Cadillac Fleetwood

Infobox Automobile
name = Cadillac Fleetwood


manufacturer = General Motors
production = 1947–1996, 1999
class = Full-size luxury car
The Fleetwood Metal Body Company began business in Fleetwood, Pennsylvania on April 1, 1909 and continued as an independent automobile body builder until acquired in 1925 by the Fisher Body Company, a division of General Motors. The company continued in Fleetwood until 1931 at which time General Motors moved the entire operation to Detroit.

Long before acquisition by Fisher Body Company, the Fleetwood Metal Body Company had established its reputation as a builder of fine wood and aluminum auto bodies. Its built-to-order product was sought after by many notable people in the U.S. and abroad, some of whom were royalty from India and Japan, presidents of Poland and the United States, and well-known American movie idols. One specimen, built for silent screen star Rudolph Valentino, was recently on sale for $1,600,000.00.

"Unique" was the magic word that attracted the wealthy. One could purchase a chassis with wheels and motor from the best builders abroad, Isotta Fraschini, Bentley, Mercedes, Rolls-Royce or Fiat. American makers were Duesenberg, Packard, Cadillac, Pierce-Arrow or Stutz. There were also Reading makers of the S.G.V., the Chadwick and Daniels. The purchased chassis with engine and wheels was shipped to Fleetwood while the purchaser met with one of the company’s designers, usually in New York, to put onto a drawing the customer’s ideas of what the finished design should be. Once accepted, the plans were sent to Fleetwood where the body would be created, mounted on the chassis and finished in the colors, upholstery, and appointments chosen by the new owner. The car was “unique” to the likes of the proud possessor.

Eventually, under Fisher’s directives, the company also made production models with the celebrated Fleetwood name. General Motors most notable Cadillac model was the “Fleetwood” until it was recently discontinued.

The Fleetwood name was used on the top of the Cadillac line since 1927. In 1946, Cadillac created a special version of the Series 60 called the "Series 60 Special Fleetwood". The Fleetwood name was then used to designate the top of the line trim of the Series 70 and Sixty Special models through 1976.

In 1972, Cadillac refocused the Fleetwood name. The Fleetwood Limousine carried on from the Fleetwood Seventy-Five, while the Fleetwood Brougham took over where the Sixty Special was positioned.

1946-1964

Two Fleetwood models:
* 1946-1964 Sixty Special Fleetwood — based on Series 62
* 1946-1964 Series 75 Fleetwood — unique long wheelbase model

1965-1970

For 1965, the Eldorado and Sixty Special officially became part of the Fleetwood line along with the Seventy-Five. A new Fleetwood Brougham line was also added as an upscale Sixty Special.

1971-1976

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Generation x
Fleetwood Brougham


production = 1971–1976
predecessor = Cadillac Sixty Special
layout = FR layout
platform = D-body
body_style = 2-door coupe
4-door sedan
wheelbase = 130 in (3302 mm)
engine = 472 in³ "Lxx" V8
500 in³ "Lxx" Gas V8
Infobox Automobile generation
name = Generation x
Fleetwood 75
production = 1971–1976
predecessor = Cadillac Fleetwood 75
layout = FR layout
platform = D-body
body_style = 4-door limousine
wheelbase =
engine = 472 in³ "Lxx" V8
500 in³ "Lxx" Gas V8
The beginning of the end of the largest of all GM production cars was realized with the introduction of the 1971 B/C/D body cars. Cadillac remained exclusive to the D body for the Deville and Fleetwood with a wheelbase stretching to a lengthy convert|130|in|mm. Engines grew to cubic inches not seen since the end of these massive cars, displacing 472 (7.7L) and finally 500 (8.2L) cubic inches. Unfortunately hp and torque levels plummeted with ever increasing EPA restrictions on tailpipe emissions and grams per mile emissions requirements, forcing gear ratios to taller and taller ratios, dropping to as low as 2.41:1.

1971 also saw the consolidation of the GM full size car lines to a new common frame/suspension design, shared by the Chevrolet Caprice/Impala/Bel Air, Buick LeSebre/Electra, Oldsmobile 88/98, Pontiac Catalina/Bonneville, and the Cadillac Sedan Deville/Coupe Deville and Fleetwood. While the other GM divisions used a front-steer setup (steering linkage in front of the engine crossmember), all Cadillac RWDs retained the 1961-vintage front suspension (rear steering linkage, eccentric cams in the steering knuckle in lieu of shims, strut rods attached to the framerails for caster adjustment). Rear suspsensions were now driven by the Pontiac designed 8 7/8" (8.875") ring gear 10 bolt salisubury live axle.

A new trailer towing package was added for the 1971-1976 model run allowing larger than ever trailers to be towed by Cadillac owners. Coupled with heavy duty cooling, 3.23 gearing, high output 80 amp large frame alternator and Heavy Duty THM400 transmission, the long wheelbase was ideal to pull trailers weighing up to convert|7000|lb|abbr=on.

Engines:
* 1971-1974 472 cid / 7.7L
* 1975-1976 500 cid / 8.2L

Transmissions:
* 1971-1976 THM400

1977-1986 (RWD)

Infobox Automobile generation
name = 1977-1986


production = 1977–1986
predecessor = Cadillac Sixty Special
Cadillac Fleetwood 75
layout = FR layout
platform = C-body
D-body
body_style = 2-door coupe
4-door sedan
4-door limousine
wheelbase = 121.5 in (3086 mm)
144.5 in (3670 mm) (limo)
engine = 425 in³ "L33" V8
350 in³ "LF9" Diesel V8
252 in³ "Buick" V6
368 in³ "L62 V8-6-4" V8
4.1 L "HT-4100" V8
successor = Cadillac Brougham
For 1977, Fleetwoods were reduced in size along with all other GM full-size cars. The Fleetwood Brougham sedan had a 121.5 in (3086 mm) C-body platform. Also new was Cadillac's 425 in³ "L33" V8, with an optional Oldsmobile diesel 350 V-8 arriving for 1979. The Fleetwood 75 Limousine used the long-wheelbase convert|144.5|in|mm|abbr=on D-body chassis. The 1977-1979 Limousine was only available with the carbureted 425, the 1980-1984 only with a 368. The RWD Fleetwood 75 Limousine ended production in 1984.For 1980, Fleetwood models retained the wheelbase and rear wheel drive chassis introduced for the 1977 models, but had restyled sheetmetal. A two-door Fleetwood Brougham, introduced in 1980, was based upon the Coupe de Ville but featured an exclusive formal landau vinyl roof. The RWD two-door was discontinued after the 1985 model year.

Engines:
* 1977-1979 425 ci (7.0 L) "L33" V8, 180 hp (134 kW)
* 1977-1979 425 ci (7.0 L) "L35" V8, 195 hp (port fuel injection)
* 1979-1985 350 in³ "LF9" Diesel V8, 105 hp (78 kW)
* 1980-1984 368 in³ "L62 V8-6-4" V8, 140 hp (104 kW) (Limousine/Commercial only after 1981)

* 1981-1982 252 in³ "Buick V6, 125 hp (93 kW)
* 1982-1985 4.1 L "HT-4100" V8, 125 hp (93 kW)
* 1986 5.0 L "Oldsmobile V8 307 engine" V8 107 hp (79.7 kW)

1985-1988 (FWD)

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Generation III
Fleetwood
production = 1985–1988
layout = FF layout
platform = C-body
related = Cadillac De Ville
body_style = 4-door sedan
2-door coupe
4-door limousine
wheelbase = convert|110.8|in|mm|abbr=on D'Elegance
115.8 in Sixty Special
134.4 in 75 Limousine
engine = 4.3 L "LS2" Diesel V6
4.1 L "HT-4100" V8
4.5 L "HT-4500" V8
transmission = 4-speed automatic
length = convert|196.4|in|mm|abbr=on
width = convert|72.5|in|mm|abbr=on
height = convert|55.0|in|mm|abbr=on
fuel_capacity = Convert|18|usgal|L impgal|0|abbr=on
For 1985, all Fleetwood models (except the Fleetwood Brougham) moved to the front wheel drive C-body. The standard Fleetwood shared the same 110.8 in (2814 mm) wheelbase as the other C-body cars, while the Limousine "Fleetwood 75" stretched it to 134.4 in (3414 mm). The Fleetwood Brougham remained on the RWD platform, (which was redesignated as "D-body" for 1985) through 1986.The rear wheel drive Fleetwood Brougham became simply the Cadillac Brougham for 1987, leaving all Fleetwoods on the new FWD platform. There was little more than trim differenced between the Fleetwood D'Elegance and Deville. The 1987 and 1988 Fleetwood Sixty Special used a stretched 115.8 in (2941 mm) version of the C-body, while the Limousine "Fleetwood 75" (discontinued after 1987) remained at 134.4 in (3414 mm) between the wheels.The aluminum 4.1 L "HT-4100" V8 was replaced by the 4.5 L "HT-4500" for 1988. The engine was upped to 4.9 L for 1991's "HT-4900".

Engines:
* 1985 4.3 L "LS2" Diesel V6, 85 hp (63 kW)
* 1985-1987 4.1 L "HT-4100" V8, 125 hp (93 kW)
* 1988 4.5 L "HT-4500" V8, 155 hp (116 kW)

Transmissions:
* 1985-1986 THM440 T4
* 1987-1988 4T60

1989-1992, 1993 (Sixty Special)

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Generation IV
Fleetwood/Sixty Special


production = 1989–1992
1993 (Sixty Special)
layout = FF layout
platform = C-body
related = Cadillac De Ville
body_style = 4-door sedan
2-door coupe
wheelbase = 110.8 in (2814 mm) coupes
113.8 in (2891 mm) sedans
engine = 4.5 L "HT-4500" V8
4.9 L "HT-4900" V8
transmission = 4-speed automatic
length = convert|205.1|in|mm|abbr=on.
width = convert|73.4|in|mm|abbr=on.
height = convert|54.4|in|mm|abbr=on.
fuel_capacity = Convert|18|usgal|L impgal|0|abbr=on
For 1989, the Fleetwood line was aligned more-closely with the Deville, essentially becoming trim variations on the same vehicle. The coupe versions of both shared the old 110.8 in (2814 mm) wheelbase, while the sedans (including the "Sixty Special") were unified at 113.8 in (2891 mm). Exterior dimensions were also identical between the model lines, with a length of 202.3 in (5138 mm) and 205.3 in (5215 mm) for the coupe and sedan, respectively.

The US$30,000 sticker price was a bargain compared to the large German luxury cars of the time, but "Car and Driver" felt that there was no comparison. They felt that the ride was "harsh", surprising when combined with a "feeble" .67 g of cornering grip. And the 155 hp (116 kW) V8 could only manage 10.9 s to 60 mph (96 km/h) for the 3615 lb (1640 kg) car.

Power jumped to 180 hp (134 kW) from the same 4.5 L engine for 1990 through the use of a dual-stage intake manifold and other changes. It was replaced by the 200 hp (149 kW) 4.9 L "HT-4900" for 1991.

The Fleetwood departed the front-drive line-up for 1993 (as the Fleetwood name went on the new rear-drive replacement for the 1992 Brougham). Sixty Special continued in its front-wheel drive form, as it had since it was re-introduced in 1987, but this would be the last year. To visually differentiate the 1989 - 1993 De Ville from the upper-rung Fleetwood and Sixty-Special models, the front-drive Fleetwoods and Sixty Specials use fender-mounted "spats" or skirts over the rear wheels, while De Ville had full rear-wheel openings. For it's final-year, there were 5,292 Sixty Specials built in 1993, including 688 with the optional "Ultra" Package that featured 22-way adjustable front seats, designed in Italy by Giorgio Grugiaro. This distinctive seating package had been standard on the Sixty Special since 1989, but in 1993, it became a $3,550.00 option.

Both the Fleetwood and Deville were coded as C-bodies in the fourth digit of the VIN. The fifth digit coded the Deville as "D" (with the later Touring Sedan becoming "T"), the Fleetwood as "B", and the Fleetwood Sixty Special as "S". The Sixty Special became the "G" code for 1991, and switched back to "B" for its 1993 run.

Engines:
* 1989 4.5 L "HT-4500" V8, 155 hp (116 kW)
* 1990 4.5 L "HT-4500" V8, 180 hp (134 kW)
* 1991-1993 4.9 L "HT-4900" V8, 200 hp (149 kW)

Transmissions:
* 1989 4T60
* 1990-1993 4T60E

1993-1996

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Generation V
Fleetwood


production = 1993–1996
predecessor = Cadillac Brougham
aka = Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham
layout = FR layout
assembly = Arlington, Texas, USA
platform = D-body
body_style = 4-door sedan
wheelbase = 121.5 in (3086 mm)
engine = 5.7 L "L05" V8
5.7 L "LT1" V8
length = convert|225.0|in|mm|abbr=on
transmission = 4-speed automatic
width = convert|78.0|in|mm|abbr=on
height = convert|57.1|in|mm|abbr=on
fuel_capacity = Convert|23|usgal|L impgal|0|abbr=on

For 1993, the Fleetwood name was switched from the Deville's front wheel drive C-body to the newly revised rear wheel drive D-body, being one of the first American front-wheel drive vehicles to switch to rear-wheel drive. This new body was based on the Caprice. The Fleetwood was the largest production car made in the United States until production ceased in 1996Fact|date=July 2007. It was replaced by the "d'Elegance" trim line of the Cadillac DeVille.

1994 brought the Corvette-derived LT-1 350 in³ (5.7 L) engine to make 260 hp (193.9 kW) along with the new 4L60E transmission. Between 1993 and 1996, the Fleetwood chassis was used in lieu of the DeVille for funeral coaches and limousines. The DeVille was used again in 1997.

The convert|7000|lb|abbr=on trailer towing package returned to the Gen 5 Fleetwood in 1993, something not seen in a production sedan since the 1971-1976 Gen 3 Fleetwood Fact|date=July 2007. The RPO V4P package included heavy duty cooling (RPO V08, which consisted of a 7 blade mechanical fan and an extra capacity radiator), RPO FE2 Suspension System Ride Handling, HD 4L60 transmission, RPO KC4 Cooling System Engine Oil, RPO KD1 Cooling System Transmission Oil, RPO KG9 140 amp alternator, and RPO GT4 3.73 gears with an 8.5" ring gear. In 1994-1996, the V4P package was revised with RPO GU6 3.42 gears with the new more powerful RPO LT1 260 hp V8, and HD 4L60E transmission with unique accumulators to shift smoother with the shorter rear axle gearing.

The Fleetwood was upgraded with a 9.5" Semi Floating axle (sourced from Chevrolet/GMC C/K 3/4 ton trucks fitted with wide drums and 1/2" studs) with 3.42 ratio, along with 1" wide brake rotors (from Chevrolet/GMC G-series vans) on coach builder, limousine, and armor plating models.

Engines:
* 1993: 5.7L "L05" V8, 185 hp (138 kW)
* 1994-1996: 5.7L "LT1" V8, 260 hp (194 kW)

Transmissions:
* 1993: 4L60
* 1994-1996: 4L60E

1999

The 1999 Cadillac Fleetwood Limited was built by the Superior Coach Company in Lima, Ohio. Superior took a regular production 1999 Cadillac De Ville and stretched out one foot in length. It was priced at around $52,000. Exactly 467 were produced.

Film

Five Cadillac Fleetwood Seventy-Fives, a Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham and a Cadillac Fleetwood Station Wagon are stolen in the 1974 film Gone in 60 seconds.

Cadillac Fleetwood Seventy-Five with a special landau roof in Gone In 60 Seconds

Cadillac Fleetwood Seventy-Five in Gone In 60 Seconds

References & Links

*


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