Bruton Parish Church
Infobox_nrhp | name =Bruton Parish Church
nrhp_type = nhl
caption = Bruton Parish in the 1930s
lat_degrees = 37
lat_minutes = 16
lat_seconds = 16
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 76
long_minutes = 42
long_seconds = 10
long_direction = W
locmapin = Virginia
architecture= Georgian, Other
April 15, 1970cite web|url=http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1035&ResourceType=Building
title=Bruton Parish Church |accessdate=2008-06-26|work=National Historic Landmark summary listing|publisher=National Park Service]
May 10, 1970
governing_body = Private
refnum=70000861cite web|url=http://www.nr.nps.gov/|title=National Register Information System|date=2007-01-23|work=National Register of Historic Places|publisher=National Park Service]
Bruton Parish Church is located in the restored area of
Colonial Williamsburgin Williamsburg, Virginia, USA. It was established in the 17th century in the Virginia Colony, and is an active Episcopal parish.
History of Bruton Parish Church
The roots of Bruton Parish Church trace back to both the
Church of Englandand the new settlement of the Colony of Virginiaat Jamestown in the early 17th century. The role of the church and its relationship to the government had been established by King Henry VIII some years earlier. The same relationship was established in the new colony.
1607: the Church of England in the new Virginia Colony
When the British colony was established at Jamestown on
May 14, 1607, worship services and a primitive chapel were early priorities even as the first fort was built, with Robert Hunt as chaplain. He had been the spiritual leader of the three ship expedition headed by Christopher Newport, and he lit the candle for the Anglican Church in Virginia a few weeks earlier when he first lifted his voice in public thanksgiving and prayer on April 29, when the settlers made what has come to be known as their "First Landing" near the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. He also was the one to plant the cross at Cape Henry(which they named after Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King James I). htp://www.nps.gov/archive/colo/Jthanout/RHunt.html ]
Captain John Smith described Reverend Hunt as "our honest, religious and courageous divine." In his role as religious leader, he was a peacemaker, often bringing harmony to a quarreling group of men. Reverend Hunt was among those who did not survive that first year. After 5 very difficult years, during which the majority of the continually arriving colonists also did not survive, the colony began to grow more successfully. As in England, the parish became a unit of local importance equal in power and practical aspects to other entities such as the courts and even the
House of Burgesses.
The earlier settlements were along the major waterways, such as the James River and the York River. The expansion and subdivision of the church parishes and shires (counties) of Virginia after 1634 each followed the growth. Parishes needed to be close enough for travel to worship, which was basically expected of everyone. (A "parish" was normally led spiritually by a "rector" and governed by a committee of members gnerally respected in the community which was known as the "vestry").
Growth of the Colony: 1632 Middle Plantation
The interior area of the
Virginia Peninsulawasn't settled until a period beginning in the 1630s when a stockade was completed across the Peninsula between Archer's Hope Creek(later College Creek) and Queen's Creek, each navigable to an opposing river.
John Pottfigured prominently in the early development. In 1625, he was commissioned a member of the Governor's Council, in which office he continued a number of years. In 1628 he was chosen Governor, and held the position from 1629 until the early part of 1630, when he was superseded by Sir John Harvey.
Dr. Potts had a
plantationwhich he called "Harrop," and which he may have so named in honor of his ancestral home. Harrop in Cheshire, Englandwas the place of residence of some of the Potts at that period. (This plantation, patented in 1631, may be related to the Harrop Parish established in 1644, which years later became part of Bruton Parish).
July 12, 1632, Dr. Potts obtained a patent for convert|1200|acre|km2 at the head of Archer's Hope Creek. Part of this land was to become the fortified palisade across the peninsula. Palisades, six miles (10 km) in length, were run from creek to creek, and, on the ridge between, a settlement to be called Middle Plantationwas made. The doctor would have certainly recognized the sanitary advantages of the country around Middle Plantation. As the ridge between the creeks was remarkably well drained, there were few mosquitoes. The deep ravines penetrating from the north and south made the place of much strategic value. Also, the only practical road down the Peninsula was over this ridge, and this road was easily defended. At Middle Plantation, some years later, this road was later to be called Duke of Gloucester Street, and it would later form the dividing boundary line between portions of James City and York County for many years. [ [http://www.heritagepursuit.com/Potts/PottsII.htm POTTS FAMILY IN GREAT BRITAIN AND AMERICA, 1901 ] ]
Middle Plantation becomes a town
Despite the favorable location, development of Middle Plantation as a residential and trade community did not immediately take place. The area was still on the edge of the frontier and subject to attacks by the Native Americans, who were being crowded out of their homeland by the ever-expanding colony. This was especially true prior to the second major conflict with the
Powhatan Confederacyin 1644, after which a peace was established. Although the local Natives had basically been overwhelmed and subdued, conflicts continued further west with tribal groups other than the Powhatan.
Beginning after 1644, the interior areas of the Peninsula such as that of Middle Plantation became more attractive for settlement. By the 1650s, Middle Plantation began to look both populated and wealthy, straddling the boundary between James City County and York County. Colonel John Page, a merchant who had emigrated from
Middlesex, Englandwith his wife Alice Lucken Page in 1650, was largely responsible for building Middle Plantation into a substantial town. In an era of wooden buildings, brick was a sign of both wealth and permanence. Page built a large, brick house in Middle Plantation and began encouraging the growth of the area. The Ludwell brothers (Thomas and Phillip) also built a substantial brick home, even larger than that of Page. [http://www.wm.edu/niahd/journals/index.php?browse=entry&id=3849] The houses that Page and the Ludwells built were among the finest in the colony. Another brick house was built nearby by the Pages' eldest son, Francis. By the third quarter of the seventeenth century, Middle Plantation must have looked like a place of importance.
Worship in Middle Plantation
In 1633, according to records, Middle Plantation Parish had been was established. It is known there was a wooden church by around 1660, but little else is known. In 1658, Middle Plantation Parish was united with Harrop Parish in James City County in 1658 to form Middletown Parish.
Bruton Parish was formed in 1674 when Marston Parish (formed in 1654) in York County merged with Middletown Parish. The name of the parish comes from the English town of
Bruton, County Somerset, which was the ancestral home to several leading colonial figures, notably Virginia's colonial secretary Thomas Ludwelland the Ludwell family, as well as that of the Royal Governor, Sir William Berkeley.http://www.brutonparish.org/history.htm] By this time, the Ludwells were living in Middle Plantation, and the idea of moving the capital there had been put forth unsuccessfully at least once. Bruton Parish was about convert|10|mi|km square. [http://www.history.org/Almanack/places/hb/hbbruch.cfm Bruton Parish Church] ]
Colonel Page donated a plot of land about convert|144|ft|m by convert|180|ft|m and funds for building a brick church and for the surrounding churchyard in 1678. In return for his donation of land and funds towards the new church, Col. Page was allowed to have his family seated in a special pew at the front of the church in the chancel ahead of the congregation. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=LvnX6vACs4MC&pg=PA122&dq=%22bruton+parish+church%22+john+page+coat-of-arms&lr=&ei=PkPESLT0D4PSswOtiKHXDA&sig=ACfU3U1nX-pDLkF7jgHp6etYO9OoTL_UdQ#PPA43,M1, Bruton Parish Church, Hesperides Press, 2007] ]
Other subscribers pledged additional funds. The construction contract was awarded in June 1681 and the building was complete by
November 29, 1683. The first rector, the Reverend Rowland Jones, dedicated the structure on January 6, 1684at the Epiphany. Completed in 1683, the brick church, about convert|60|ft|m by convert|24|ft|m, rose to the north and west of the present church building and only a few steps northwest. The buried foundations remain.
Country parish changes its role
Condition at Jamestown had been problematic to serve as the capital of the colony, and during the second half of the 17th century, sessions of the House of Burgesses and Governor's Council had periodically been relocated to Middle Plantation, or longtime Governor Sir William Berkeley's
Green Spring Plantation, both relatively nearby, and considered both safer and healthier locations than Jamestown Island. This and another situation combined to bring tiny Middle Plantation and Bruton Parish to prominence in the colony.
In 1691, the
House of Burgessessent James Blair, the colony's top religious leader and rector of Henrico Parish at Varina, to Englandto secure a charterto establish "a certain Place of Universal Study, a perpetual College of Divinity, Philosophy, Languages, and the good arts and sciences...to be supported and maintained, in all time coming." Blair journeyed to Londonand began a vigorous campaign. With support from his friends, Henry Compton, the Bishop of London, and John Tillotson( Archbishop of Canterbury), Blair was ultimately successful. [ [http://www.wm.edu/news/index.php?id=2705 W&M Founders Include Blair and 17 Others | University Relations ] ]
The College was founded on
February 8, 1693, under a Royal Chartersecured by Blair. Named in honor of the reigning monarchs King William III and Queen Mary II, the College was one of the original Colonial colleges. [ [http://www.wm.edu/vitalfacts/seventeenth.php 1618-1699 Historical Facts] ] William & Mary was founded as an Anglicaninstitution; governors were required to be members of the Church of England, and professors were required to declare adherence to the Thirty-Nine Articles. [Webster, Homer J. (1902) "Schools and Colleges in Colonial Times," "The New England Magazine: An Illustrated Monthly", v. XXVII, p. 374, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC01644447&pg=PA373 Google Books entry] ]
Reverend Blair, who had been serving as Rector of
Henrico Parish(then along the western frontier) was very aware of the fate of Henricus and the first attempt at a college there, both of which had been annihilated in the Indian Massacre of 1622. The peaceful situation with the Native Americans and the high ground and central location in the developed portion of the colony at Middle Plantation must have appealed to him, for he is credited with selecting a site for the new college on the outskirt of the tiny community. Blair and the trustees of the College of William and Mary bought a parcel of convert|330|acre|km2 from Thomas Ballard for the new school. The new school opened in temporary buildings in 1694. Properly called the "College Building," the first version of the Wren Buildingwas built at Middle Plantation beginning on August 8, 1695and occupied by 1700. (Today, the Wren Building is the oldest academic structure in continuous use in America).
The State House at Jamestown burned again (for the third time) in 1698, and as it had in the past, the legislature again took up temporary quarters at Middle Plantation. On
May 1, 1699, Blair and five students of the College of William and Mary appeared before the House of Burgesses (which was meeting nearby in temporary quarters) to suggest that they designate Middle Plantation (soon to renamed Williamsburg in honor of King William III), as the new capital of Virginia, and a month later, the legislators agreed.
Following its designation as the Capital of the Colony, immediate provision was made for construction of a capitol building and for platting the new city according to the survey of
Theodoric Bland. Bruton Parish Church held a prominent location in the new plan.
Thus, by 1699, Bruton Parish Church found itself located adjacent to both the new college and the new capital of the colony. During the colonial period, all those in public office were required to attend church. Government and College officials in the capital city of Williamsburg therefore would have attended Bruton Parish Church. The influx of students, the governor and his entourage, and the legislature, as well as townspeople overwhelmed the small church.
The church and Williamsburg were each central to the life and government of the colony, As the court church of colonial Virginia, Bruton Parish Church soon took on appropriate trappings such as an altar cloth and cushion.
1715: a new church building
Colonial Williamsburg Foundationhave noted that the brick church stood near the center of Williamsburg's original survey map drawn 15 years after it was built. The layout may have been designed at least partially around the extant church, suggesting the church's importance to the colonial community's life. However, the brick church was in poor condition and deemed inadequate for its prominent role.
In 1706, the vestry began considering building a larger church. However, with only 110 families as 1724, the parish vestry could only afford to plan a small church, and invited the colony's government to finance an enlargement to accommodate the needs not arising from the local residents. Four years later the General Assembly agreed to fund pews for the governor, council, and burgesses. Royal Governor
Alexander Spotswooddrafted plans for the structure: a cruciform-shaped church (the first in Virginia) 75 feet long, convert|28|ft|m wide, with convert|19|ft|m|sing=on long transepts (wings.)
Under the watchful eye of Dr. James Blair, who was rector from 1710 to 1743 (and also president of William and Mary from 1693 until his death), the construction of the new church got underway, with the first construction contract awarded in 1711. Finished in 1715, the church soon had all the required furnishings: Bible, prayer books, altar, font, cushions, surplice, bell, and reredos tablets.
American Revolution, decline
American Revolutionary Warbegan in 1776, the power of both the monarchy and the church as an institution controlled by the government came into question in the colony. Among the Virginia leaders of the time who attended Bruton Parish Church were Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Richard Henry Lee, George Wythe, Patrick Henry, and George Mason.
The capital was relocated to Richmond in 1781 for greater security in the conflict with Great Britain, and when the new
Constitution of the United Statesand the accompanying Bill of Rightswere adopted, the concepts of Separation of Church and Stateand Freedom of Religionchanged the role of Bruton Parish Church in its community. With the end of colonial rule, Bruton Parish Church declined just as the city did.
However, the church grew anew as part of the
Episcopal Church in the United States of America, which became the first autonomous Anglican province outside the British Isles. In the new Commonwealth of Virginia, those attending Bruton Parish Church did so by choice, and the parish survived to modern times, where it is still active. However, a variety of changes to the church were made, including reversing the interior to place the altar at the west, instead of the east, end. And, in the early 20th century, an important restoration took place.
Revitalization of Colonial Williamsburg
Largely through the efforts of its rector, the Reverend Dr.
W.A.R. Goodwin(1869-1939), who came to the parish in 1903. He was inspired by his historic parish with its many still-standing 18th-century buildings. Dr. Goodwin oversaw fund-raising, preservation and restoration of the aged and historic church building, using information gathered from town and church records. He completed the church's restoration in 1907, the 300th anniversary of the establishment of the Episcopal Church in America. The work turned out to be only the first of a much larger restoration.
Dr. Goodwin was called to
Rochester, New York, where he stayed until 1923, when he returned to Virginia, to teach at the College of William and Mary, and serve again at Bruton Parish. He was shocked at the continued deterioration of many other historic buildings in the immediate vicinity of the church and the College. He feared they would be completely destroyed as time went on. In 1924, Dr. Goodwin started a movement to preserve the buildings in the district. As his primary source of funding, Dr. Goodwin was fortunate in this effort to sign on John D. Rockefeller Jr., the wealthy son of the founder of Standard Oil, and his wife Abby Aldrich Rockefeller. He stimulated their interest in the old city and helped that bloom into the incredible generosity that financed the restoration. Together, through their personal efforts and diligence and funding of the Rockefeller Foundation, Abby and John Rockefeller worked with Dr. Goodwin and others to make the remarkable dream of restoring the old colonial capital come true. [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin, Virginia Rector,70; "Father of the Williamsburg Restoration" Dies. Gained Rockefeller's Support. Widely Praised for Work. Head of Religious Education Department at William and Mary Since 1923 |url= |quote= Williamsburg, Virginia, September 7, 1939( Associated Press) The Rev. Dr. William Archer Rutherfoord Goodwin, former rector of Bruton Parish Church and the "father of the Williamsburg restoration," died at his home here tonight. He was 70 years old. |publisher= New York Times|date= |accessdate=2007-07-21 ]
The Church Today
Today Colonial Williamsburg's Historic Area occupies 173 acres (700,000 m²) and includes 88 original buildings and more than 50 major reconstructions. It is joined by the
Colonial Parkwayto the two other sides of the Historic Triangle, Jamestown and Yorktown. At Jamestown, England established its first permanent colony in the Americas, and at Yorktown the Continental Army under George Washingtonwon a decisive victory to end British rule.
Bruton Parish Church today is the most active parish in the
Episcopal Diocese of Southern Virginia. It has nearly two thousand members, five regular Sunday services, and active youth and college organizations. The Church has been restored to the colonial era, and name plates on its box pews commemorate famous worshipers from the time, including George Washington, James Madison, John Tyler, Benjamin Harrison, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Jefferson. The church still uses a bell cast in 1761, which rang to celebrate the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, marking the end of the American Revolutionary War.
And, much as the former country parish found a new role with the influx of persons visiting the new College and colonial capital in the 18th century, visitors to Colonial Williamsburg are welcomed to join local folks, including students, college staff and community leaders in worshiping there.
* [http://www.brutonparish.org/ Bruton Parish Church]
* [http://www.history.org/Foundation/general/introhis.cfm Colonial Williamsburg Foundation]
* [http://historichamptonroads.com/bruton_parish_church.htm Bruton Parish Church Postcards Online]
* [http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/virginia/williamsburg/bruton/church.html Bluffton College website Bruton Parish Church photos]
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