Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China

Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国最高人民法院
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Zuìgāo Rénmín Fǎyuàn
Supreme peoples court china.jpeg
The main gate of the Supreme People's Court in Beijing.
Established September 1954
Jurisdiction People's Republic of China
Location Beijing
Composition method Presidential selection with National People's Congress approval
Authorized by Constitution of the People's Republic of China
Judge term length 5 years
Website http://www.court.gov.cn/
Chief Justice
Currently Wang Shengjun
Since March 2008
People's Republic of China

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The Supreme People's Court (最高人民法院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín Fǎyuàn) is the highest court in the mainland area of the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have their own separate judicial systems based on British common law traditions and Portuguese civil-law traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the Supreme People's Court.

The court includes over 340 judges which meet in smaller tribunals to decide cases.

Since March 2008, the President of the Supreme People's Court and Chief Grand Justice has been Wang Shengjun (王胜俊).

The SPC trial process consists of a four level, two-hearing system.

Contents

History

Procedure

In 2005, the Supreme People's Court announced its intent to "[take] back authority for death penalty approval" over concerns about “sentencing quality”,[1] and the National People's Congress officially changed the Organic Law on the People's Courts requiring all death sentences to be approved by the Supreme People's Court on 31 October 2006.[2] It has been reported that since the new review process, the court has rejected 15 percent of the death sentences decided by lower courts.[3]

Organization

Courts of the SPC:

  • criminal
  • civil
  • economic
  • administrative trials
  • other courts set up according to actual needs

There are also National Courts with ties to the SPC:

  • Military Court
  • Maritime Court
  • Railway Transportation Court
  • Forestry Court

Departments within the SPC:

  • research office
  • general affairs office
  • personnel department
  • judicial affairs department
  • administrative affairs department
  • office affairs bureau
  • foreign affairs bureau
  • education department

Presidents and Vice Presidents of the Court

  1. 1949 - 1954
  2. 1954 - 1959: 1st National People's Congress
    • President: Dong Biwu
    • Vice Presidents: Gao Kelin, Ma Xiwu, Zhang Zhirang
  3. 1959 -1965: 2nd National People's Congress
    • President: Xie Juezai
    • Vice Presidents: Wu Defeng, Wang Weigang, Zhang Zhirang
  4. 1965 - 1975: 3rd National People's Congress
    • President: Yang Xiufeng
    • Vice Presidents: Tan Guansan, Wang Weigang, Zeng Hanzhou, He Lanjie, Xing Yimin, Wang Demao, Zhang Zhirang
  5. 1975 - 1978: 4th National People's Congress
    • President: Jiang Hua
    • Vice Presidents: Wang Weigang, Zeng Hanzhou, He Lanjie, Zheng Shaowen
  6. 1978 - 1983: 5th National People's Congress
    • President: Jiang Hua
    • Vice Presidents: Zeng Hanzhou, He Lanjie, Zheng Shaowen, Song Guang, Wang Huaian, Wang Zhanping
  7. 1983 - 1988: 6th National People's Congress
    • President: Zheng Tianxiang
    • Vice Presidents: Ren Jianxin, Song Guang, Wang Huaian, Wang Zhanping, Lin Huai, Zhu Mingshan, Ma Yuan
  8. 1988 - 1993: 7th National People's Congress
    • President: Ren Jianxin
    • Vice Presidents: Hua Liankui, Lin Huai, Zhu Mingshan, Ma Yuan, Duan Muzheng
  9. 1993 - 1998: 8th National People's Congress
    • President: Ren Jianxin
    • Vice Presidents: Zhu Mingshan, Xie Anshan, Gao Changli, Tang Dehua, Liu Jiachen, Luo Haocai, Li Guoguang, Lin Huai, Hua Liankui, Duan Muzheng, Wang Jingrong, Ma Yuan
  10. 1998 - 2003: 9th National People's Congress
  11. 2003 - 2007: 10th National People's Congress
  12. 2008 - current: 11th National People's Congress

See also

References

External links


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