List of cloud types
Clouds are formed in Earth's atmosphere when water evaporates into vapor from oceans, lakes, and ponds or by evapotranspiration over moist areas of Earth's land surface. The vapor rises up into colder areas of the atmosphere due to convective, orographic, or frontal lifting. The water vapor attaches itself to condensation nuclei which could be anything from dust to microscopic particles of salt and debris. Once the vapor has been cooled to saturation, the cloud becomes visible. All weather producing clouds form in the troposphere, the lowest major layer of the atmosphere. However very small amounts of water vapor can be found higher up in the stratosphere and mesosphere and may condense into very thin clouds if the air temperatures are sufficiently cold. One branch of meteorology is focused on the study of nephology or cloud physics.
Tropospheric clouds can be divided into three main categories with names based on Latin root words that indicate physical structure and process of formation. Clouds of the cirriform category are generally thin and occur mostly in the form of filaments. The other two categories are stratiform with clouds that are mostly sheet-like in structure, and cumuliform that appear heaped, rolled, and/or rippled.
In the troposphere, nine of the ten genus types are derived by cross-classifying the three categories into four families defined by altitude range; high, middle, low, and moderate vertical. Each of these families includes one stratiform and one cumuliform genus. Cirriform clouds differ in that they are only found in the high altitude family as a third member, and therefore only constitute a single genus cirrus. High stratiform and cumuliform clouds carry the prefix cirro which yield the genera cirrostratus and cirrocumulus. Middle cloud genera have the prefix alto (altostratus and altocumulus) to distinguish them from the high clouds, while low altitude stratiform and cumuliform genera (stratus and stratocumulus) carry no height-related prefixes. The fourth family comprises stratiform and cumuliform genera of moderate vertical extent (nimbostratus and cumulus) that form in the low or middle altitude range. This group also has no height-related prefixes, but its stratiform genus carries the prefix nimbo to denote its ability to produce widespread precipitation.
A fifth family or sub-family of towering vertical clouds comprises only cumuliform types. One is cumulonimbus, the tenth genus type, and the other is cumulus congestus, a towering species of the genus cumulus whose other species belong to the family of moderate vertical clouds. All cloud genera except nimbostratus are divided into species and/or varieties based on specific physical characteristics of the clouds, but the cumulus genus is the only one that has species in two different altitude families.
The essentials of the modern nomenclature system for tropospheric clouds were proposed by Luke Howard, a British manufacturing chemist and an amateur meteorologist with broad interests in science, in an 1802 presentation to the Askesian Society. Since 1890, clouds are classified and illustrated in cloud atlases.
Clouds that form above the troposphere have a generally cirriform structure, but are not given Latin names based on that characteristic. Polar stratospheric clouds form at very high altitudes in polar regions of the stratosphere. They are given the name Nacreous due to the mother-of-pearl colors that are typically seen, and are sub-classified alpha-numerically according to their chemical makeup. Polar mesospheric clouds are the highest in the atmosphere and are given the Latin name noctilucent which refers to their illumination during deep twilight. They are sub-classified alpha-numerically according to specific details of their cirriform physical structure.
Troposphere: genera, species, varieties, and supplementary features
High： base ca. 16,500 to ca. 40,000 ft /5 to 12 km in temperate latitudes
Cirrus clouds form in the highest and coldest region of the troposphere. At this altitude water almost always freezes so clouds are composed of ice crystals. The clouds tend to be wispy, and are often transparent. Isolated cirrus clouds often do not bring rain, however, large amounts of cirrus clouds can indicate an approaching storm system eventually followed by fair weather.
There are several variations of clouds of the cirrus genus based on species and varieties:
- Cirrus clouds having the traditional "mare's tail" appearance. These clouds are long, fibrous, and curved, with no tufts or curls at the ends.
- Cirrus filaments with up-turned hooks or curls.
- Cirrus in the form of dense and opaque or mostly opaque patches.
- A series of dense lumps, or "towers" of cirrus, connected by a thinner base.
- Cirrus with elements which take on a rounded appearance on the top, with the lower part appearing ragged.
- Cirrus undulatus
- Undulating cirrus.
- Sheets of cirrus at different layers of the atmosphere, which may be connected at one or more points.
- Cirrus clouds whose filaments are irregularly curved or tangled.
- Large area of cirrus displaying horizontal bands that appear to converge at the horizon.
- Persistent condensation trails (contrails) formed by ice crystals originating from water vapor emitted by aircraft engines.
Clouds of the genus cirrocumulus form when moist air at a high altitude reaches saturation, creating ice crystals. Limited convective instability at the cloud level gives the cloud a rolled or rippled appearance. Despite the lack of a 'strato' prefix, cirrocumulus is physically more closely related to stratocumulus than the more freely convective cumulus genus.
- Cirrocumulus with "towers", or turrets.
- Cirrocumulus in the form of tufts with ragged bases.
- Lenticular, or lens-shaped cirrocumulus.
- Sheets or relatively flat patches of cirrocumulus.
- undulating cirrocumulus.
- Cirrocumulus with large clear holes.
WMO supplementary features
- Cirrocumulus mamma
- Cirrocumulus with bubble-like downward protuberances.
- Cirrocumulus virga
- Cirrocumulus producing light precipitation that evaporates well above ground level.
Clouds of the genus cirrostratus consist of mostly continuous, wide sheets of cloud that covers a large area of the sky. It is formed when convectively stable moist air cools to saturation at a high altitude, forming ice crystals. Frontal cirrostratus is a precursor to rain or snow if it thickens into mid level altostratus and eventually nimbostratus as the weather front moves closer to the observer.
- Cirrostratus sheet with a fibrous appearance, but not as detached as cirrus.
- Featureless, uniform cirrostratus.
- Cirrostratus duplicatus
- separate or semi-merged sheets of cirrostratus with one layer slightly above the other.
- Cirrostratus undulatus
- Cirrostratus in undulating waves.
WMO supplementary features -none
Middle： base ca. 6,500 to ca. 23,000 ft /2 to 7 km in temperate latitudes
Clouds of the genus altocumulus are not always associated with a weather front but can still bring precipitation, usually in the form of virga which does not reach the ground. This genus is generally an indicator of limited convective instability at the altitude of its formation, and is therefore more closely related to stratocumulus than to the more freely convectice cumulus genus.
- Altocumulus lenticularis
- Lens shaped altocumulus. Includes informal varient altocumulus Kelvin-Helmholtz cloud, lenticular spiral indicative of severe turbulence.
- Altocumulus castellanus
- Turreted altocumulus.
- Altocumulus stratiformis
- Sheets or relatively flat patches of altocumulus.
- Altocumulus floccus
- Tufted altocumulus with ragged bases.
- Altocumulus lacunosus
- Altocumulus with circular holes caused by localized downdrafts.
- Altocumulus duplicatus
- Altocumulus in closely spaced layers, one above the other.
- altocumulus opacus
- Altocumulus translucidus
- Translucent altocumulus through which the sun or moon can be seen.
- Altocumulus perlucidus
- Opaque altocumulus with translucent breaks.
- Altocumulus radiatus
- Altocumulus in rows that appear to converge at the horizon.
- Altocumulus undulatus
- Altocumulus with wavy undulating base.
WMO supplementary features
- Altocumulus mamma
- Altocumulus with downward facing bubble-like protuberances caused by localized downdrafts within the cloud.
- Altocumulus virga
- Altocumulus producing precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground.
Clouds of the genus altostratus form when a large convectively stable airmass is lifted to condensation altitude, usually along a frontal system, and can bring rain or snow. If the precipitation becomes continuous, it may thicken into nimbostratus.
- No differentiated species.
- Altostratus opacus
- Altostratus that completely blocks out the sun.
- Altostratus translucidus
- Altostratus through which the sun can be seen.
- Altostratus duplicatus
- Altostratus in closely spaced layers, one above the other.
- Altostratus radiatus
- Altostratus in bands that appear to converge at the horizon.
- Altostratus undulatus
- Altostratus with wavy undulating base.
WMO supplementary features
- Altostratus mamma
- Altostratus with downward facing bubble-like protuberances caused by localized downdrafts within the cloud.
- Altostratus virga
- Altostratus producing precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground.
- Altostratus praecipitatio
- Altostratus producing precipitation that reaches the ground.
- Altostratus pannus
- Altostratus with ragged lower layer of fractus species clouds forming in precipitation.
Low： base near surface to ca. 6,500 ft /2 km in temperate latitudes
Clouds of the genus stratocumulus are lumpy, often forming in slightly unstable air following a cold front, and they can produce very light rain or drizzle.
- Stratocumulus castellanus
- Layer of turreted stratocumulus cloud with tower-like formations protruding upwards.
- Stratocumulus lenticularis
- Lens shaped stratocumulus.
- Stratocumulus stratiformis
- Sheets or relatively flat patches of stratocumulus
- Stratocumulus lacunosus
- Stratocumulus with circular holes caused by localized downdrafts.
- Stratocumulus duplicatus
- Closely spaced layers of stratocumulus, one above the other.
- stratocumulus opacus
- Opaque stratocumulus clouds.
- stratocumulus perlucidus
- Opaque stratocumulus clouds with translucent breaks.
- Stratocumulus radiatus
- Stratocumulus clouds arranged in parallel waves that appear to converge on the horizon.
- stratocumulus translucidus
- Thin translucent stratocumulus through which the sun or moon can be seen.
- Stratocumulus undulatus
- Stratocumulus with wavy undulating base.
WMO supplementary features
- Stratocumulus mamma
- Stratocumulus with bubble-like protrusions on the underside.
- Stratocumulus virga
- Stratocumulus producing producing precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground.
- Stratocumulus praecipitatio
- Stratocumulus clouds producing precipitation that reaches the ground.
Clouds of the genus stratus form in low horizontal layers having a ragged or uniform base. Ragged stratus often forms in precipitation while more uniform stratus forms in maritime or other moist stable air mass conditions. The latter often produces drizzle.
- stratus fractus
- Ragged shreds of stratus clouds usually under base of precipitation clouds.
- Stratus nebulosus
- Uniform fog-like stratus.
- Stratus opacus
- Opaque stratus that obscures the sun or moon.
- Stratus translucidus
- Thin translucent stratus.
- Stratus undulatus
- Stratus with wavy undulating base.
WMO supplementary features - none
Moderate vertical： low to middle base from near surface to ca. 10,000 ft /3 km; tops mostly middle level
Clouds of the genus nimbostratus tend to bring constant precipitation and low visibility. This cloud type normally forms above 6,500 feet from altostratus cloud but can thicken into the lower levels during the occurrence of precipitation.
- No differentiated species.
- No varieties.
WMO supplementary features
- Nimbostratus pannus
- Nimbostratus with lower layer of fractus species cloud forming in precipitation.
- Nimbostratus praecipitatio
- Nimbostratus producing precipitation that reaches the ground.
- Nimbostratus producing precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground.
Small clouds of the genus cumulus are often associated with fair weather. However, they are the product of free convective airmass instability and can grow into more storm-like towering vertical buildups including cumulonimbus. Continued upward growth suggests showers later in the day. These clouds usually form below 6,500 feet but can be based as high as 10,000 feet under conditions of very low relative humidity.
- Cumulus fractus
- Ragged shreds of cumulus clouds.
- "Fair weather clouds" with flat light grey bases and small white domed tops.
- Cumulus clouds with flat medium grey bases and higher tops than cumulus humilis.
- Large cumulus clouds with flat dark grey bases and very tall tower-like formations. Also known informally as towering cumulus (TCU), especially in aviation circles.
- Cumulus radiatus
- Cumulus clouds arranged in parallel lines that appear to converge at the horizon.
WMO supplementary features
- Cumulus mamma
- Cumulus with downward facing bubble-like protuberances caused by localized downdrafts within the cloud.
- Cumulus pileus
- Small cap-like cloud over parent cumulus cloud.
- Cumulus tuba
- Column hanging from the bottom of cumulus.
- Cumulus velum
- Cumulus with a thin horizontal sheet that forms around the middle.
- Cumulus arcus (including roll and shelf clouds)
- Low horizontal cloud formation associated with the leading edge of a thunderstorm outflow.
- Cumulus pannus
- Cumulus usually of the species congestus with a lower layer of fractus species cloud forming in precipitation.
Towering vertical： low to middle base from near surface to ca. 10,000 ft /3 km; tops mostly high level
Clouds of the genus cumulonimbus have very dark grey to nearly black flat bases and extremely high tops. They develop from cumulus when the airmass is convectively highly unstable. They generally produce thunderstorms, rain or showers, and sometimes hail, strong outflow winds, and/or tornados at ground level.
- Cumulonimbus with high domed top.
- Cumulonimbus capillatus
- Cumulonimbus with high cirriform top.
WMO Varieties -none
WMO supplementary features
- Cumulonimbus with flat anvil-like cirriform top caused by wind shear where the rising air currents hit the inversion layer at the tropopause.
- Cumulonimbus pileus
- Small cap-like cloud over parent cumulonimbus cloud.
- Cumulonimbus mamma
- Cumulonimbus with mammatus consisting of bubble-like protrusions on the underside caused by localized downdrafts.
- Low, horizontal cloud formation associated with the leading edge of thunderstorm outflow.
- Cumulonimbus virga
- Cumulonimbus producing precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground.
- Cumulonimbus praecipitatio
- Cumulonimbus clouds producing precipitation that reaches the ground.
- Cumulonimbus tuba
- Column hanging from the bottom of cumulonimbus cloud.
- Cumulonimbus velum
- Cumulonimbus with a thin horizontal sheet that forms around the middle.
- Cumulonimbus pannus
- Cumulonimbus with lower layer of fractus species cloud forming in precipitation.
Non-WMO informal term:
- A tropical cumulonimbus cloud that penetrates the tropopause.
Above the troposphere: types and sub-types
Polar stratospheric (very high)： base ca. 60,000 to ca. 100,000 ft /19 to 29 km
Nacreous (mother of pearl)
- Type 1
Contains supercooled nitric acid and water droplets.
- Crystals of nitric acid and water.
- Additionally contains supercooled sulfuric acid in ternary solution.
- Type 2
Consists of ice crystals only.
Columnar Clouds - rare, column-shaped.
Polar mesospheric (extremely high)： base ca. 165,000 to ca. 185,000 ft /51 to 56 km
A thin mostly cirriform-looking cloud seen most often after sunset and before sunrise.
- Type 1:
Very tenuous resembling cirrus.
- Type 2: Bands
Long streaks often in groups parallel or interwoven at small angles.
- Streaks with diffuse, blurred edges.
- Streaks with sharply defined edges.
- Type 3: Billows
Clearly speaced roughly parallel short streaks.
- Short, straight narrow streaks.
- Wave-like structure with undulations.
- Type 4: Whirls
Partial or rarely complete rings with dark centres.
- Whirls of small angular radius of curvature, sometimes resembling light ripples on a water surface.
- Simple curve of medium angular radius with one or more bands.
- Whirls with large scale ring structure.
High thin scattered mostly cirriform clouds of water ice through which the planet's surface can be seen. Morning fog of water and/or carbon dioxide commonly forms in low areas of the planet. There is also a polar cap cloud over the winter pole which is mostly suspended frozen carbon dioxide.
Overcast mostly stratiform cloud decks in parallel latitudinal bands at the tropopause alternatingly composed of ammonia crystals and ammonium hydrosulfate. Lower layer with some cumuliform water cloud can create thunderstorms.
The meaning of tropospheric names
WMO stems and prefixes
- Altus/alto – high in original meaning, but now applied to middle clouds.
- Cirrus/cirro – wispy, -applied to high clouds.
- Cumulus/cumulo – puffy, from Latin for stack.
- Nimbus/nimbo – precipitation-bearing (Latin for "raincloud")
- Stratus/strato – flat layer (Latin for "sheet").
Etymology of WMO genera
- Altocumulus – altus and cumulus – high (middle) heap.
- Altostratus – altus and stratus – high (middle) flat layer.
- Cirrocumulus – cirrus and cumulus – thin, wispy and puffy.
- Cirrostratus – cirrus and stratus – thin, wispy and spread into flat layer.
- Cirrus – thin and wispy.
- Cumulonimbus – cumulus and nimbus – rain-bearing heap. The cumulonimbus cloud can cause thunderstorms and tornados.
- Cumulus – puffy.
- Nimbostratus - nimbus and stratus - rain-bearing layer.
- Stratocumulus, (Cumulostratus) - stratus and cumulus - heap spread into flat layer.
- Stratus - flat layer.
Alphabetical list WMO tropospheric species
- Castellanus – castle-like with a series of turret shapes – indicates air mass instability.
- Congestus – great verticsal development and heaped into cauliflower shapes – indicates considerable airmass instability and strong upcurrents.
- Fibratus – thin filament type clouds, can be straight or slightly curved.
- Floccus – looking like a tuft of wool - indicates some mid and/or high level instability.
- Fractus – irregular shredded appearance – forms in precipitation and/or gusty winds.
- Humilis – small, low, flattened cumulus – indicates relatively slight airmass instability.
- Lenticular cloud – having a lens-like appearance – formed by standing waves of wind passing over mountains or hills.
- Mediocris – medium size cumulus with bulges at the top – indicates moderate instability and upcurrents.
- Nebulosus – indistinct cloud without features – indicates light wind if any and stable air mass.
- Spissatus – thick cirrus with a grey appearance – indicates some upward movement of air in the upper troposphere.
- Stratiformis – horizontal cloud sheet of flattened cumuliform cloud - indicates very slight airmass instability.
- Uncinus – cirrus with a hook shape at the top – indicates a nearby backside of a weather system.
Alphabetical list of tropospheric varieties, supplementary features, and processes of formation
- Arcus – arch or a bow – mostly attached to cumulus, thick with ragged edges.
- Cumulogenitus – formed by the spreading out of cumulus clouds.
- Cumulonimbogenitus – formed by the spreading out of cumulonimbus clouds.
- Duplicatus – double – partly merged layers of cloud.
- Incus – anvil – top part of Cb cloud, anvil shaped.
- Intortus – twisted – curved and tangled cirrus.
- Mammatus (WMO term mamma)– breast cloud – round pouches on under-surface of cloud.
- Lacunosus – full of holes – thin cloud distinguished by holes (sometimes known as fallstreak holes) and ragged edges.
- Opacus – thick and shadowy – an opaque sheet of cloud.
- Pannus – shredded cloth – shredded sections attached to main cloud.
- Perlucidus – translucent – sheet of cloud with small spaces between elements.
- Pileus – capped – hood shaped cumulus cloud.
- Praecipitatio – falling – cloud whose precipitation reaches the ground.
- Radiatus – radiant – clouds in parallel lines converging at a central point near the horizon..
- Tuba – like a trumpet – column hanging from the bottom of cumulus.
- Translucidus – transparent – translucent patch or sheet.
- Undulatus – wavy – cloud displaying an undulating pattern.
- Velum – a ship’s sail – sail-like in appearance.
- Vertebratus – skeletal and bone like – cirrus arranged to look like bones, a skeleton or calcium.
- Fallstreak hole - see lacunosus.
- Pyrocumulus - cumulus clouds formed by quickly generated ground heat; including forest fires, volcanic eruptions and low level nuclear detonation, generally of the WMO species mediocris or congestus.
Alphabetical list of WMO and informal tropospheric storm associated genera, species, varieties, and supplementary features
- Accessory cloud (WMO term supplementary feature) – cloud that is attached to and develops on body of main cloud.
- Anvil (WMO supplementary feature uncus) - the top flatter part of a cumulonimbus cloud.
- Anvil dome (WMO supplementary feature incus) – the overshooting top on a Cb that is often present on a supercell.
- Anvil rollover – (slang) circular protrusion attached to underside of anvil.
- Arcus cloud (WMO supplementary feature) – arch or a bow shape, attached to cumulus, thick with ragged edges.
- Backsheared anvil – (slang) anvil that spreads upwind, indicative of extreme weather.
- Clear slot or dry slot (informal term) - an evaporation of clouds as a rear flank downdraft descends and dries out cloud and occludes around a mesocyclone.
- Cloud tags (WMO species fractus) – ragged detached portions of cloud.
- Collar cloud (WMO supplementary feature velum) - ring shape surrounding upper part of wall cloud.
- Condensation funnel (informal term)- the cloud of a funnel cloud aloft or a tornado.
- Altocumulus castellanus (WMO genus and species) - castle crenellation-shaped altocumulus clouds.
- Cumulus (WMO genus) – heaped clouds.
- Cumulus castellanus - (informal variation of WMO genus and species cumulus congestus) cumulus with tops shaped like castle crenellations.
- Cumulus congestus (WMO genus and species) – considerable vertical development and heaped into cauliflower shapes.
- Cumulus fractus (WMO genus and species)– ragged detached portions of cumulus cloud.
- Cumulus humilis (WMO genus and species) - small, low, flattened cumulus, early development.
- Cumulus mediocris WMO genus and species) - medium-sized cumulus with bulges at the top.
- Cumulus pileus (WMO genus and supplementary feature) - capped – hood shaped cumulus cloud.
- Cumulus praecipitatio (WMO genus and supplementary feature) - cumulus whose precipitation reaches the ground.
- Cumulus radiatus (WMO genus and variety) – cumulus arranged in parallel lines that appear to converge near the horizon.
- Cumulus tuba (WMO genus and supplementary feature) - column hanging from the bottom of cumulus.
- Cumulus undulatus (WMO genus and variety) - cumulus displaying an undulating pattern.
- Cumulonimbus (WMO genus) – heaped towering rain-bearing clouds that stretch to the upper levels of the troposphere.
- Cumulonimbus calvus (WMO genus and species) – cumulonimbus with round tops like cumulus congestus.
- Cumulonimbus capillatus (WMO genus and species) - Cb with cirriform top.
- Cumulonimbus incus (WMO genus and supplementary feature) – Cb with anvil top.
- Cumulonimbus mamma (WMO genus and supplementary feature) - Cb with pouch-like protrusions that hang from under anvil or cloud base.
- Cumulonimbus pannus (WMO genus and supplementary feature) - shredded sections attached to main Cb cloud.
- Cumulonimbus pileus (WMO species amd supplementary feature) - capped – hood shaped cumulonimbus cloud.
- Cumulonimbus praecipitatio (WMO genus and supplementary feature) - Cb whose precipitation reaches the ground.
- Cumulonimbus tuba (WMO genus and supplementary feature) - column hanging from the bottom of cumulonimbus.
- Debris cloud (informal term) – rotating ‘cloud’ of debris found at base of tornado.
- Hail fog (informal term) - a shallow surface layer of fog that sometimes forms in vicinity of deep hail accumulation, can be very dense.
- Inflow band (informal term) - a laminar band marking inflow to a Cb, can occur at lower or mid levels of the cloud.
- Inverted cumulus (informal variation of WMO supplementary feature mamma) - cumulus which has transferred momentum from an exceptionally intense Cb tower and is convectively growing on the underside of an anvil.
- Funnel cloud (informal term) – rotating funnel of cloud hanging from under Cb, not making contact with ground.
- Knuckles (informal variation of WMO supplementary feature mamma) – lumpy protrusion that hangs from edge or underside of anvil.
- Roll cloud (may be informal term for WMO genus stratocumulus or supplementary feature arcus) – elongated, low-level, tube shaped, horizontal cloud.
- Rope – (slang) narrow, sometimes twisted funnel type cloud seen after a tornado dissipates.
- Rope cloud (informal term) – A very narrow, long, sometimes meandering, cumulus cloud formation that is frequently visible in satellite imagery.
- Scud cloud (informal term for WMO species fractus) – ragged detached portions of cloud.
- Shelf cloud (informal term for WMO supplementary feature arcus) – wedge shaped cloud often attached to the underside of Cb.
- Stratus fractus (WMO genus and species) – ragged detached portions of stratus cloud.
- Striations (informal term for WMO supplementary feature velum) - a groove or band of clouds encircling an updraft tower, indicative of rotation.
- Tail cloud (informal term) - an area of condensation consisting of laminar band and cloud tags extending from a wall cloud towards a precipitation core.
- Towering cumulus (TCu) (aviation term for WMO genus and species cumulus congestus) - a large cumulus cloud with great vertical development, usually with a cauliflower-like appearance, but lacking the characteristic anvil of a Cb.
- Wall cloud (informal term) – distinctive fairly large lowering of the rain free base of a Cb, often rotating.
Notes and references
- ^ NOAA
- ^ WMO International Cloud Atlas
- ^ "Definition of nimbus". Numen - The Latin Lexicon. http://latinlexicon.org/definition.php?p1=1010530. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- ^ a b Dunlop, Storm (2003-6-1). The Weather Identification Handbook, p.9. The Lyons Press; 1st edition, Guilford, CT. ISBN 1585748479.
- ^ Burroughs, William James; Crowder, Bob (January 2007). Weather, p.216. Fog City Press, San Francisco. ISBN 9781740895798.
- ^ a b c d e f Dunlop, Storm (2003-6-1). The Weather Identification Handbook, p.66-67. The Lyons Press; 1st edition, Guilford, CT. ISBN 1585748479.
- ^ Burroughs, William James; Crowder, Bob (January 2007). Weather, p.215. Fog City Press, San Francisco. ISBN 9781740895798.
- ^ a b c d Dunlop, Storm (2003-6-1). The Weather Identification Handbook, p.62-63. The Lyons Press; 1st edition, Guilford, CT. ISBN 1585748479.
- Cloud Classification (National Weather Service)
- Skywatcher Chart (National Weather Service)
- S'COOL Cloud Types Tutorial
- Cloud Appreciation Society
- Texas A&M Cloud Glossary
- Cloud-identification site
- UK Met Office cloud classification page
- Cloud Atlas (Atlas Chmur) (in Polish)
Cloud genuses Extreme-level High-level Medium-level Low-level Vertical
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Cloud — For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). Cumulus cloudscape over Swifts Creek, Australia A cloud … Wikipedia
List of meteorology topics — This is a list of meteorology topics. The terms relate to meteorology, the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. (see also: List of meteorological phenomena)AlphanumericTOC… … Wikipedia
Cloud atlas — For other uses, see Cloud atlas (disambiguation). A cloud atlas is a pictorial key to the nomenclature of clouds. Early cloud atlases were an important element in the training of meteorologists and in weather forecasting, and the author of a 1923 … Wikipedia
Cloud physics — Atmospheric sciences Aerology … Wikipedia
Cloud Strife — Design for character Cloud Strife Series Final Fantasy and Compilation of Final Fantasy VII First game … Wikipedia
List of rail accidents (1950–1999) — List of rail accidents from 1950 to 1999.For historic accidents before 1950, see List of pre 1950 rail accidents .For accidents from 2000 to the present, see List of rail accidents . notoc 1950s 1950* February 17 1950 ndash; Rockville Centre, New … Wikipedia
List of role-playing video games: 2000 to 2001 — Part of a series on … Wikipedia
List of role-playing video games: 1990 to 1991 — Part of a series on … Wikipedia
List of role-playing video games: 2002 to 2003 — Part of a series on … Wikipedia
List of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd edition monsters — See also: Lists of Dungeons Dragons monsters This is the list of Advanced Dungeons Dragons 2nd edition monsters, an important element of that role playing game. This list only includes monsters from official Advanced Dungeons Dragons 2nd… … Wikipedia