Pyatigorsk ( _ru. Пятиго́рск) is a city in Stavropol Krai on the Podkumok River in the Southern Federal District of Russia, about twenty kilometers from Mineralnye Vody. The name Pyatigorsk means "five mountains" in Russian and is so called because of the five peaks of the Beshtau (which also means "five mountains" in Turkic) of the Caucasian mountain range overlooking the city. It was founded in 1780, and has been a health spa with mineral springs since 1803. The Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov was shot in a duel at Pyatigorsk on July 27, 1841. There is a museum in the city devoted to his memory.


The first mention of the mineral springs is found in the writings of 14th century Arabian traveller Ibn Battuta. Scientific interest in them was first shown by Peter I, but the information collected on his expedition has since been lost. Interest was revived at the end of the 18th century when the first Russian settlement was founded - Konstantinogorskaya fortress, erected at Mt. Mashuk in 1780.

The value of the Caucasian mineral waters led to the construction of a resort in 1803, and the first studies of their medical properties began thereafter: on April 24, Alexander I signed a decree which made the mineral waters state property. There are now many settlements near the springs. The first such settlement was Goryachevodsk (now part of Pyatigorsk) at the bottom of Mt. Mashuk, then Kislovodsk, Yessentuki, Zheleznovodsk. [ Pyatigorsk]

Historical population


The industry of Pyatigorsk is primarily oriented towards service of the health resort. There is also a food industry (a meat-processing plant, a winery, a dairy, a brewery, a confectionery), textiles (clothing, shoe, carpet factories), machine industry and metal working (PО Pyatigorskselmash specialises in machines and equipment for aviculture; a special automobile equipment works, an electromechanical plant, etc.); a chemical factory and a ceramics factory ( [ TEMP Ceramics] ) who specialise in porcelain and ceramic gifts such as samovars, figurines, vases and decorative ceramic wall hanging panels.In 1991, the Pyatigorsk health resort had 10 sanatoriums, 4 boarding houses and 5 sanatoriums - preventoriums. The number of people who stayed at the health resort within a year totalled about 170,000.

Geography and climate

The town is charmingly situated on a small plateau, 1680 ft. above sea-level, at the foot of the Beshtau, Mashuk and three other outliers of the Caucasian mountain range, which protect it on the north. The snow-covered summits of Mount Elbrus are visible to the south.The climate of Pyatigorsk is moderately continental, without sharp fluctuations of annual and daily temperatures. The summer is steadily warm (average temperature of July +22°C), with a moderately soft winter (average temperature of January −4°C) lasting 2-3 months. Spring is early and cool, with a sharp transition by the summer, and a warm, dry, and long autumn. Relative humidity of the air varies from 54 to 80%. There is an average of 98 sunny days in a year.


Pyatigorsk is a convenient starting point for numerous tourist routes. The southern slope of Mashuk has a 20 m deep doline (the Proval), at the bottom of which there is a small lake. To climb Mashuk, there is a cable and a foot road. At the centre of the health resorts, on the slopes and at the bottoms of Mounts Beshtau, Mashuk, Zmeyka, Razvalka, Zheleznaya, Ostrov and Medovaya, there is a Mount Beshtau forestland (mainly ash, oak, hornbeam, and beech).

Points of interest

The state memorial estate of Mikhail Lermontov was founded in 1973. It unites all of the Lermontov memorial places in the region: the place where he fought his duel and was killed, a necropolis, Lermontov's small house, Verzilin's houses, the house of Alexander Alyabyev, the Lermontov square, and monument.

The Aeolian harp ( _ru. Эолова Арфа) is a small stone pavilion in the classical style, constructed by the brothers Bernardacci in 1828.

Diana's grotto ( _ru. Грот Дианы) was built in 1830, in honour of the first ascent of Mount Elbrus.

Pyatigorsk is well known in the Kavkaz region for its excellent restaurants, such as Dom Cappuccino, and nightlife, as well as its extremely large marketplace. A major thoroughfare is known to locals as "Broadway", which runs through the center of town, and off of which most of the best restaurants, nightclubs, and attractions are located. Broadway is also a popular spot for people watching, as young locals will often dress in their best outfits and stroll along the middle of the street, which is very wide and contains restaurants, bars, and street vendors. The influence of the Kavkaz region is felt here most noticably in the music and cuisine, which incorporate aspects of many former Soviet republics such as Armenia.


A minor planet 2192 Pyatigoriya discovered in 1972 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Mikhailovna Smirnova is named after the city. [cite book | last = Schmadel | first = Lutz D. | coauthors = | title = Dictionary of Minor Planet Names | pages = p. 178 | edition = 5th | year = 2003 | publisher = Springer Verlag | location = New York | url = | id = ISBN 3540002383]


Town twinning

Pyatigorsk is twinned with the following:
* Dubuque, USA.

External links

* [ An informational website about Pyatigorsk] ru icon
* [ Weather forecast for Pyatigorsk]
* [ BBC News article]
* [ all Pyatigorsk]

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  • Pyatigorsk — Piatigorsk Piatigorsk Пятигорск …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pyatigorsk — geographical name city S Russia in Europe in N Caucasus WNW of Grozny, Chechnya population 132,000 …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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