# Peridynamics

**Peridynamics**is a formulation ofcontinuum mechanics that is oriented towarddeformation s with discontinuities, especiallyfracture s.**Advantages of peridynamics over other methods**The peridynamic theory is based on

integral equation s, in contrast with the classical theory of continuum mechanics, which is based onpartial differential equation s. Sincepartial derivative s do not exist on crack surfaces and other singularities, the classical equations ofcontinuum mechanics cannot be applied directly when such features are present in adeformation . The integral equations of the peridynamic theory can be applied directly, because they do not require partial derivatives.The ability to apply the same equations directly at all points in a mathematical model of a deforming structure helps the peridynamic approach avoid the need for the special techniques of

fracture mechanics . For example, in peridynamics, there is no need for a separate crack growth law based on astress intensity factor . Similar properties are also obtained by some variational methods, which are suitable for showing existence, convergence, etc., in static and quasi-static settings. Such properties for peridynamics are currently being addressed (see Silling and Lehoucq 2008, Bobaru et al 2008). One advantage of peridynamics compared to variational methods is its applicability to modeling dynamic phenomena.**Definition and basic terminology**The basic equation of peridynamics is the following

equation of motion :$ho(x)ddot\; u(x,t)=int\_R\; f(u(x\text{'},t)-u(x,t),x\text{'}-x,x)dV\_\{x\text{'}\}\; +\; b(x,t)$

where $x$ is a point in a body $R$, $t$ is time, $u$ is the displacement vector field, and $ho$ is the mass density in the undeformed body. x' is a dummy variable of integration.

The vector valued function $f$ is the force density that $x\text{'}$ exerts on $x$. This force density depends on the relative displacement and relative position vectors between $x\text{'}$ and $x$. The

dimension s of $f$ are force per volume squared. The function $f$ is called the "pairwise force function" and contains all the constitutive (material-dependent) properties. It describes how the internal forces depend on the deformation.The interaction between any $x$ and $x\text{'}$ is called a "bond." The physical mechanism in this interaction need not be specified.It is usually assumed that $f$ vanishes whenever $x\text{'}$ is outside a neighborhood of $x$ (in the undeformed configuration) called the "horizon."

The term "peridynamic," an adjective, was proposed in the year 2000 and comes from the prefix "peri," which means "all around", "near", or "surrounding"; and the root "dyna", which means "force" or "power." The term "peridynamics," a noun, is a shortened form of the phrase "peridynamic model of solid mechanics."

**Pairwise force functions**Using the abbreviated notation $u=u(x,t)$ and $u\text{'}=u(x\text{'},t)$

Newton's third law places the following restriction on $f$:$displaystyle\; f(u-u\text{'},\; x-x\text{'},\; x\text{'})\; =\; -f(u\text{'}-u,\; x\text{'}-x,\; x)$

for any $x,\; x\text{'},\; u,\; u\text{'}$. This equation states thatthe force density vector that $x$ exerts on $x\text{'}$ equals minus the force density vector that $x\text{'}$ exerts on $x$. Balance of

angular momentum requires that $f$ be parallel to the vector connecting the deformed position of $x$ to the deformed position of $x\text{'}$:$displaystyle\; ((x\text{'}+u\text{'})-(x+u))\; imes\; f(u\text{'}-u,\; x\text{'}-x,\; x)=0$.

A pairwise force function is specified by a graph of $|f|$ versus bond elongation $e$, defined by

$displaystyle\; e=|(x\text{'}+u\text{'})-(x+u)|-|x\text{'}-x|$.

A schematic of a pairwise force function for the bond connecting two typical points is shown in the following figure:

**Damage**Damage is incorporated in the pairwise force function by allowing bonds to break when their elongation exceeds some prescribed value. After a bond breaks, it no longer sustains any force, and the endpoints are effectively disconnected from each other. When a bond breaks, the force it was carrying is redistributed to other bonds that have not yet broken. This increased load makes it more likely that these other bonds will break. The process of bond breakage and load redistribution, leading to further breakage, is how cracks grow in the peridynamic model.

**ee also***

Fracture mechanics

*Continuum mechanics **Further readings*** cite journal

last = Silling

first = S. A.

title = Reformulation of Elasticity Theory for Discontinuities and Long-Range Forces

journal = Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids

volume = 48

issue =

pages = 175-209

publisher =

location =

year = 2000

url = http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/00225096/2000/00000048/00000001/art00029

doi = 10.1016/S0022-5096(99)00029-0

id =

accessdate =* S. A. Silling, M. Zimmermann, and R. Abeyaratne, "Deformation of a Peridynamic Bar," Journal of Elasticity, Vol. 73 (2003) 173-190. [

*http://www.springerlink.com/content/r7g818876w474273/ DOI: 10.1023/B:ELAS.0000029931.03844.4f*]* S. A. Silling and F. Bobaru, "Peridynamic Modeling of Membranes and Fibers," International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, Vol. 40 (2005) 395-409. [

*http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2004.08.004 DOI:10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2004.08.004*]* O. Weckner and R. Abeyaratne, "The Effect of Long-Range Forces on the Dynamics of a Bar," Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. 53 (2005) 705-728. [

*http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmps.2004.08.006: DOI: 10.1016/j.jmps.2004.08.006*]* S. A. Silling and E. Askari, "A Meshfree Method Based on the Peridynamic Model of Solid Mechanics," Computers and Structures, Vol. 83 (2005) 1526-1535. [

*http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruc.2004.11.026 DOI:10.1016/j.compstruc.2004.11.026*]* K. Dayal and K. Bhattacharya, "Kinetics of Phase Transformations in the Peridynamic Formulation of Continuum Mechanics," Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. 54 (2006) 1811-1842. [

*http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmps.2006.04.001 DOI: I0.1016/j.jmps.2006.04.001*]* W. Gerstle, N. Sau, and S. Silling, "Peridynamic Modeling of Concrete Structures," Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 237 (2007) 1250-1258. [

*http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2006.10.002 DOI: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2006.10.002*]* S. A. Silling, M. Epton, O. Weckner, J. Xu and E. Askari, "Peridynamic States and Constitutive Modeling," Journal of Elasticity, Vol. 88 (2007) 151-184. [

*http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1486627686405862/?p=47fc06b9cd3341589992d32551af5012&pi=3 DOI: 10.1007/s10659-007-9125-1*]* F. Bobaru, "Influence of van der Waals forces on increasing the strength and toughness in dynamic fracture of nanofibre networks: a peridynamic approach," Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 15 (2007) 397-417. [

*http://stacks.iop.org/0965-0393/15/397 DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/15/5/002*]* R. W. Macek and S. A. Silling, "Peridynamics via finite element analysis," Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, Vol. 43, Issue 15, (2007) 1169-1178. [

*http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V36-4PYRK7F-2/2/edec184d6c2fb1fbd59f9e8bef79503a DOI: 10.1016/j.finel.2007.08.012*]* S. A. Silling and R. B. Lehoucq, "Convergence of Peridynamics to Classical Elasticity Theory," Journal of Elasticity, Vol. 93 (2008) 13-37. [

*http://www.springerlink.com/content/wp11t2t4mn62r271/ DOI:10.1007/s10659-008-9163-3*]* F. Bobaru, M. Yang, L. F. Alves, S. A. Silling, E. Askari, and J. Xu, "Convergence, adaptive refinement, and scaling in 1D peridynamics," International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Published online: Aug 26 2008. [

*http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/121387911/ABSTRACT DOI: 10.1002/nme.2439*]**Links**[

*http://www.olafbaji.com Talks on Peridynamics at the SIAM Conference on Mathematical Aspects of Material Science 2008*]

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