Infobox Former Country
native_name = सातवाहन
conventional_long_name = Satavahana Empire
common_name = Satavahana Empire
continent = Asia
era = Antiquity
government_type = Monarchy
year_start = 230 BC
year_end = 220 AD
p1 = Mauryan Empire
s1 = Kadamba
s2 = Ikshvaku
s3 = Western Satraps
s4 = Chutu
s5 = Pallava
image_map_caption = erritorial extent of the Satavahana Empire (continuous line), and conquests (dotted line).
Paithan, Junnarnear Puneand Dharanikota/ Amaravathinear Guntur
leader1 = Simuka
year_leader1 = 230-207 BC
leader2 = Madhariputra Svami Sakasena(?)
year_leader2 = 190s AD
The Sātavāhanas (
Marathi: सातवाहन, Telugu:శాతవాహనులు), were a dynastywhich ruled from Junnar( Pune), Prathisthan ( Paithan) in Maharashtra and Amaravati (Dharanikota) in Andhra Pradeshover Southern and Central Indiafrom around 230 BCEonward. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years, until around 220 CE. The Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of Mauryan empire.
The traditional Chronology of
Kishore Patnaiksays that Satavahanas are to be identified with Sreeparvateeya Andhras, a remnant branch of Andhrabhrityus who have ruled Magadha between 766 bce and 316 bce.
The chronology of Satavahanas is totally confused and there is no fixed chronology for them though it is largely agreed that they ruled around 3rd or 2nd centuries bce. [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ancientindia/message/697]
Kharavela's Hatigumph inscription makes the Andhra King a contemporary of Demeritus, it is not known who could this Andhra king be.
In face of such confusions, the
Kishore patnaik's chronology fits perfectly into place corroborated by various independent attestations.
For example, Satasri, the husband of Naganika,a powerful Queen from the Konkan house of Maharathi, was not correctly identified. While the majority thinks he was Sri Satakarni, the third ruler of the Puranic lists, reconcilation of the chronology with Demeritus and the Sunga kings will make him the sixth king.
However, the scholars who looked at these identifications closely reject both the possibilities.
Thus, the Satavahanas, who ruled the 'Dakshinapatha" as well as some of the Malwa area , are a later branch of Andhrabhrityus of Magadha. However, we have given the lists of the Kings as accpted by the general majority below.
Puranas variously talk of Andhra/Andhrabhrityu dynasties but they do not identify these lineages with Satavahanas. There are about 24 inscriptions and various numismatic evidences available about Satavahanas but none of these artifacts attest them to be Andhras.
However, it is largely accepted that Satavahanas are Andhras, originating somewhere in Andhra desa. (present Andhra pradesh)
The Sātavāhanas ruled a large and powerful empire that withstood the onslaughts from Central Asia. Aside from their military power, their commercialism and naval activity is evidenced by establishment of Indian colonies in southeast Asia for the first time in history.Fact|date=March 2007
The Sātavāhanas began as feudatories to the
Mauryan Empire. They seem to have been under the control of Emperor Ashoka, who claims they were in his domain, and that he introduced Buddhismamong them:
The Satavahanas declared independence sometime after the death of
Ashoka( 232 BCE), as the MauryaEmpire began to weaken.
It is believed that they were Buddhistic Brahmins. [ [http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/gazeetter_reprint/History-I/chapter_2.pdf "HISTORY – ANCIENT PERIOD" "CHAPTER 2: SATAVAHANA EMPIRE AND ITS FEUDATORIES*"] ] Some rulers like Maharaja Satakarni are believed to have performed Vedic sacrifices as well. [ [http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/gazeetter_reprint/History-I/chapter_2.pdf "HISTORY – ANCIENT PERIOD" "CHAPTER 2: SATAVAHANA EMPIRE AND ITS FEUDATORIES*"] ]
They were not only worshipers of The Buddha, but also other incarnations of Vishnu and Shiva, Gauri, Indra, the sun and moon. [ Mahajan, P. 400 "Ancient India" ] They were mostly Buddhistic Vaishnavites. Under their reign, in Amaravati, the historian Durga Prasad notices that Buddha had been worshiped as a form of Vishnu [ P. 116, "History of the Andhras upto 1565 A. D." ]
The Satavahanas/ Andhras initially ruled in the area of "Andhradesa", the
Teluguname for the peoplecountry between the rivers Krishnaand Godavari,Fact|date=June 2007 which was always their heartland. The Pūrānas list 30 Andhra rulers. Many are known from their coins and inscriptions as well.
Simuka (c.230-207 BCE)
After becoming independent around 230 BCE,
Simuka, the founder of the dynasty, conquered Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Malwaand part of Madhya Pradesh. He was succeeded by his brother Kanha(or Krishna) (r. 207-189 BCE), who further extended his kingdom to the west and the south.
Satakarni (c.180-124 BCE)
His successor Sātakarnī I was the sixth ruler of the Satavahana. He is said in the Puranas to have ruled for 56 years.
Satakarni defeated the
Sunga dynastyof North Indiaby wrestling Western Malwafrom them, and performed several Vedic sacrifices at huge cost, including the Horse Sacrifice. He also was in conflict with the Kalingaruler Kharavela, who mentions him in the Hathigumpha inscription. According to the Yuga Puranahe conquered Kalinga following the death of Kharavela. He extended Satavahana rule over Madhya Pradeshand pushed back the Sakasfrom Pataliputra(he is thought to be the Yuga Purana's "Shata", an abbreviation of the full name “Shri Sata” that occurs on coins from Ujjain), where he subsequently ruled for 10 years.
By this time the dynasty was well established, with its capital at Pratishthānapura (
Paithan) in Maharashtra, and its power spreading into all of South India.
Kanva suzerainty (75-35 BCE)
Many small rulers succeeded Satakarni, such as Lambodara, Apilaka, Meghasvati and Kuntala Satakarni, who are thought to have been under the suzerainty of the
Kanva dynasty. The Puranas(the Matsya Purana, the Vayu Purana, the Brahmanda Purana, the Vishnu Purana) all state that the first of the Andhrakings rose to power in the 1st century BCE, by slaying Susarman, the last ruler of the Kanvas. [wikiref |id=Rapson-1990 |text=Rapson, LXIV] This feat is usually thought to have been accomplished by Pulomavi (c. 30-6 BCE), who then ruled over Pataliputra.
Victory over the Shakas, Yavanas and Pahlavas
The first century CE saw another incursion of the
Sakas of Central Asiainto India, where they formed the dynasty of the Western Kshatrapas. The four immediate successors of Hāla(r. 20-24 CE) had short reigns totalling about a dozen years. During the reign of the Western Satrap Nahapana, the Satavahanas lost a considerable territory to the satraps, including eastern Malwa, Southern Gujarat, and Northern Konkan, from Broachto Soparaand the Nasikand Poonadistricts. ["The Satavahanas did not hold the western Deccan for long. They were gradually pushed out of the west by the Sakas (Western Khatrapas). The Kshaharata Nahapana's coins in the Nasikarea indicate that the Western Kshatrapascontrolled this region by the first century CE. By becoming master of wide regions including Malwa, Southern Gujarat, and Northern Konkan, from Broach to Sopara and the Nasik and Poona districts, Nahapana rose from the status of a mere Kshatrapa in the year 41 (58 CE) to that of Mahakshatrapa in the year 46 (63 CE)." in "History of the Andhras"]
Gautamiputra Satakarni (78-106 CE)
Eventually Gautamiputra (Sri Yagna) Sātakarni (also known as Shalivahan) (r. 78-106 CE) defeated the Western Satrap ruler
Nahapana, restoring the prestige of his dynasty by reconquering a large part of the former dominions of the Sātavāhanas. He was an ardent supporter of Hinduism.
According to the Nasik inscription made by his mother Gautami Balasri, he is the one...
...who crushed down the pride and conceit of the
Kshatriyas(the native Indian princes, the Rajputsof Rajputana, Gujaratand Central India); who destroyed the Shakas ( Western Kshatrapas), Yavanas ( Indo-Greeks) and Pahlavas ( Indo-Parthians),... who rooted the Khakharata familly (The Kshaharata familly of Nahapana); who restored the glory of the Satavahana race [wikiref |id=Rapson-1990 |text=Rapson, XXXVII Original Prakrit, line 5 and 6 of the inscription: "Khatiya-dapa-mana-madanasa Saka-Yavana-Palhava-nisudanasa — Khakharatavamsa-niravasesa-karasa Satavahana-kula-yasa patithapana-karasa"]
Gautamiputra Satakarni may also have defeated
Shakaking Vikramadityain 78 ADand started the calendar known as Shalivahana eraor Shaka era, which is followed by the Marathi and Telugu peopleeven to this day.
Gautamiputra Sātakarni's son,
Vashishtiputra Pulumāyi(r. 106-130 CE), succeeded him. Gautamiputra was the first Sātavāhana king to issue the portrait-type coinage, in a style derived from the Western Satraps. [wikiref |id=Rapson-1990 |text=Rapson]
(c. 160 CE).
Obv: Bust of king.
Prakritlegend in the Brahmiscript: "Siri Satakanisa Rano ... Vasithiputasa": "King Vasishtiputra Sri Satakarni"
Rev: Ujjain/Sātavāhana symbol left. Crescented six-arch chaitya hill right. River below. Dravidian legend in the
Brahmiscript: "Arahanaku Vahitti makanaku Tiru Hatakaniko". ] Gautamiputra's brother, Vashishtiputra Sātakarni, married the daughter of Rudradaman Iof the Western Satraps dynasty. Around 150 CE, Rudradaman I, now his father-in-law, waged war against the Satavahanas, who were defeated twice in these conflicts. Vashishtiputra Satakarniwas only spared his life because of his familly links with Rudradaman: ["Satakarni, Lord of the Deccan, [whom Rudradaman] (inscription dated Saka 72=150 CE) twice in a fair fight was completely defeated, but did not destroy on account of the nearness of their connection" wikiref |id=Rapson-1990 |text=Rapson, XXXVIII, quoting the Junagadh inscription]
As a result of his victories, Rudradaman regained all the former territories previously held by Nahapana, except for the extreme south territories of
Poonaand Nasik. [wikiref |id=Rapson-1990 |text=Rapson] Satavahana dominions were limited to their original base in the Deccanand eastern central India around Amaravati.
However, the last great king of this dynasty, Yajna Satakarni, defeated the Western Satraps and reconquered their southern regions in western and central India. ["later Satavahana named Yajna Satakarni seems to have conquered the Southern Dominions of the Western Satraps. His coins contain figures of ships, probably indicating the naval power of the Andras. He not only ruled Aparanta, but probably also the eastern part of the Central Provinces" wikiref |id=Majumdar-2003 |text=Majumdar, p. 135] During the reign of
Sri Yajna Sātakarni(170-199 CE) the Sātavāhanas regained some prosperity, and some of his coins have been found in Surashtra[wikiref |id=Rapson-1990 |text=Rapson, CLXXXVI] but around the middle of the third century, the dynasty came to an end.
Decline of the Satavahanas
Four or five kings of Yajna Satakarni's line succeeded him, and continued to rule till about the mid 200s CE. However, the dynasty was soon extinguished following the rise of its feudatories, perhaps on account of a decline in central power. [""The different branches of the Satavahana family, which ruled in different parts of the kingdom after the decline in central authority, weres soon ousted by new powers some of which were probably feudatories at the outset." wikiref |id=Majumdar-2003 |text=Majumdar]
Several dynasties divided the lands of the kingdom among themselves. Among them were:
Western Satrapsin the northwestern part of the kingdom.:* Abhiras in the western part of the kingdom. They were ultimately to succeed the Sātavāhanas in their capital Pratishthānapura.:* Chutus of Banavasiin North Karnataka..:* Kadambasof Banavasiin North Karnataka.:* Ikshvaku dynasty(or Srīparvatiyas) in the Krishna- Gunturregion.:* Pallavas of Kanchipuram, of whom the first ruler was Simhavarman I (r. 275-300 CE).
The Satavahanas are the first native Indian rulers to issue their own coins with portraits of their rulers, starting with king
Gautamiputra Satakarni, a practice derived from that of the Western Satrapshe defeated, itself originating with the Indo-Greekkings to the northwest.
Satavahana coins give unique indications as to their chronology, language, and even facial features (curly hair, long ears and strong lips). They issued mainly lead and copper coins; their portrait-style silver coins were usually struck over coins of the
The coin legends of the Satavahanas, in all areas and all periods, used a Prakrit dialect without exception. Some reverse coin legends are in a
Dravidian language/Proto-Telugu, which seems to have been in use in their heartland abutting the Kistna, probably Amaravati, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. [wikiref |id=Rapson-1990 |text=Rapson, CLXXXVII]
Their coins also display various traditional symbols, such as elephants, lions, horses and chaityas (
stupas), as well as the " Ujjainsymbol", a cross with four circles at the end. The legendary Ujjayini emperor Vikramditiyaon whose name the Vikram Samvatis initiated might be Satakarni II a Satavahana emperor as the Ujjayini symbol also appeared on the Satavahana coins.
Of the Sātavāhana kings,
Hāla(r. 20-24 CE) is famous for compiling the collection of Maharashtripoems known as the "Gaha Sattasai" ( Sanskrit: Gāthā Saptashatī), although from linguistic evidence it seems that the work now extant must have been re-edited in the succeeding century or two. The Lilavatidescribes his marriage with a Ceylonese Princess.
The Satavahanas influenced South-East Asia to a great extent, spreading Hindu culture, language and religion into that part of the world. Their coins had images of ships.
Art of Amaravati
The Sātavāhana kings are also remarkable for their contributions to
Buddhist artand architecture. They built great stupas in the Krishna RiverValley, including the stupa at Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh. The stupas were decorated in marble slabs and sculpted with scenes from the life of the Buddha, portrayed in a characteristic slim and elegant style. The Satavahana empire colonized southeast Asia and spread Indian culture to those parts. Mahayana Buddhism, which may have originated in Andhra (northwestern India being the alternative candidate), was carried to many parts of Asia by the rich maritime culture of the Satavahanas. The Amaravati style of sculpture spread to Southeast Asia at this time.
Art of Sanchi
The Satavahanas contributed greatly to the embellishment of the Buddhist stupa of
Sanchi. The gateways and the balustrade were built after 70 BCE, and appear to have been commissioned by them. An inscription records the gift of one of the top architraves of the Southern Gateway by the artisans of the Satavahana king Satakarni:
Throughout, the Buddhist art of the Satavahanas remained aniconic, denying any human representation of the Buddha, even in highly descriptive scenes. This remained true until the end of the Satavahana rule, in the 2nd century CE.
List of rulers
Puranic list of Andhra/ Satavahana kings (Source: "A Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc...", Rapson). This list, the most complete one with 30 kings, is based on the
Simukaor Sisuka (r. 230- 207 BCE). Also (271-248 BCE), ruled 23 years.
* Krishna (r.
207- 189 BCE), ruled 18 years.
Sri Mallakarni(or Sri Satakarni), ruled 10 years.
Purnotsanga, ruled 18 years
Skandhastambhi, ruled 18 years
* Sātakarnī I (195 BCE), ruled 56 years
Lambodara, ruled 18 years.(r. 87- 67 BCE)
Probably as vassals of
Kanva dynasty(75-35 BCE):
Apilaka, ruled 12 years.:* Meghasvati(or Saudasa), ruled 18 years.:* Svati(or Svami), ruled 18 years.:* Skandasvati, ruled 7 years.:* Mahendra Satakarni(or Mrgendra Svatikarna, Satakarni II), ruled 8 years.:* Kuntala Satakarni(or Kuntala Svatikarna), ruled 8 years.:* Svatikarna, ruled 1 year.
Pulomavi(or Patumavi), ruled 36 years.
Riktavarna(or Aristakarman), ruled 25 years.
Hāla(r. 20-24 CE), author of the Gathasaptasati, an Indian literature classic, ruled 5 years.
Mandalaka(or Bhavaka, Puttalaka), ruled 5 years.
Purindrasena, ruled 5 years.
Sundara Satakarni, ruled 1 year.
Cakora Satakarni(or Cakora Svatikarna), ruled 6 months.
Sivasvati, ruled 28 years.
* Gautamiputra Sātakarni, or Gautamiputra, popularly known as "Shalivahan" (r.
25-78 CE), ruled 21 years.
Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi, or Puloma, Puliman (r. 78-114 CE), ruled 28 years.
Vashishtiputra Sātakarni(r. 130-160), or Shiva Sri, Sivasri, ruled 7 years.
Shivaskanda Satakarni, (157-159), ruled 7 years.
Yajna Sri Satakarni, (r. 167-196 CE), ruled 29 years.
Vijaya, ruled 6 years.
Canda Sri Satakarni, ruled 10 years.
Puloma, 7 years.
Madhariputra Svami Sakasena? (r. c.190)
Maratha clan system
* [http://igmlnet.uohyd.ernet.in:8000/gw_44_5/hi-res/hcu_images/G2.pdf History of the Andhras, by Durga Prasad]
* [http://www.hostkingdom.net/india.html#Satavahana Indian dynasties]
* [http://travel2.nytimes.com/2006/11/05/travel/05caves.html?pagewanted=print Simon Winchester", "In the Holy Caves of India", "The New York Times" (November 5, 2006). History of Ajanta Caves.]
* [http://www.salivahana.com/The%20Satavahana%20Rule.html Short history of the Satavahanas.]
* [http://www.ourkarnataka.com/states/history/historyofkarnataka8.htm The Satavahanas]
* [http://www.boloji.com/history/027.htm "A gap in Puranic history bridged" (Satavahanas) - Boloji.com]
* [http://www.telugutanam.com/telmunlanguage.htm "Telmun language Telugu - by Samyuktha Kooniah ]
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