British rule in India


British rule in India

British rule in India, may refer to:
*Company rule in India, also Company Raj ("raj," lit. "rule," in Sanskrit), the rule of parts of the Indian subcontinent by the British East India Company ending in 1858, immediately after the Indian rebellion of 1857. The regions governed by the Company's representative, the Governor-General of India, were contemporaneously referred to as British India.
*British Raj or Crown rule in India, the rule of India by the British Crown, which lasted from 1858 until 1947. The region under British rule consisted of
**British India: regions directly administered by the British Government India Office in London, and its head, the cabinet-level Secretary of State for India, whose policies were implemented by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India (in short, Viceroy of India) in the name of the British Crown, which served as the figurehead.
**Princely States: areas under the paramountcy (also suzerainty or indirect rule) of the British Crown (represented by the Viceroy of India), but ruled by Indian princes. The British government, however, retained control of the military, foreign affairs, and communications in these Indian states.
*British Indian Empire (contemporaneously, the Indian Empire) refers to the British Raj "after" 1876, when Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.

Usage:

*The word "raj", without any qualifiers, has been applied (in the context of British rule) to both Company Raj and British Raj, sometimes by the same author.
**Example: "Under Bentinck's guidance the 1830s saw considerable change in the mechanics of the "raj", though Utilitarian beliefs in clear legal codes, a simplified judicial structure and a strong executive were only partially enacted." (Harvard reference
last1=Brown| first1=Judith M. | authorlink= | year=1994 | title=Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy | place=
publisher=Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 474| isbn=0198731132 | url=http://www.oup.com/uk/catalogue/?ci=9780198731139
, p. 76)
**Example: "To them the obverse of privilege and material gain on the "raj's" imperial coin was a serious obligation, seen almost in mystical terms. As Sir Walter Lawrence, who joined the ICS in 1879, put it in 1932, ruling India was "splendid happy slavery ..." (ibid. p. 105)

ee also

* Etymology of India


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