy of close economic, cultural, and military cooperation… …   Universalium

  • Pan-Americanism — noun Date: 1901 a movement for greater cooperation among the Pan American nations …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Pan-Americanism — noun Belief in the benefit of Pan American organization …   Wiktionary

  • pan-Americanism — noun the principle or advocacy of cooperation among all the countries of North and South America. Derivatives pan American adjective …   English new terms dictionary

  • pan-Americanism — /pæn əˈmɛrɪkənɪzəm/ (say pan uh merikuhnizuhm) noun the idea or advocacy of a political alliance or union of all the countries of North, Central, and South America …   Australian English dictionary

  • Pan-nationalism — is a form of nationalism distinguished by the large scale of the claimed national territory, and because it often defines the nation on the basis of a ‘’cluster’’ of cultures and ethnic groups. It shares the general nationalist ideology, that the …   Wikipedia

  • Pan-American — or Pan American may refer to:*Pan Americanism, an integrationist movement among the nations of the Americas *Pan American Union, later the Organization of American States *Pan American Health Organization *Pan American Highway *Pan American Games …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.