Shusha pogrom

The Shusha pogrom of 1920 ["British administrator of Karabakh colonel Shuttleworth didn't impede the discrimination of Armenians by Tatarian administration of governor Saltanov. The national clashes ended by the terrible massacres in which the most of Armenians in Shusha town perished. The Parliament in Baku refused even condemn the accomplishers of the massacres in Shusha and the war was started in Karabakh. A. Zubov (in Russian) А.Зубов Политическое будущее Кавказа: опыт ретроспективно-сравнительного анализа, журнал "Знамя", 2000, #4, http://magazines.russ.ru/znamia/2000/4/zubov.html] cite web | quote = massacre of the Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh's capital, Shushi (called Shusha by the Azerbaijanis)" | author = Kalli Raptis | title = Nagorno-Karabakh and the Eurasian Transport Corridor | url = http://www.eliamep.gr/eliamep/files/op9803.PDF | work = Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy ] [World Directory of Minorities - Page 145 by Minority Rights Group, Miranda Bruce-Mitford] cite book | title = 1700 Years of Faithfulness: History of Armenia and its Churches | publisher = FAM | location = Moscow | year = 2001 | isbn = 5898310134 | chapter = Armenia between the Bolshevik hammer and Kemalist anvil | quote = A month ago after the massacres of Shushi, in April 19, 1920, prime-ministers of England, France and Italy with participation of the representatives of Japan and USA collected in San-Remo..." "In March, 1920 a terrible pogrom took place in Shushi, organized by Azerbaijanis with the support of Turkish forces. Azerbaijani and Soviet authorities during the decades will deny and try to hush up the mass killings of about 30000 Armenians | author = Giovanni Guaita | chapterurl = http://www.grazhdanin.com/grazhdanin.phtml?var=Vipuski/2004/4/statya17&number=%B94 ] [Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake - Page 6by Pierre Verluise] ["exterminé la population arménienne dans l'ancienne capitale Chouchi au début du 20ème siècle." [http://www.gaucherepublicaine.org/2,article,1376,,,,,_La-nation-un-concept-republicain-14eme-partie-les-solutions-republicaines-fondees-sur-les-etats-nations-pour-des-conflits-actuels.htm La nation, un concept républicain (14ème partie) : les solutions républicaines fondées sur les états-nations pour des conflits actuels, par Valentin Boudras-Chapon // ReSPUBLICA journal, Mardi 22 mai 2007] ] [cite web | quote = De 1918 à 1920, les républiques indépendantes d’Arménie et d’Azerbaïdjan se sont disputées le contrôle du Karabagh, pour des raisons symboliques et stratégiques. Des pogroms et des incendies anéantissent le quartier arménien de Chouchi en février 1920.| title = Situation des réfugiés et déplacés d’origine arménienne sur le territoire de l’ex-Union soviétique | work = Commission des recours des refugies | language=French | url = http://www.commission-refugies.fr/IMG/pdf/Ex-URSS_-_situation_des_refugies_et_deplaces_d_origine_armenienne_sur_le_territoire_de_l_ex-Union_sovietique.pdf ] [ [http://www.i-r-p.ru/page/stream-library/index-615.html I. P. Dobaev, V. I. Nemchina: И.П.Добаев, В.И.Немчина. Новый терроризм в мире и на Юге России: сущность, эволюция, опыт противодействия] (Ростов н/Д., 2005)] [La construction de l'État en Arménie: un enjeu caucasien - Page 69 by Gérard J. Libaridian] was a pogrom directed against the ethnic Armenian population of Shusha, a town in the region of Nagorno-Karabagh. The event took place between 22nd and 26th March 1920, and had as its background a conflict over competing claims of ownership of the region by Armenia and Azerbaijan. It resulted in the complete destruction of the Armenian-populated quarters of Shusha and the elimination of the town's Armenian population.

Estimates of casualty figures are uncertain and varied: 500 [Thomas de Waal. Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. ISBN 0814719449] Dubious|date=March 2008 to 30,000 Armenian cite web | title = The Nagorno-Karabagh Crisis:A Blueprint for Resolution | work = Public International Law & Policy Group and the New England [http://www.nesl.edu/center/RESEARCH.cfm Center for International Law & Policy] |date=June, 2000 | page = p. 3 | url = http://www.nesl.edu/center/pubs/nagorno.pdf | quote = In August 1919, the Karabagh National Council entered into a provisional treaty agreement with the Azerbaijani government. Despite signing the Agreement, the Azerbaijani government continuously violated the terms of the treaty. This culminated in March 1920 with the Azerbaijanis' massacre of Armenians in Karabagh's former capital, Shushi, in which it is estimated that more than 20,000 Armenians were killed.] [Why IDPs Matter in the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict by Seepan V. Parseghian, p.5] [Historic Maps of Armenia: The Cartographic Heritage - Page 7 by Rouben Galichian] [Russian analysts Igor Babanov and Konstantin Voevodsky write that "On March, 1920, during the occupation of Shusha town, 30 thousand Armenians were massacred". / Игорь Бабанов, Константин Воеводский, Карабахский кризис, Санкт-Петербург, 1992] and 15,000 Azerbaijani deaths, [ [http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/Nagorno-Karabakh Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Nagorno-Karabakh] ] and destruction of many buildings in Shusha. The Parliament in Baku refused even condemn the accomplishers of the massacres in Shusha and the war was started in Karabakh [A. Zubov (in Russian) А.Зубов Политическое будущее Кавказа: опыт ретроспективно-сравнительного анализа, журнал "Знамя", 2000, #4, http://magazines.russ.ru/znamia/2000/4/zubov.html] . Historian Giovanni Guaita wrote, the Azerbaijani and Soviet authorities "during the decades will deny and try to hush up the mass killings of about 30,000 Armenians"cite book | title = 1700 Years of Faithfulness: History of Armenia and its Churches | publisher = FAM | location = Moscow | year = 2001 | isbn = 5898310134 | chapter = Armenia between the Bolshevik hammer and Kemalist anvil | author = Giovanni Guaita | chapterurl = http://www.grazhdanin.com/grazhdanin.phtml?var=Vipuski/2004/4/statya17&number=%B94 ]

Background

At the end of the First World War, the ownership of the territory of Nagorno-Karabagh was disputed between the newly founded republics of Armenia and Azerbaijan. Shusha - the territory's largest settlement, its capital, and with a mixed population consisting mostly of ethnic Armenians and Azeri Tartars - found itself at the centre of the dispute.

The government of Azerbaijan proclaimed in Baku its annexation of the disputed territory and, on January 15th 1919, appointed Khosrov bek Sultanov, the "owner of vast tracts of Karabagh ... an ardent pan-Turkist, a friend of the Ittihadists of Constantinople, and a terror to all Armenians" ["Armenia: The Survival of a Nation", revised second edition, 1990, by Christopher J. Walker, page 270] , as governor-general of Karabagh. Britain (which had a small detachment of troops stationed in Shusha) agreed to Sultanov's appointment as a provisional governor, but insisted that a final decision on the territory's ownership should be decided only at a future Peace Conference.

In response to Sultanov's appointment, the General Assembly of the Armenians of Karabagh (Armenian National Council of Karabagh), meeting in Shusha on February 19, "rejected with legitimate indignation all pretense of Azerbaijan with regard to Armenian Karabagh, which said Assembly has declared an integral part of Armenia". [ [http://www.armeniaforeignministry.com/fr/nk/nk_file/article/11.html "letter from Avetis Aharonian, president of the delegation of the Republic of Armenia, addressed to the presidents of the delegations of Italy, France, England, and the U.S."] ]

On 23 April 1919 the National Council of Karabagh met again in Shusha and rejected again Azerbaijan's claim of sovereignty, insisting on their right of self-determination. After this, a local Azerbaijani detachment encircled the Armenian quarters of Shusha, demanding the inhabitants to surrender fortress. Shots were fired, but when the British mediated, Armenians agreed to surrender to them ["Armenia: The Survival of a Nation", revised second edition, 1990, by Christopher J. Walker, page 270] .

On the 4th and 5th June 1919, armed clashes occurred in Shusha between the two communities and Sultanov began a blockade of the town's Armenian quarters. American nurses working in Shusha for Near East Relief wrote of a massacre "by Tartars of 700 of the Christian inhabitants of the town" [ [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_New_York_Times/Nurses_stuck_to_post The New York Times, Sept. 4, 1919. "Nurses stuck to post"] ] . A cease-fire was quickly organised after the Armenian side agreed to Sultanov's condition that members of the Armenian National Council left the town. However, a new wave of violence then swept through neighbouring Armenian-populated villages: in mid-June Azeri mounted "irregulars", about 2,000 strong, attacked, looted and burnt a large Armenian village, Khaibalikend, just outside Shusha, and approximately 600 Armenians lay dead. [Нагорный Карабах в 1918?1923 гг.: сборник документов и материалов. Ереван, 1992, стр., стр. 240, документ # 155] Dubious|date=March 2008 ["Armenia: The Survival of a Nation", revised second edition, 1990, by Christopher J. Walker, page 270] The seventh Congress of the Armenians of Karabagh was convened in Shusha on August 13, 1919. It concluded with the agreement of August 22 according to which Nagorno-Karabagh would consider itself to be provisionally within the borders of the Republic of Azerbaijan until its final status was decided at the Peace Conference in Paris.

On 19th February 1920, Sultanov issued a demand that the Armenian National Council of Karabagh "urgently to solve the question of the final incorporation of Karabagh into Azerbaijan". [ [http://nkr.am/eng/history/1918.htm "Nagorno Karabagh in 1918-1920"] ] The Council, at their eighth congress held from 23rd February to 4th March, responded that Azerbaijan's demand violated the terms of the 22nd August provisional agreement and warned that "repetition of the events will compel the Armenians of Nagorno-Karabagh to turn to appropriate means for defence" [ [http://nkr.am/eng/history/1918.htm "Nagorno Karabagh in 1918-1920"] ] .

The Pogrom

Armenian forces simultaneously attacked Azerbaijani garrisons in Shusha, Khankendi and Askeran, and fighting soon spread to the neighboring districts of Tartar, Ganja and Nakhichevan. [ [http://www.hronos.km.ru/sobyt/1919arm.html Hronos.ru. Armenian - Azerbaijani armed conflicts in 1919 - 1920] ] Dubious|date=March 2008 However, Armenian forces temporarily succeeded only in AskeranFact|date=January 2008, while their attacks in Shusha and Khankendi were repulsed and Azerbaijani forces launched a counterattack.Dubious|date=March 2008

According to the description of Azerbaijani communist Musaev, « a ruthless destruction of defenceless women, children, old women and old men began. Armenians were exposed to a mass slaughter (...). And what beautiful Armenian girls were raped and then shot. (...) At an order of (...) Khosrov-bek Sultanov, pogroms proceeded for more than six days, houses in the Armenian part were crushed, plundered and reduced all to ashes, everyone led women away whenever they wished, to musavatist executioners. During these historically "artful" punishments Khosrov-bek Sultanov, keeping speeches, talked to moslems about Holy war (Jihad) and called on to them to finish off the Armenians of city Shusha, not sparing women, children, etc.» [Институт Истории АН Армении, Главное архивное управление при СМ Республики Армения, Кафедра истории армянского народла Ереванского Государственного Университета. Нагорный Карабах в 1918-1923 гг. Сборник документов и материалов. Ереван, 1992. Документ №443: из письма члена компартии Азербайджана Оджахкули Мусаева правительству РСФСР. стр. 638-639 (Institute of History of the Academy of sciences of Armenia, the Main archival department at Ministerial council of Republic Armenia, Faculty of history of Armenian people of the Yerevan State University. Nagorny Karabakh per 1918-1923. Collection of documents and materials. Yerevan, 1992. The document №443: from the letter of a member of communist party of Azerbaijan Ojahkuli Musaev to the government of RSFSR. рр. 638-639)]

According to the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Third Edition, 1970), these events contributed to the death of 2096 of the city's population. Subsequently, only a few Armenian families remained. [ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, vol. 17, London, Collier Macmillan, 1973, p. 301. quoted by Tim Potier. Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia: A Legal Appraisal. ISBN 9041114777]

Nadezhda Mandelstam wrote about Shusha in the 1920s: "...in this town, which formerly, of course, was healthy and with every amenity, the picture of catastrophe and massacres was terribly vivid... They say after the massacres all the wells were full of corpses. (...) We didn't see anyone in the streets or on the mountain. Only downtown, in the market-square there were a lot of people, but there wasn't any Armenian among them, they were all Muslims". [(in Russian) Н. Я. Мандельштам. Книга третья. Париж, YMCA-Ргess, 1987, с.162-164.]

On January 21 1936, in the Moscow Kremlin, during the reception of the delegation from the Azerbaijan SSR, Sergo Ordzhonikidze remembers his visit to destroyed Shusha:"Even today I remember what I saw in Shusha in 1920, with horror. The most beautiful Armenian town was completely destroyed, and in the wells we saw corpses of women and children." [Партиздат ЦК ВКП(б), 1936, с. 60-63]

The former Minister of Internal Affairs of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Behbut khan Javanshir, was assassinated during Operation Nemesis of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, as ARF believed that he was involved in these events. ["Помимо лидеров младотурок руководство операции "Немезис" приняло решение о ликвидации некоторых деятелей мусаватистского правительства Азербайджана, виновных, по их мнению, в организации резни армян в Баку в сентябре 1918 г. - бывшего премьер-министра Фатали хана Хойского (июнь 1920 г.), а также бывшего министра Бехбуд хана Дживаншира (июль 1921 г.), организатора резни армян в Шуши (Карабах)." [http://www.i-r-p.ru/page/stream-library/index-615.html I. P. Dobaev, V. I. Nemchina: И.П.Добаев, В.И.Немчина. Новый терроризм в мире и на Юге России: сущность, эволюция, опыт противодействия] (Ростов н/Д., 2005)]

Remembering

The prominent Russian poet Osip Mandelstam who was in Shusha in 1931 wrote a poem ("The Phaeton Driver") dedicated to the Shusha pogroms:

So in Nagorno-Karabakh These were my fearsForty thousand dead windows Are visible there from all directions, The cocoon of soulless workBuried at the mountains. [Осип Мандельштам, Фаэтонщик, http://www.klassika.ru/stihi/mandelshtam/mandel107.html] [Осип Мандельштам. Сочинения. В 2-х т. Т.1, с.517-519.]

One of the Komsomol leaders of the Azerbaijan SSR, Olga Shatunovskaya, later wrote in her memoirs: "Azerbaijan didn't want to lose the power as Nagorno-Karabakh is a great region. It's autonomous but only nominally, during these years they ousted many Armenians, closed schools and colleges. Earlier, the main city was Shusha. When in the 1920s there was a massacre, they burnt all the central part of the town, and then they didn't even restore it." [(in Russian) Шатуновская О. Г . Об ушедшем веке. Рассказывает Ольга Шатуновская / сост.: Д. Кутьина, А. Бройдо, А. Кутьин. – La Jolla (Calif.) : DAA Books, 2001. – 470 с., c. 71]

Two prominent Armenian-Russian Communist activists, Anastas Mikoyan and Marietta Shaginyan, wrote about the pogroms in their memoirs. ["Here during the 3 days in March 1920, 7000 houses were destroyed and burnt, and the people are marking different numbers of that who were massacred...". (in Russian) Marietta Shaginyan, "Soviet Transcaucasus", Armgiz, 1947, p. 254] Mikoyan, who was in the region, later remarked: "According to the reconnaissance information, at Azerbaijani Mousavatist government's disposal was army of 30-thousands, of whom 20 thousands deployed near the border of Armenia... The army of Azerbaijan shortly before that massacred the Armenians in Shusha, Karabakh." [ (in Russian) Микоян Анастас. Так было (воспоминания), http://biblioteka.org.ua/book.php?id=1121020105&p=19]

Russian-Georgian writer Anaida Bestavashvili in her "The people and the monuments" publication compares the pogroms and the burning of Shusha to the tragedy of Pompeii [ [http://hayastan.ru/Vestnik/vestnik.phtml?var=Arkhiv/2000/1-2/statya47&number=№1-2%202000г. Anaida Bestavashvili, Lyudi i pamyatniki (in Russian)] // Армянский вестник, # 1-2, 2000] .

Historian Christopher J. Walker wrote, in regard of Sultanov's activities, "The Karabagh affair was a grave one for the British. Accusations of direct British complicity in Armenian massacre cannot really be sustained; but the killings were a result of the almost unconscious British tendency to support 'our traditional friends' – the wealthy – and to disregard the wishes of the majority". ["Armenia: The Survival of a Nation", revised second edition, 1990, by Christopher J. Walker, page 270]

On July 1 1997, in her speech in the British House of Lords Baroness Caroline Cox remarked, "Armenians have repeatedly suffered atrocities at the hands of Turks and Azeris, including the murder of 1.5 million Armenians by Turkey in the genocide of 1915; the massacre of 20,000 Armenians in the ancient Armenian city of Shushi in 1920; and massacres in Sumgait and Baku in 1988 and 1990."cite journal | authorlink = Caroline Cox, Baroness Cox | author = Caroline Cox | journal = Lords Hansard | title = Nagorno-Karabakh and Azerbaijan |date=July 1 1997 | url = http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970701/text/70701-19.htm ]

Another member of House of Lords, Lord Hylton, who traveled to Karabakh and Armenia under auspices of Christian Solidarity Worldwide together with its President Caroline Cox wrote in his report for the Committee on Foreign Affairs, that the activities of a joint Turkish-Azeri army in 1919-20 removed areas on the east side of Nagorno-Karabakh, and changed the ethnic majority in Shusha from Armenian to Azeri "forcing many of the former to move from Shushi to Stepanakert, and murdering Bisop Vartan and numerous others" [ [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199899/cmselect/cmfaff/349/349ap18.htm Lord Hylton, Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Lords, Appendices to the Minutes of Evidence - Sixth Report] ] .

Research analyst Kalli Raptis wrote in her book "Nagorno-Karabakh and the Eurasian Transport Corridor", "In July 1918, the First Armenian Assembly of Nagorno Karabakh declared the region self-governing and created a national Council and government. In August 1919, the Karabakh national Council entered into a provisional treaty arrangement with the Azerbaijani government in order to avoid military conflict with a superior adversary". Azerbaijan's violation of the treaty culminated in March 1920 with the massacre of the Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh's capital, Shushi (called Shusha by the Azerbaijanis)".

Modern Russian politologist Timur Polyannikov in his "Vityaz na rasputie" publication marks the pogroms in Shushi among other events in Armenian history, "organized by Azerbaijani Pan-Turkists of "Musavat" party." ["Как известно, первым случаем геноцида в XX веке считается уничтожение 1.5 миллионов армян в течение 1915 – 1923 гг. в Западной Армении и других частях Османской империи, которое было организовано и планомерно осуществлялось турецкими правителями. Сюда же примыкают и массовые «этнические чистки» в Восточной Армении и в Закавказье в целом, совершенные младотурками во время вторжения в Закавказье в 1918 г. и кемалистами во время агрессии против Армении в сентябре–декабре 1920 г., а также погромы, организованные азербайджанскими пантюркистами из партии «Мусават» в Баку (1918 г.) и Шуши (1920 г.). "Витязь на распутье. Россия между империей и государством-нацией, Тимур Полянников http://www.kirichenko-premiya.ru/upload/works/w_394.doc]

The "Armenia, Armenia: about the country and the people from the biblical times to our days" reference book considers the pogroms of Shusha as a part of genocide of Armenians practiced all over Eastern Armenia: "Shushi, the capital of Karabakh was seized by Azerbaijani nationalists on March 23, 1920, over 20.000 Armenians were killed and 7000 houses, libraries, churches, cemeteries and pantheons were leveled in three days and three nights." [Armenia, Armenia: about the country and the people from the Biblical times to our days", a reference-book, by V. Krivopuskov, V. Osipov, V. Alyoshkin and others, ed. V.V. Krivopuskov, Third ed., revised and expanded. Moscow, Golos-Press, 2007. 136 p., p. 30-31, ISBN-978-5-7117-0179-8]

Prof. Richard G. Hovannisian wrote about the massacres: "Finally, in August 1919, the Karabagh National Assembly yielded to provisional and conditional Azerbaijani jurisdiction. The twenty-six conditions strictly limited the Azerbaijani administrative and military presence in the region and underscored the internal autonomy of Mountainous Karabagh.Violations of those conditions by Azerbaijan culminated in an abortive rebellion in March 1920. In retribut on, the Azerbaijani forces burned the beautiful city of Shushi, hanged Bishop Vahan, and massacred much of the population. It was the end of Armenian Shushi." [The Armenian People from ancient to modern times, ed. by prof. Richard G. Hovannisian, USA, 1997, Vol. II, p. 318]

Modern journalist Thomas de Waal wrote in his book "Black Garden" about these events: "Terrible pogroms took place in Shusha in 1920 shortly after the Russians left the city because of the economic collapse and civil war. This time Azerbaijani forces crushed the higher, Armenian quarter of the city, burned whole streets and killed hundreds of Armenians... The ruins of the Armenian quarter stood untouched for more than forty years". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/russian/in_depth/newsid_4655000/4655249.stm Шуша. Рассказ о соседях // Главы из русского издания книги "Черный сад", Том де Ваал] ] In another place he wrote that the number of massacred people was 500 [Thomas de Waal. Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. ISBN 0814719449] .

According to the author Thomas de Waal:

In Karabakh, the Armenian community was split between the age-old dilemma of co- operation or confrontation. There were those – primarily Dashnaks and villagers-who wanted unification with Armenia, and those – mainly Bolsheviks, merchants, and professionals – who, in the words of the Armenian historian Richard Hovannisian, “admitted that the district was economically with eastern Transcaucasia and sought accommodation with the Azerbaijani government as the only way to spare Mountainous Karabagh from ruin”. The latter group was mainly concentrated in Shusha, but both groups were killed or expelled when an Armenian rebellion was brutally put down in March 1920 with a toll of hundreds of Shusha Armenians. He also wrote that "In March 1920, an Azerbaijani army sacked the town, burning the Armenian quarter and killing some five hundred Armenians." [Thomas de Waal. Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. ISBN 0814719449]

According to Tim Potier: Following the October Revolution, Karabakh became part of the independent Republic of Azerbaijan, although its control was hotly disputed by Ottoman and British forces, as well as, of course, Armenians and Azerbaijanis. Eventually, however, the British re-affirmed Azerbaijani jurisdiction over Karabakh by appointing a Muslim governor at Shusha. Shusha had, by this time, come to be regarded by the Armenian people as an Armenian cultural centre and it was not until 28 February 1920 that the Armenian elders of Shusha reluctantly agreed to recognise Azerbaijan's authority. The situation was to alter following the events of 4 April, when a mass exodus of Armenians from Shusha to nearby Khankende (Stepanakert, today the capital of Nagorno-Karabakh), following an Armenian uprising put down by Azeri forces, transformed, almost overnight, Shusha into an Azeri city. [Tim Potier. Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia: A Legal Appraisal. ISBN 9041114777]

On March 20 2000, a memorial stone was laid in Shusha on the site of the planned monument to the victims of the pogrom. The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic government introduced a proposal to the National Assembly to establish March 23 as a day of memorial of the victims of the Shushi pogroms. [Nagornyy Karabakh marks 80th anniversary of 1920 Armenian pogroms, Noyan Tapan, 24 Mar. 2000]

Official naming

In addition to the name "Shusha massacres", the Shusha pogrom is sometimes referred to by Armenian sources as "genocide".

"The massacre of Armenians in Shushi in 1920 is nothing but a genocide, Chairman of the parliamentary Commission for Foreign Relations of Karabakh, Vahram Atanesyan, said at a press-conference today. He said the massacre was perpetrated by Azerbaijan with the support of the Turkish expeditionary corps. Atanesyan stressed that Karabakh has never been a part of Azerbaijan and was de facto independent at that moment, its status being recognized by Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan" ["Massacre of Armenians in Shushi in 1920 is nothing but a genocide: Chairman of the parliamentary Commission for Foreign Relations of Karabakh, Vahram Atanesyan, at a press-conference, Arminfo, March 23 2002"] .

External links

* [http://www.hyevideo.com/video/176 Shushi Massacres (Video)]
* [http://www.un.org/documents/ga/docs/52/plenary/a52-85.htm United Nations document]
* [http://www.shushi.org/en/kotoratcner.php Shoushi Massacres of Armenians]
* [http://www.usanogh.com/content/view/368/110/ Shushi- Armenian city of sorrow and triumph]

Publications

* Armenia, Armenia: about the country and the people from the Biblical times to our days, a reference-book, by V. Krivopuskov, V. Osipov, V. Alyoshkin and others, ed. V.V. Krivopuskov, Third ed., revised and expanded. Moscow, Golos-Press, 2007. P. 30-31.
* [http://pda.regnum.ru/news/611517.html В Нагорном Карабахе осудили погромы 1920 года в Шуши]
* [http://www.golos.am/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=5213 М. Григорян, "Из 35 тысяч армян не осталось в Шуши ни одного..."] . "Голос Армении", 24 Марта 2007 г.,

References


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