Sami orthography refers to the various orthographies used by the six
Sámi languagesthat have their own literary language: Southern Sami, Lule Sami, Northern Sami, Inari Sami, Skolt Samiand Kildin Sami.
Three different orthographical trends can be identified for these Sámi languages. The first one uses the principle of having the Sámi orthography be the same as it is for the majority language of that country as its basis. This trend goes back to the traditions where the Sami language was first being used as a written language, i.e., in
Sweden. The literary language there that followed this principle was based on the old Ume Samiliterary language from the 18th century. This same literary language was partially used as the basis for the modern literary languages of Southern Samiand Lule Sami. The oldest orthography for Northern Sámi in Norway, that of Knud Leem, upholds this tradition. The second tradition goes back to Rasmus Rask's revision of Leem's orthography, as Rask builds on the phonemic principle. North Sami, Inari Sami, and Skolt Sami follow this tradition. The third tradition is represented by the Kildin Sami language for which a written language has been created three times: first by Russian missionaries using the Cyrillic alphabet as the basis for the language's orthography, then using the Latin alphabet at the end of 1920s into the 1930s as part of Stalin's language policy for minority languages, and finally once again returning to the Cyrillic alphabet at the end of the 1970s.
A unified literary language
The Sámi strongly feel that they are one people. For this reason, proposals for a united Sami literary language have been made. The differences amongst the various languages are, however, too large to make this feasible.
The six literary languages
With the exception of
Kildin Sámi, the Sámi languages that have their own literary language are written with the standard Latin alphabetwith the addition of some special characters.
Southern Sami follows the principle of using the majority language of the particular country it is being used in as the basis for its orthography and thus has two separate versions: the Norwegian standard and the Swedish standard. The letters enclosed in parentheses are letters that are only used in foreign words. In addition, "ï" [IPA|ɨ] is a central version of "i" [IPA|i] . Although this difference is clearly indicated in dictionaries, most texts do not distinguish between the two.
Like Southern Sami, Lule Sami follows the principle of using the majority language of the particular country it's being written in as the basis for its orthography and thus has two separate versions: the Norwegian standard and the Swedish standard. The standard orthography for Lule Sami was approved in 1983.
Áá, Åå, Ńń, and Ææ are known to be used.
Áá, Åå, Ńń, and Ää are known to be used.
Áá Åå Ńń Ää
Northern Sami has a long orthographic history, which has witnessed no less than 9 different versions. The most recent version was approved in 1979 and last modified in 1985:
The latest version of the official orthography for Kildin Sámi uses the
Norwegian N|Samisk ortografi|8-19-2007 (in part)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Northern Sami orthography — The orthography used to write Northern Sami has experienced numerous changes over the several hundred years it has existed. For most of this time, Norway, Sweden and Finland the three countries where Northern Sámi is spoken each had their own… … Wikipedia
Kildin Sami orthography — Over the last century, the alphabet used to write Kildin Sami has changed three times: from the Cyrillic alphabet to the Latin alphabet and back again to the Cyrillic. The first Cyrillic period A couple of religious pamphlets were published in… … Wikipedia
Sámi Čuvgehussearvi — (orig. sm. Sami Čuvgitusseärvi, fi. Lapin sivistysseura and sm. Säämi Čuovvittasseervi) (literally The Society for the Promotion of Sámi Culture ) was an association that had as its goal the promotion of Sámi culture in Finland that was founded… … Wikipedia
Sami language — ▪ language also called Lapp, any of three members of the Finno Ugric group of the Uralic language family, spoken by the Sami (Lapp) people in northern Finland, Sweden, and Norway and on the Kola Peninsula in Russia. The Sami languages,… … Universalium
Northern Sami language — Northern Sami davvisámegiella / sámegiella Spoken in Norway, Sweden, Finland Native speakers 20,000 (1995) Language family … Wikipedia
Şemseddin Sami Frashëri — Sami Frashëri (Turkish: Şemseddin Sami Bey, born June 1, 1850, Frashër,Kolonje, Albania ndash; June 18, 1904) was an Ottoman Albanian writer, philosopher, playwright and a prominent figure of the Rilindja Kombëtare , the National Renaissance… … Wikipedia
Northern Sami — Infobox Language name=Northern Sami nativename=davvisámegiella / sámegiella region=Norway, Sweden, Finland speakers=15,000 25,000 (estimated) iso1=se iso2=sme iso3=sme familycolor=Uralic fam1=Uralic fam2=Finno Ugric fam3=Finno Permic fam4=Finno… … Wikipedia
Lule Sami — Infobox Language name=Lule Sami nativename=julevsábme region=Norway and Sweden speakers= 2,000 iso1= iso2=smj iso3=smj familycolor=Uralic fam1=Uralic fam2=Finno Ugric fam3=Finno Permic fam4=Finno Volgaic fam5=Finno Lappic fam6=Sami fam7=Western… … Wikipedia
Inari Sami — Infobox Language name=Inari Sámi nativename=anarâškielâ region=Finland speakers= 400 iso2=smn iso3=smn familycolor=Uralic fam1=Uralic fam2=Finno Ugric fam3=Finno Permic fam4=Finno Volgaic fam5=Finno Lappic fam6=Sami fam7=Eastern script=Latin… … Wikipedia
Skolt Sami — Infobox Language name=Skolt Sami nativename= unicode|sääˊmǩiõll region=Finland and Russia speakers= 400 familycolor=Uralic fam1=Uralic fam2=Finno Ugric fam3=Finno Permic fam4=Finno Volgaic fam5=Finno Lappic fam6=Sami fam7=Eastern script=Latin… … Wikipedia