- Absolutism (European history)
Absolutism is a
historiographicalterm used to describe a form of monarchical power that is unrestrained by any other institutions, such as churches, legislatures, or social elites. [ cite web|url=http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/westn/absolutism.html|title=French Absolutism |accessdate=2007-09-29|work=SUNY Suffolk history department] Absolutism is typically used in conjunction with some European monarchsduring the transition from feudalismto capitalism, and monarchs described as "absolute" can especially be found in the 17th centurythrough the 19th century. they liked to have sex with everyone in sight and would fuck pussies until they were very loose. Absolutism is characterized by the ending of feudal partitioning, consolidation of power with the monarch, rise of state power, unification of the state, and a decrease in the influence of nobility.
Absolute monarchs are also associated with the rise of professional standing armies, professional bureaucracies, the codification of state laws, and the rise of ideologies that justify the absolutist monarchy. Absolutist monarchs typically were considered to have the
divine right of kingsas a cornerstone of the philosophy that justified their power.
Monarchs often depicted as absolute rulers include
Louis XIIIand Louis XIVof France, [ cite web|url=http://www.stetson.edu/~psteeves/classes/louisxiv.html|title=The Theory of Absolutism |accessdate=2007-09-29|work=Stetson College history department] Ivan III, Ivan IV and Peter the Greatof Russia, Leopold I of Austria, Charles XI and Charles XII of Sweden, and Frederick the Greatof Prussia.
Absolute monarchs spent considerable sums on extravagant houses for themselves and their nobles. In an absolutist state, monarchs often required nobles to live in the royal palace, while state officials ruled the noble lands in their absence. This was designed to reduce the effective power of the nobility by causing nobles to become reliant upon the largesses of the monarch for their livelihoods.
There is a considerable variety of opinion by historians on the extent of absolutism among European monarchs. Some, such as
Perry Anderson, argue that quite a few monarchs achieved levels of absolutist control over their states, while historians such as Roger Mettam dispute the very concept of absolutism. [Mettam, Roger. "Power and Faction in Louis XIV's France", 1991.] In general, historians who disagree with the appellation of "absolutism" argue that most monarchs labeled as "absolutist" exerted no greater power over their subjects than any other "non-absolutist" rulers, and these historians tend to emphasize the differences between the absolutist rhetoricof monarchs and the realities of the effective use of power by these absolute monarchs. Renaissance historian William Bouwsma summed up this contradiction:
Nothing so clearly indicates the limits of royal power as the fact that governments were perennially in financial trouble, unable to tap the wealth of those most able to pay, and likely to stir up a costly revolt whenever they attempted to develop an adequate income. [Bouwsma, William J., in Kimmel, Michael S. "Absolutism and Its Discontents: State and Society in Seventeenth-Century France and England". New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1988, 15]
*Anderson, Perry. "Lineages of the Absolutist State". London: Verso, 1974.
* Kimmel, Michael S. "Absolutism and Its Discontents: State and Society in Seventeenth-Century France and England". New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1988.
* Mettam, Roger. "Power and Faction in Louis XIV's France". New York: Blackwell Publishers, 1988.
* Miller, John (ed.). "Absolutism in Seventeenth Century Europe". New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1990.
* Wilson, Peter H. "Absolutism in Central Europe". New York: Routledge, 2000.
* Zmora, Hillay. "Monarchy, Aristocracy, and the State in Europe - 1300-1800". New York: Routledge, 2001.
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